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A sumo match (tori-kumi) between yokozuna Asashōryū (left) and komusubi Kotoshōgiku in January 2008.

Sumo (相撲 sumō?) is a competitive full-contact wrestling sport where a wrestler (rikishi) attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring (dohyō) or to touch the ground with anything other than the soles of the feet. The sport originated in Japan, the only country where it is practiced professionally. It is generally considered to be a gendai budō (a modern Japanese martial art), though this definition is incorrect as the sport has a history spanning many centuries. Many ancient traditions have been preserved in sumo, and even today the sport includes many ritual elements, such as the use of salt purification, from the days when sumo was used in the Shinto religion. Life as a rikishi is highly regimented, with rules laid down by the Sumo Association. Most sumo wrestlers are required to live in communal "sumo training stables" known in Japanese as heya where all aspects of their daily lives—from meals to their manner of dress—are dictated by strict tradition.

In addition to its use as a trial of strength in combat, sumo has also been associated with Shinto ritual, and even certain shrines carry out forms of ritual dance where a human is said to wrestle with a kami (a Shinto divine spirit). It was an important ritual at the imperial court. Representatives of each province were ordered to attend the contest at the court and fight. They were required to pay for their travels themselves. The contest was known as sumai no sechie, or "sumai party."

Sumo wrestler Somagahana Fuchiemon, c. 1850
Over the rest of Japanese recorded history, sumo's popularity has changed according to the whims of its rulers and the need for its use as a training tool in periods of civil strife. The form of wrestling combat probably changed gradually into one where the main aim in victory was to throw one's opponent. The concept of pushing one's opponent out of a defined area came some time later.
Also, it is believed that a ring, defined as something other than simply the area given to the wrestlers by spectators, came into being in the 16th century as a result of a tournament organized by the then principal warlord in Japan, Oda Nobunaga. At this point wrestlers would wear loose loincloths, rather than the much stiffer mawashi of today. During the Edo period, wrestlers would wear a fringed kesho-mawashi during the bout, whereas today these are worn only during pre-tournament rituals. Most of the rest of the current forms within the sport developed in the early Edo period.

Sumo wrestling scene c. 1851
Professional sumo (大相撲 ōzumō?) can trace its roots back to the Edo period in Japan as a form of sporting entertainment. The original wrestlers were probably samurai, often rōnin, who needed to find an alternative form of income. Current professional sumo tournaments began in the Tomioka Hachiman Shrine in 1684, and then were held in the Ekō-in in the Edo period. They have been held in the Ryōgoku Kokugikan since 1909, though the Kuramae Kokugikan had been used for the tournaments in the post-war years until 1984. Nations adjacent to Japan, sharing many cultural traditions, also feature styles of traditional wrestling that bear resemblance to sumo. Notable examples include Mongolian wrestling, Chinese Shuai jiao (摔角), and Korean Ssireum.
[edit]Winning a sumo bout

The winner of a sumo bout is either:
The first wrestler to force his opponent to step out of the ring.
The first wrestler to force his opponent to touch the ground with any part of his body other than the bottom of his feet.
On rare occasions the referee or judges may award the win to the wrestler who touched the ground first; this happens if both wrestlers touch the ground at very nearly the same time and it is decided that the wrestler who touched the ground second had no chance of winning as, due to the superior sumo of his opponent, he was already in an irrecoverable position. The losing wrestler is referred to as being shini-tai (“dead body”) in this case.
There are also a number of other rarely used rules that can be used to determine the winner. For example a wrestler using an illegal technique (or kinjite) automatically loses, as does one whose mawashi (or belt) becomes completely undone. A wrestler failing to turn up for his bout (including through a prior injury) also automatically loses (fusenpai). After the winner is declared, an off-stage gyōji (or referee) determines the kimarite (or winning technique) used in the bout, which is then announced to the audience.
Matches often last only a few seconds, as usually one wrestler is quickly ousted from the circle or thrown to the ground. However, they can occasionally last for several minutes. Each match is preceded by an elaborate ceremonial ritual. The wrestlers themselves are renowned for their great girth as body mass is often a winning factor in sumo. However, with proper technique, smaller wrestlers can control and defeat much larger opponents.[1]
[edit]The wrestling ring (dohyō)

Main article: dohyō
Sumo matches take place in a dohyō (土俵): a ring, 4.55 metres (14.9 ft) in diameter and 16.26 square metres (175.0 sq ft) in area, of rice-straw bales on top of a platform made of clay mixed with sand. A new dohyō is built for each tournament by the yobidashi. At the center are two white lines, the shikiri-sen, behind which the wrestlers position themselves at the start of the bout.[2] A roof resembling that of a Shinto shrine may be suspended over the dohyō.
[edit]Professional sumo

Sumo wrestlers gather in a circle around the gyōji (referee) in the dohyō-iri (ring-entering ceremony).
Professional sumo is organized by the Japan Sumo Association.[3] The members of the association, called oyakata, are all former wrestlers, and are the only people entitled to train new wrestlers. All practicing wrestlers are members of a training stable (heya) run by one of the oyakata, who is the stablemaster for the wrestlers under him. Currently there are 47 training stables for about 660 wrestlers.[4]
All sumo wrestlers take wrestling names called shikona (しこ名), which may or may not be related to their real names. Often wrestlers have little choice in their name, which is given to them by their trainer (or stablemaster), or by a supporter or family member who encouraged them into the sport. This is particularly true of foreign-born wrestlers. A wrestler may change his wrestling name several times during his sumo career.[3]
Sumo wrestling is a strict hierarchy based on sporting merit. The wrestlers are ranked according to a system that dates back hundreds of years, to the Edo period. Wrestlers are promoted or demoted according to their performance in six official tournaments held throughout the year. A carefully prepared banzuke listing the full hierarchy is published two weeks prior to each sumo tournament.[5]
[edit]Sumo divisions
Main article: Professional sumo divisions
There are six divisions in sumo: makuuchi (maximum 42 wrestlers), jūryō (fixed at 28 wrestlers), makushita (fixed at 120 wrestlers), sandanme (fixed at 200 wrestlers), jonidan (approximately 185 wrestlers), and jonokuchi (approximately 40 wrestlers). Wrestlers enter sumo in the lowest jonokuchi division and, ability permitting, work their way up to the top division. Wrestlers in the top two divisions are known as sekitori, while lower division wrestlers are generally referred to by the generic term for wrestlers, rikishi.[6]
The topmost makuuchi division receives the most attention from fans and has the most complex hierarchy. The majority of wrestlers are maegashira and are numbered from one (at the top) down to about sixteen or seventeen. In each rank there are two wrestlers, the higher ranked is designated as "east" and the lower as "west", so the list goes #1 east, #1 west, #2 east, #2 west, etc.[7] Above the maegashira are the three champion or titleholder ranks, called the sanyaku, which are not numbered. These are, in ascending order, komusubi, sekiwake, and ōzeki. At the pinnacle of the ranking system is the rank of yokozuna.[6]
Yokozuna, or grand champions, are generally expected to compete for and to win the top division tournament title on a regular basis. Hence the promotion criteria for yokozuna are very strict. In general, an ōzeki must win the championship for two consecutive tournaments or an "equivalent performance" to be considered for promotion to yokozuna.[3] More than one wrestler can hold the rank of yokozuna at the same time.
Exhibition competitions are held at regular intervals every year in Japan, and approximately once every two years the top ranked wrestlers visit a foreign country for such exhibitions. None of these displays is taken into account in determining a wrestler's future rank. Rank is determined only by performance in Grand Sumo Tournaments (or honbasho), which are described in more detail below.[2]

Foreigner and sumo Wrestler, 1861
[edit]Foreign participation
Professional sumo is practiced exclusively in Japan, but wrestlers of other nationalities participate. There are currently 55 wrestlers officially listed as foreigners.[8] In July 2007, there were 19 foreigners in the top two divisions, which was an all-time record, and for the first time, a majority of wrestlers in the top san'yaku ranks were from overseas.[9] More recently, the ratio of foreigners has stabilized and as of November 2011 there were 18 foreigners in the two top divisions.
A Japanese-American, Toyonishiki, and the Korean-born Rikidōzan achieved sekitori status prior to World War II, but neither were officially listed as foreigners. The first non-Asian to achieve fame and fortune in sumo was Hawaii-born Takamiyama. He reached the top division in 1968 and in 1972 became the first foreigner to win the top division championship. He was followed by a fellow Hawaii-born mega-weight, Konishiki of ethnic Samoan descent, the first foreigner to reach the rank of ōzeki in 1987; and the native Hawaiian Akebono, who became the first foreign-born yokozuna in 1993. Musashimaru, born in Samoa but from Hawaii, became the second foreigner to reach sumo's top rank in 1999. The most recent yokozuna, Asashōryū and Hakuhō, are Mongolian. In 2012, the Mongolian Kyokutenhō became the oldest wrestler in modern history to win a top division championship.[10] Wrestlers from Eastern European countries such as Georgia and Russia have also found success in the upper levels of sumo. In 2005 Kotoōshū from Bulgaria became the first wrestler of European birth to attain the ōzeki ranking and the first to win a top division championship.[11]
Until relatively recently, the Japan Sumo Association had no restrictions at all on the number of foreigners allowed in professional sumo. In May 1992, shortly after the Ōshima stable had recruited six Mongolians at the same time, the Sumo Association's new director Dewanoumi, the former yokozuna Sadanoyama, announced that he was considering limiting the number of overseas recruits per stable and in sumo overall.[3] There was no official ruling, but no stable recruited any foreigners for the next six years.[12] This unofficial ban was then relaxed, but only two new foreigners per stable were allowed, until the total number reached 40.[12] Then in 2002, a one foreigner per stable policy was officially adopted. (The ban was not retroactive, so foreigners recruited before the changes were unaffected). Though the move has been met with criticism, there are no plans to relax the restrictions at this time.[12] Originally, it was possible for a place in a stable to open up if a foreign born wrestler acquired Japanese citizenship. This occurred when Hisanoumi changed his nationality from Tongan at the end of 2006, allowing another Tongan to enter his stable,[13] and Kyokutenhō's change of citizenship allowed Ōshima stable to recruit Mongolian Kyokushuho in May 2007. However, on February 23, 2010 the Sumo Association announced that it had changed its definition of "foreign" to "foreign-born" (gaikoku shusshin), meaning that even naturalized Japanese citizens will be considered as foreigners if they were born outside Japan. The restriction on one foreign wrestler per stable was also reconfirmed.[14]
[edit]Professional sumo tournaments

The sumo hall of Ryōgoku in Tokyo during the May, 2001 tournament.
There are six Grand Sumo tournaments (or honbasho) each year: three at The Sumo Hall (or Ryōgoku Kokugikan) in Ryōgoku, Tokyo (January, May, and September), and one each in Osaka (March), Nagoya (July) and Fukuoka (November). Each tournament begins on a Sunday and runs for 15 days, ending also on a Sunday.[15] Each wrestler in the top two divisions (sekitori) has one match per day, while the lower ranked rikishi compete in seven bouts, approximately one every two days.
Each day is structured so the highest-ranked contestants compete at the end of the day. Thus, wrestling will start in the morning with the jonokuchi wrestlers and end at around six o'clock in the evening with bouts involving the yokozuna, or the ōzeki in the case of the yokozuna's absence. The wrestler who wins the most matches over the fifteen days wins the tournament championship (yūshō) for his division. If two wrestlers are tied for the top, they wrestle each other and the winner takes the title. Three-way ties for a championship are rare, at least in the top division. In these cases the three wrestle each other in pairs with the first to win two in a row taking the tournament. More complex systems for championship playoffs involving four or more wrestlers also exist, but these are usually only seen in determining the winner of one of the lower divisions.

Sumo Nobori flags
The matchups for each day of the tournament are announced a day in advance. They are determined by oyakata (or sumo elders) who are members of the judging division of the Sumo Association. As there are many more wrestlers in each division than matchups during the tournament each wrestler will only compete against a selection of opponents, mostly from the same division. With the exception of the sanyaku ranked wrestlers the first bouts tend to be between wrestlers who are within a couple of ranks of each other. Afterwards the selection of opponents takes into account a wrestler's prior performance. For example in the lower divisions wrestlers with the same record in a tournament are generally matched up with each other, and the last matchups often involve undefeated wrestlers competing against each other, even if they are from opposite ends of the division. In the top division in the last few days wrestlers with exceptional records will often have matches against much more highly ranked opponents, including sanyaku wrestlers, especially if they are still in the running for the top division championship. Similarly more highly ranked wrestlers with very poor records may find themselves fighting wrestlers much further down the division. For the yokozuna and ōzeki the first week and a half of the tournament tends to be taken up with bouts against the top maegashira, the komusubi and sekiwake, with the bouts within these ranks being concentrated into the last five days or so of the tournament (depending on the number of top ranked wrestlers competing). It is traditional that on the final day the last three bouts of the tournament are between the top six ranked wrestlers, with the top two competing in the very final matchup, unless injuries during the tournament prevent this.
There are certain match-ups that are prohibited in regular tournament play. Wrestlers who are from the same training stable cannot compete against each other, nor can wrestlers who are brothers, even if they join different stables. The one exception to this rule is that training stable partners and brothers can face each other in a championship-deciding playoff match.
[edit]Bout preparation

Yokozuna Asashōryū waits for his match
A top division wrestler will arrive at the stadium in the afternoon and enter the changing room. There are 'East' and 'West' rooms so competing wrestlers do not meet their opponents of the day before the match. The wrestler will change first into his keshō-mawashi, an ornate, embroidered silk 'apron', which he will wear during the ring entering ceremony, or dohyō-iri. There are four dohyō-iri on each day, two for jūryō and two for makuuchi division wrestlers. In each case there is a procession of those in the east changing room and one for those in the west. During the ceremony the wrestlers are introduced to the crowd one-by-one in ascending rank order and form a circle around the ring facing outwards. Once the highest ranked wrestler is introduced they turn inwards and perform a brief ritual before filing off and returning to their changing rooms. Yokozuna have a separate, more elaborate dohyō-iri; see yokozuna.
Once in the changing room the wrestlers change into their fighting mawashi and await their bouts. The wrestlers reenter the arena two bouts before their own and sit down at the side of the ring. There are no weight divisions in sumo, and considering the range of body weights in sumo, an individual wrestler can sometimes face an opponent twice his own weight. When it is their turn they will be called into the ring by a yobidashi (announcer) and they will mount the dohyō.[16]

Kitazakura throws salt before the bout, October 2007
On mounting the dohyō the wrestler performs a number of rituals derived from Shinto practice. Facing the audience, he claps his hands and then performs the leg-stomping shiko exercise to drive evil spirits from the dohyō as the gyōji, or referee, who will coordinate the bout announces the wrestlers' names once more.
In addition, the top two divisions add even more rituals. Stepping out of the ring into their corners, each wrestler is given a ladleful of water, the chikara-mizu ("power water"), with which he rinses out his mouth; and a paper tissue, the chikara-gami ("power paper"), to dry his lips. Then both step back into the ring, squat facing each other, clap their hands, then spread them wide (traditionally to show they have no weapons). Returning to their corners they each pick up a handful of salt which they toss onto the ring to purify it.
Finally the wrestlers crouch down at the shikiri-sen, or starting lines, each trying to stare the other down. When both wrestlers place both fists on the ground on or behind the shikiri-sen, they spring from their crouch for the tachi-ai (the initial charge). In the upper divisions they almost never charge on the first occasion. Instead, after staring at one another, they return to their corners for more mental preparation. More salt is thrown whenever they step back into the ring. This can happen a number of times (about three, or even more in the case of the highest ranks) until on the last occasion the referee informs them they must start the bout. The total length of time for this preparation is around four minutes for the top division wrestlers, but in the lower divisions they are expected to start more or less immediately.
[edit]A professional sumo bout

Sumo wrestlers, at the Grand Tournament in Osaka, July 2006.
At the tachi-ai both wrestlers must jump up from the crouch simultaneously after touching the surface of the ring with two fists at the start of the bout, and the referee can restart the bout if this simultaneous touch does not occur. Upon completion of the bout, the referee must immediately designate his decision by pointing his gunbai or war-fan towards the winning side. The referee's decision is not final and may be disputed by the five shimpan (judges) seated around the ring. If this happens they will meet in the center of the ring to hold a mono-ii (lit: a talk about things). After reaching a consensus they can uphold or reverse the referee's decision or order a rematch, known as a torinaoshi. The wrestlers will then return to their starting positions and bow to each other before retiring. A winning wrestler may receive additional prize money in envelopes from the referee if the matchup has been sponsored. If a yokozuna is defeated by a lower ranked wrestler, it is common and expected for audience members to throw their seat cushions into the ring (and onto the wrestlers), though this practice is technically prohibited.

A short video clip of a sandanme division bout between 萬華城 (Mankajō, left) and 剛天佑 (Gōtenyū, right). Mankajō was the eventual winner of this unusually long match on day twelve of the 2007 May honbasho.
In contrast to the time in bout preparation, bouts are typically very short, usually less than a minute, and often only a few seconds. Extremely rarely a bout can go on for many minutes (up to four minutes), in which case the referee or one of the judges sitting around the ring may call a mizu-iri or "water break". The wrestlers are carefully separated, have a brief break and then return to the exact position they left off in. It is the referee's responsibility to reposition the wrestlers. If after four more minutes they are still deadlocked they may have a second break, after which they start from the very beginning. Further deadlock with no end of the bout in sight can lead to a draw (hikiwake), an extremely rare result in modern sumo. The last draw in the top division was in September 1974.[3]
The last day of the tournament is called senshuraku, which literally means the pleasure of a thousand autumns. This colorful name for the culmination of the tournament echoes the words of the playwright Zeami to represent the excitement of the decisive bouts and the celebration of the victor. The Emperor's Cup is presented to the wrestler who wins the top division (makuuchi) championship. Numerous other (mostly sponsored) prizes are also awarded to him. These prizes are often rather elaborate, ornate gifts, such as giant cups, decorative plates, and statuettes. Others are obviously commercial, such as one trophy shaped like a giant Coca-Cola bottle.
Promotion and relegation are determined by a wrestler's score over the 15 days. In the top division, the term kachikoshi means a score of 8–7 or better, as opposed to makekoshi which indicates a score of 7–8 or worse. A wrestler who achieves kachikoshi will almost always be promoted further up the ladder, the level of promotion being higher for better scores. See the makuuchi article for more details on promotion and relegation.
A top division wrestler who is not an ozeki or yokozuna and who finishes the tournament with kachikoshi is also eligible to be considered for one of the three sanshō prizes awarded for "technique" (ginōshō), "fighting spirit" (kantōshō), and for defeating the most yokozuna and ozeki (shukunshō), sometimes referred to as "outstanding performance".
Please see the list of the yūshō winners since 1909 for the top division and second division.
[edit]Life as a professional sumo wrestler

Young low-ranking sumo wrestlers at the Tomozuma Stable in Tokyo end their daily workout routine with a footwork drill
A sumo wrestler leads a highly regimented way of life. The Sumo Association prescribes the behavior of its wrestlers in some detail. For example, in the wake of a serious car accident[citation needed] involving a wrestler the Association banned wrestlers from driving their own cars[citation needed]. Breaking the rules can result in fines and/or suspension, not only for the offending wrestler, but also for his stablemaster.
On entering sumo, they are expected to grow their hair long to form a topknot, or chonmage, similar to the samurai hairstyles of the Edo Period. Furthermore they are expected to wear the chonmage and traditional Japanese dress when in public. Consequently, sumo wrestlers can be identified immediately when in public.
The type and quality of the dress depends on the wrestler's rank. Rikishi in jonidan and below are allowed to wear only a thin cotton robe called a yukata, even in winter. Furthermore, when outside they must wear a form of wooden sandals called geta that make a distinctive clip-clop sound as one walks in them. Wrestlers in the makushita and sandanme divisions can wear a form of traditional short overcoat over their yukata and are allowed to wear straw sandals, called zōri. The higher ranked sekitori can wear silk robes of their own choice and the quality of the garb is significantly improved. They also are expected to wear a more elaborate form of topknot called an ōichō (lit. big ginkgo leaf) on formal occasions.
Similar distinctions are made in stable life. The junior rikishi must get up earliest, around 5 am, for training whereas the sekitori may start around 7 am. When the sekitori are training the junior rikishi may have chores to do, such as assisting in cooking the lunch, cleaning and preparing the bath, or holding a sekitori's towel. The ranking hierarchy is preserved for the order of precedence in bathing after training, and in eating lunch.
Rikishi are not normally allowed to eat breakfast and are expected to have a form of siesta after a large lunch. The most common type of lunch served is the traditional "sumo meal" of chankonabe which consists of a simmering stew cooked at table which contains various fish, meat, and vegetables. It is usually eaten with rice and washed down with beer. This regimen of no breakfast and a large lunch followed by a sleep is intended to help rikishi put on weight so as to compete more effectively.
In the afternoon the junior rikishi will again usually have cleaning or other chores to do, while their sekitori counterparts may relax, or deal with work issues related to their fan clubs. Younger rikishi will also attend classes, although their education differs from the typical curriculum of their non-sumo peers. In the evening sekitori may go out with their sponsors while juniors stay at home in the stable, unless they are to accompany the stablemaster or a sekitori as his manservant (or tsukebito) when he is out (this is normally a more privileged role given to a rikishi who may be nearing sekitori status himself). Becoming a tsukebito (or personal assistant) for a senior member of the stable is a typical chore. A sekitori will have many tsukebito, with the most junior responsible for cleaning and other mundane tasks. Only the most senior tsukebito will accompany the sekitori when he goes out.
The sekitori also are given their own room in the stable or, may live in their own apartments, as do married wrestlers. In contrast, the junior rikishi sleep in communal dormitories. Thus the world of the sumo wrestler is split broadly between the junior rikishi, who serve, and the sekitori, who are served. Life is especially harsh for new recruits, to whom the worst jobs tend to be allocated, and there is a high dropout rate at this stage.
The negative effects of the sumo lifestyle become dangerously apparent later in life. Sumo wrestlers have a life expectancy of between 60 and 65, more than 10 years shorter than the average Japanese male. They often develop diabetes, high blood pressure, and are prone to heart attacks. The excessive intake of alcohol can lead to liver problems and the stress on their joints can cause arthritis. Recently, the standards of weight gain are becoming less strict, in an effort to improve the overall health of the wrestlers.[17][18] The average height of sumo wrestlers is around 180 cm (5' 11").
[edit]Salary and payment

As of 2006, the monthly salary figures for makuuchi (in Japanese Yen) were:[19]

Yokozuna Asashoryu performing the distinctive dohyō-iri of his rank yokozuna: 2,820,000, about US$30,500 ōzeki: 2,347,000, about US$25,000 sanyaku: 1,693,000, about US$18,000 maegashira: 1,309,000 or about US$14,000 jūryō: 1,036,000, about US$11,000
Wrestlers lower than the second division, who are considered to be trainees, receive only a fairly small allowance instead of a salary.
In addition to the basic salary, sekitori wrestlers also receive additional bonus income, called mochikyukin, six times a year (once every tournament, or basho) based on the cumulative performance in their career to date. This bonus increases every time that the rikishi scores a kachikoshi (with larger kachikoshi giving larger raises). Special increases in this bonus are also awarded for winning the top division championship (with an extra large increase for a "perfect" championship victory with no losses), and also for scoring a kinboshi (an upset of a yokozuna by a maegashira).
Sanyaku wrestlers also receive a relatively small additional tournament allowance, depending on their rank, and yokozuna receive an additional allowance every second tournament, associated with the making of a new tsuna.
There is also prize money for the winner of each divisional championship, which increases from 100,000 yen for a jonokuchi victory up to 10,000,000 yen for winning the top division. For wrestlers in the top division giving an exceptional performance in the eyes of a judging panel there are also three special prizes (the sansho) which are worth 2,000,000 yen each.[20]
Individual top division matches can also be sponsored by companies. In such cases the winner of the bout typically receives around 30,000 yen net per sponsor (out of the sponsors contribution of 60,000 yen—much of the remainder goes in paying the wrestler's tax on the prize). These bout prizes are called kenshokin. For bouts involving yokozuna and ozeki the number of sponsors of the matchup can be quite large, whereas for lower ranked matchups there may be no bout sponsors at all unless one of the wrestlers is particularly popular, or unless a company has a policy of sponsoring all his matchups. No bout prize money is awarded for a bout decided by a fusensho (forfeit victory).

God of sumo, Nomi no Sukune
[edit]Sumo and Shinto

Shinto has historically been used as a means to express Japanese nationalism and ethnic identity, especially prior to the end of World War II. It has served to symbolize and provide a sense of belonging, to identify and unify the Japanese people culturally, and to serve as a barrier demarcating the Japanese from other peoples, providing them with a sense of cultural uniqueness. In its association with Shinto, sumo has also been seen as a bulwark of Japanese tradition.[21]
Shinto ritual pervades every aspect of sumo. Before a tournament, two of the gyōji functioning as Shinto priests enact a ritual to consecrate the newly constructed dohyō, and various Shinto rituals are associated even with the practice dohyō at heya. Both the dohyō-iri, or ring-entering ceremonies performed by the top two divisions before the start of their wrestling day, and in the rituals performed by both combatants immediately before a bout, are derived from Shinto.[22] It retains other Shinto associations as well. The yokozuna's ring-entering ceremony is regarded as a purification ritual in its own right, and is occasionally performed at Shinto shrines for this purpose. Every newly-promoted yokozuna performs his first ring-entering ceremony at the Meiji Shrine in Tokyo.

Tegata of the former makuuchi wrestler Terao
As with many sports, there are a wide variety of souvenirs and memorabilia that fans may acquire. Fans purchasing box seats or front row seats usually purchase the tickets through so-called tea houses, which provide sumo related items in a package that includes the purchase of the ticket. This sort of memorabilia can also be purchased separately. Plates, and cups with sumo related themes are a common item. One of the more unusual items that can be purchased is the tegata (lit. hand shape) of the wrestlers of whom one is a fan—the sumo version of an autograph. Tegata consist of a hand print of the wrestler using black or red ink accompanied by his fighting name written in calligraphic style by the wrestler himself. Original tegata can be quite expensive, but printed copies of the most popular wrestlers can be obtained very inexpensively. Only wrestlers in the top two jūryō and makuuchi divisions are permitted to make them. Another popular collectible is a copy of the banzuke for a tournament. A banzuke is a document that has been meticulously handwritten in calligraphic script and lists every wrestler who participates in a tournament in order of rank.…...

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...this advantage by making knowledge more freely available to people; lastly, data is invaluable to understanding the world. Chapter 1: What Do Schoolteachers and Sumo Wrestlers Have in Common? People all learn to respond to incentives, whether positive or negative from the outset of life. An incentive is simply a means of urging people to do more of a good thing and less of a bad thing. There are three basic flavors of incentive: economic, social and moral. Economic incentive is something material or tangible; moral is based of self-judgments; social is terribly powerful as it depicts what other people think of you resulting from your own actions or choices. Any incentive is inherently a trade-off; whatever the incentive, whatever the situation, dishonest people will try to gain an advantage by whatever means necessary. Cheating is a natural act getting more for less. The government required the High-Stakes Testing as part of the No Child Left Behind policy. A teacher whose students test poorly can be censured or passed over for a raise or promotion. To catch a cheater it helps to think like one. The Chicago public school system fired dozens of teachers for cheating. It is true that sports and cheating go hand in hand. Sumo, the national sport of Japan, is said to be less about competition than about honor itself. Sumo wrestlers are ranked according to complex schemes. The eight victory is very critical, the line between promotion and demotion and is four times as......

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Freakonomics and economics represents how it actually does work, then the story of Feldman's bagel business lies at the very intersection ofmorality and economics".This metaphorically shows that Feldman's business was an intersection of statistical predictions and real life, which basically says his business was running as close to perfect as it possibly could be. One topic that keeps coming up within Freakonomics is the topic of human nature in relation to cheating. I feel that I would want to research this to find out the incentive behind different forms of cheating. For instance the book talked about why rich people felt that they were entitled to free bagels, so they didn't pay. Or how sumo wrestlers who were supposed to be athletes of honor would cheat to get ahead within the ranks of the sumo elite. I feel that by delving further into the motivation it takes for people to break their honor, or feel that they are above the rules in general. I think that researching in to the statistics that my book is referencing on the behalf of this subject may prove to be very useful information to uncover many oddities of human nature....

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... The “pass” is the first of three contacts made on each side of the net. Listen up Forearm First contact Students will be seated and listening carefully 3, 5 1, 3 Warm Up (3-5 min) The students will find a partner and play pepper for 5 minutes. They should be using proper technique and staying under control. Partner Pepper Control Students will be in pairs and spaced out around the court 1, 2, 3, 5 2, 4, 5, 7 Lesson Focus (skills) (15-18 min) Ready Posture: squat down with toes out, knees bent, back straight, and hands on knees (Sumo Position) Go Posture: release hands from knees, tuck bent elbows into your sides, shift weight forward with your back straight Body to Ball: shuffle your feet so that the ball is in the center of your body Contact the ball: palms together and arms extended, contact the ball with your forearms as your body moves in a down-up motion Sumo Elbows tucked Center the ball Student will participate in various drills with proper spacing and even numbered groups. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3, 4 ,5, 6, 7, 8 Closure (2 min) What is the main objective of a forearm pass? Where should our elbows be in the “Go Posture”? What do our arms do as we make contact with the ball? Students will be seated as they were during the intro 3, 5 1, 3...

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...John Doe 18 Pineapple Lane Cambridge, MA 02246 555-555-5555 [pic] Education School of Hard Knocks Studied: Nothing much actually. Recess and lunch were usually my favorite subjects! Employment History 2012 - Present Jack in the Box Not So Fine Dining Contrary to popular belief, this place is not where they make Jack in the Box toys. Now I know why they asked me if I knew how to cook a hamburger in the interview! 2012 - 2013 Sumo Wrestler I pursued my dream of Sumo Wrestling, only to find out that the minimum weight limit was 300 pounds. Sadly, my Sumo career did not last but I have high hopes for returning to my passion in the near future. 2009 - 2011 Local Taste Tester Every day I went to my local Whole Foods and did quality control on all samples. Eventually it was found that I was in fact not on the payroll, so I was escorted from the building. I even worked weekends! Fortunately, the restraining order will be lifted soon and I will be able to return from my hiatus. 2004 - 2009 Babysitter I was forced to babysit my little brother for years while my parents worked. He used to cry constantly, but I guess I would too if my older brother sat on me. • Interests: Bagels, Ballpoint pens, Ponies, Hammocks, Dolphins and Disney Princesses. • Computer Skills: I love Paint! I am usually available on AIM, if not, I always leave an away message. • Personality Traits: Boring, creepy, enthusiastic, sleepy, and awkward....

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...Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, in enim impedit facilis usu, qui modus tollit impedit no. Id velit suscipit efficiantur usu, eos in duis nostrum abhorreant, duo officiis conceptam ei. Nec ut sumo maiestatis, id est fabulas periculis. Eu sit prima volumus necessitatibus, in qui ubique aliquid alienum. Utinam delicatissimi est ea, nostro quaestio ad pri. At summo recteque mea. Usu id populo prompta qualisque, et eos ceteros pertinacia definitionem. Zril animal mandamus his in, assum quaestio definitionem nam ea. Vide legimus admodum vim an, mazim salutandi quo at, ut usu quis aliquid. In discere numquam eam, eu nec mazim necessitatibus. Mea an omnium ocurreret, amet magna vel id. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, in enim impedit facilis usu, qui modus tollit impedit no. Id velit suscipit efficiantur usu, eos in duis nostrum abhorreant, duo officiis conceptam ei. Nec ut sumo maiestatis, id est fabulas periculis. Eu sit prima volumus necessitatibus, in qui ubique aliquid alienum. Utinam delicatissimi est ea, nostro quaestio ad pri. At summo recteque mea. Usu id populo prompta qualisque, et eos ceteros pertinacia definitionem. Zril animal mandamus his in, assum quaestio definitionem nam ea. Vide legimus admodum vim an, mazim salutandi quo at, ut usu quis aliquid. In discere numquam eam, eu nec mazim necessitatibus. Mea an omnium ocurreret, amet magna vel id. Vel no propriae fabellas, per et congue iudicabit, omnesque sensibus imperdiet mel et. At nam nobis dissentias, cu mei......

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...Freakonomics The book, Freakonomics by Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner, addresses a variety of questions that one may not typically ask. From finding connections between school teachers and sumo wrestlers to addressing the issue of crime through legalizing abortion, this book provides an interesting perspective on issues and real life situations, one that most people are not unable to make out at first sight. Firstly, Levitt attempts to analyze the issue of crime which has become relatively commonplace in the early 1990's. A generation of young teenage criminals have arisen and roamed the streets, threatening to create all kinds of pandemonium. This increase of crime rates led many criminologists, political scientists, and forecasters to believe that there will continue to be a spike in murders by teenagers in the upcoming years. Surprisingly, the opposite held true and crime deteriorated at a fast rate. Here, Levitt unravels the misconception that the roaring 1990s economy, proliferation of gun control laws, and innovative policing strategies did not contribute to the plummet of crime rates. Rather, we need to shift our attention to the legalization of abortion laws which, according to Levitt, what was actually led to the decrease of crime rates. Levitt draws the connection between crime rates and legalizing abortion by introducing a young Dallas woman named Norma McCorvey, who had already given up her two children for adoption but found herself pregnant once again....

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...Sumo Name Institution Guttmann, A., & Thompson, L. (2001). Japanese sports: A history. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. Guttmann gives an all-inclusive survey of Japanese Sports in general. He talks about how fascinating Sumo is and is attentive to the complex interaction of traditional and modern elements. He goes further to explain why he is cynic about the use of the samurai tradition to explain Japan’s success in sports. Nihon Sumō Kyōkai. (1986). Sumo. Japan: Nihon-Sumo-Kyokai Nihon explains in details how important Sumo is and how it is highly recognized in Japan by the government. He also complains about the concept of two high-naked men wrestling within a small roped ring, and the deeper meaning of it all. He goes ahead to elaborate that this encompasses both Shinto beliefs and Japan’s most understated cultural nuance. He explains how old the sport is dating back to 1500 years and professionalized in the 18th century. Gutman, B. (1995). Sumo wrestling. Minneapolis: Capstone Press. This interesting book helps to uncover the mystery and tradition of the ancient fighting arts. Gutman explains in a very interesting way how, many years back, Asian warriors found out that the human body can serve as a weapon to be used in attacking enemies and protecting oneself. Sharnoff, L. (1993). Grand sumo: The living sport and tradition. New York: Weatherhill. This book by Sharnoff gives readers an insight about the men who wrestle each other. It also......

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...Introduction, pg. 13. This quote follows exactly what I said previously perfectly. Chapter 1: ​HAT DO ALL SCHOOLTEACHERS AND SUMO W WRESTLERS HAVE IN COMMON? The authors begin by defining economics as nothing more than the study of incentives and how they are pursued. They explore several systems and their incentive structures, then cover the behaviors that perverse incentives can lead to. Here are three systems they covered: The first case considers a group of ordinary people, school teachers, performing an ordinary task, testing their students. Recently, standardized testing has become mandatory in public schools. The No Child Left Behind law awards schools that make progress on these standardized tests and punishes schools that chronically lag behind. Levitt and a coauthor developed a computer algorithm to look for strings of suspicious answers on standardized tests. An analysis of data on the test scores of children in public schools in the Chicago Public School system reveals evidence that teachers cheat by substituting the right answers on students tests in about five percent of classes taught. Second case, Sumo wrestling in Japan, which is synonymous with Japanese national pride, is practiced by only the most honorable of men. Yet the analysis described in this chapter provides evidence that a significant number of sumo wrestling bouts are actually “rigged” when it really counts. Finally, data collected by Paul Feldman, an entrepreneur who......

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