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Teacher Morale

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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CHAPTER I
Introduction to the Study This chapter has eight parts: (1) Background of the Study, (2) Statement of the Problem, (3) Hypotheses, (4) Theoretical Framework, (5) Conceptual Framework, (6) Significance of the Study, (7) Scope and Limitations of the Study, and (8) Definitions of Terms.
Background of the Study
A laudable goal of elementary education is one that embraces pupils learning and helps prepare those pupils for a very competitive global society. In light of this one can argue that pupils’ achievement should be the main focus of every individual associated with school systems across our great nation.
Teachers are a vital part of the educational system for they provide the motivation and support that pupils need in order to succeed. Yet, teachers also need to be motivated and supported in order to be productive. Teacher morale could suffer due to constant stress of trying to meet the educational goals. Improving teacher morale has many benefits in that it can help teachers to maintain a positive attitude and be happier at work (Govindarajan, 2012).
Ellanberg as cited by Govindarajan (2012) found that where morale was high, schools showed an increase in pupils’ academic achievement. Conversely, low levels of morale can lead to decreased teacher productivity and burnout. Recent studies found out that the academic achievement of pupils in the Division of Antique did not meet the standard set by the Department of Education (Arguelles, 2012; Ople,2012; Doronila, 2011; and Cabasan, 2011). Moreover, as observed by the researcher being one of the teachers in the division, the attitudes and enthusiasm of teachers towards their work seems below the standards also. This situation aroused the interest of the researcher to conduct a study to examine the level of teachers’ morale in relation to pupils’ academic achievement, hence this study.

Statement of the Problem This study aimed to determine the relationship between teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement in public elementary schools in southern part of the Division of Antique for school year 2012-2013. Specifically, this study sought answers to the following questions:
1. What is the level of teachers’ morale as in terms of rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curricular issues, teacher status, community support for education, school facilities and services, and community pressures?
2. What is the pupils’ academic achievement?
3. Is there a significant relationship between teachers’ morale in terms of rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curricular issues, teacher status, community support for education, school facilities and services, and community pressures and academic achievement?
4. Is there a significant relationship between teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement?

Hypotheses

Based on the aforementioned problems, the following hypotheses will be advanced:
1. There is no significant relationship between teachers’ morale in terms of rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curricular issues, teacher status, community support for education, school facilities and services, and community pressures and academic achievement.
2. There is no significant relationship between teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement.

Theoretical Framework
This study was based from Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory and from the work of Ralph Rempel & Averno Bentley.
Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory states that teacher’s morale is influenced by two factors called satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Satisfaction is primarily the result of motivator factors such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, promotion and growth. These factors help increase satisfaction but have little effect on dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction is primarily the result of hygiene factors such as pay and benefits, school policy and administration, relationship with co-workers, physical environment, supervision, status and job security. These factors when absent or inadequate can cause dissatisfaction buttheir presence has little effect on long-term satisfaction (Herzberg as cited by Yisrael, 2008).
In many traditional school settings, teachers suffer from lack of the various hygiene factors mentioned above. When the hygiene factors deteriorate to unacceptable levels, low teachers morale can occur. There are some motivation factors that also contribute to teachers having high or low morale such as recognition, achievement, and types of duties that they are assigned to do outside of teaching. When certain motivation factors are absent, teachers will lose their zeal and passion for performing the work they are paid to do (Feder as cited by Yisrael, 2008)
Ralph Rempel and Averno Bentley theory on teacher’s morale viewed it as being the interface between learner’s needs and the school’s goal. Consequently, high morale would result when achieving the school’sgoals also meets the learner’s needs of achievement. Morale is an internal feeling a person possesses free from the perceived reality of others. Morale is not an observable trait; rather it is an internal feeling or thought (Rempel & Bentley as cited by Rowland, 2008)
According to them there are ten factors that impact morale of teachers: teacher rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curriculum issues, teacher status, community support of education, school facilities and services, and community pressures (Rempel & Bentley as cited by Rowland, 2008). Conceptual Framework Based on the above mentioned theories, this sought to explore the 10 dimensions of teacher morale in terms of teacher rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curriculum issues, teacher status, community support of education, school facilities and services, and community pressures in relation to academic achievement of pupils in elementary schools in southern part of the Division of Antique.
Figure 1 depicts the paradigm of the study.

Pupils’ Academic Achievement

Pupils’ Academic Achievement
Teachers’ Morale * Rapport with Principal * Satisfaction with Teaching * Rapport among Teachers * Teacher Salary * Teacher Load * Curricular Issues * Teacher Status (in the community) * Community Support for Education * School Facilities and Service * Community Pressures (expectations)
Teachers’ Morale * Rapport with Principal * Satisfaction with Teaching * Rapport among Teachers * Teacher Salary * Teacher Load * Curricular Issues * Teacher Status (in the community) * Community Support for Education * School Facilities and Service * Community Pressures (expectations)

Figure 1. A Paradigm Showing the Relationship of Teachers’ Morale and Pupils’ Academic Achievement

Significance of the Study The result of this research would benefit the following:
DepEd. The findings of this study can be useful to the top management of the DepEd for they will be made aware of their teachers’ morale level, which may possibly relate to pupils academic performance. Hence, this will enable them to design programs and activities that will answer the needs of their teachers. The result of this study will also serve as basis for them in making rational decisions and new policies towards improving the capabilities and competencies of school administrators in managing their teachers.
Elementary school administrators. The elementary school administrators can also use the results of this study as basis in strengthening the teachers’ development programs of the school. This study will reveal the level of teachers’ morale, thus school administrators can design programs and activities that can help improve and strengthen teacher’s morale which in return will help improve pupils’ achievement.
Elementary school teachers. The elementary school teachers will benefit most from the results of the study. It is important for teachers to be aware of their morale level as it may influence pupil’s achievement. Through this study, they will be able to assess their morale level based on their beliefs of their capability as public school teachers. This will also serves as a challenge on their part to exert their best to maintain improve their morale to meet the expectations of their pupils particularly in increasing academic achievement of pupils.
Pupils. To a certain extent, this study also benefits the pupils who are the primary focus and concern of all educational efforts. If elementary school teachers have high morale level, they may tremendous positive influence on the pupils particularly in providing quality education.
Future researchers.The result of this study may also be beneficial to other researchers in terms of their knowledge of the level of teacher s’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement. This will inspire the researchers to conduct similar researches for further investigation on the relationships that may exist among the two variables.

Scope and Limitations of the Study This present study aimed to find out the relationship between public elementary school teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement in elementary schools in southern of the Division of Antique. The respondents of the study were165 permanent teachers from17 elementary schools randomly selected in southern part of Antique under the administration and supervision of the Schools Division Superintendent of the Division of Antique. The pupils’ academic achievement was taken from the mean percentage score in the National Achievement Test (Grade Six) of respondent schools randomly selected in southern part of the Division ofAntique. Data were gathered with the use of the“Purdue Teacher Opinionaire” and securing the copy from the Division Office the respondent schools National Achievement Test (NAT) results. The researcher gathered the data by personally giving the research instruments to the respondents through the help of their school administrators. Mean will be employed as descriptive statistics and Pearson-r set at p=.05 was used to test the relationship between the level of teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement. All statistical computations were processed through Microsoft Excel Software Version 2003.

Definition of Terms For the purpose of better understanding and clarification of the study, the following terms are defined: “Teacher morale” refers to a state of mind or mental attitude that is based on how valued and appreciated within a school a teacher feels as determined by their score in the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire developed by Bentley & Rempel (1980) categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”.
“Community pressures”refers to public elementary school teachers’ beliefs on community expectations with respect to their personal standards, participation in outside-school activities, and freedom to discuss controversial issues in the classroom their respective schools in southern part of the Division of Antique categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”.
“Community support of education” refers to public elementary school teachers’ beliefs on the extent to which the community understands and is willing to support a sound educational program in their respective schools in southern part of the Division of Antique categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”. “Curriculum issues” refers to public elementary school teachers’ beliefs on the adequacy of the school program in meeting pupils’ needs, in providing for individual differences, and in preparing pupils for effective citizenship in their respective schools in southern part of the Division of Antique categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”.
”Rapport among teachers” refers to public elementary school teachers’ beliefs on their relationships with other teachers regarding the cooperation, preparation, ethics, influence, interests, and competency of peers in their respective schools in southern part of the Division of Antique categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”.
”Satisfaction with teaching”refers to public elementary school teachers’ beliefs on their relationships with pupils and feelings of satisfaction with teaching in their respective schools in southern part of the Division of Antique categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”.
“School facilities and services” refers to public elementary school teachers’ beliefs on the adequacy of facilities, supplies and equipment, and the efficiency of the procedures for obtaining materials and services in their respective schools in southern part of the Division of Antique categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”.
“Teacher load” refers to public elementary school teachers’ beliefs on the matters such as record-keeping, clericalwork, 'red tape,' community demands on teacher time, extra-curricular load, and keeping up to date professionally for the benefit of the pupils in their respective schools in southern part of the Division of Antique categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”.
“Teacher rapport with principal” refers to public elementary school teachers’ beliefs on their feelings about the principal’s professional competency, interest in teachers and their work, ability to communicate, and skill in human relations in their respective schools in southern part of the Division of Antique categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”.
“Teacher salary”refers to public elementary school teachers’ feelings about salaries and salary policies in the Department of Education categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”.
“Teacher status” refers to public elementary school teachers’ feelings about the prestige, security, and benefits afforded by teaching in their respective schools in southern part of the Division of Antique categorized arbitrarily as “very high”, “high”, “low” and “very low”. “Teachers” refer regular permanent teaching personnel occupying the Teacher I, II and III and Master Teacher positions in public elementary schools in the southern part of the Division of Antique. “Academic achievement” refers to the extent pupilsattained in major academic subjects included in the curriculum prescribed by the Department of Education such as English, Mathematics, Science, Filipino, and Heograpiya, Kasaysayan, at Sibika. “National Achievement Test (NAT)” refers to the standardized test prepared by the DepEd-National Education Testing Center (NETC) and administered at the end of the school year to grade six pupils in all elementary schools nationwide to evaluate the academic competencies and mastery skills by the pupils throughout the school year 2011-2012 and to assess the performance of both teachers and pupils interpreted based on the mastery level descriptive equivalent found on the individual certificate of rating as “Mastered (M)” (96%-100%), “Closely Approximating Mastery (CAM)” (86% - 95%), “Moving Towards Mastery (MTM)” (66% - 85%), “Average Mastery (AM)” (35% - 65%), “Low Mastery (LM)” (15% - 34%), and “Very Low Mastery (VLM)” (5% - 14%), and “Absolutely No Mastery (ANM)” (0 – 4%). “National Achievement Test (NAT) overall rating” refers to the general average in the Mean Percentage Score (MPS) of grade six pupils who took the examination in tested-subject areas composed of English, Mathematics, Science, Filipino, and Heograpiya, Kasasayan and Sibika (HEKASI). “Pupils” refer to sixth graders officially enrolled in public elementary schools in southern part of the Division of Antique.

CHAPTER II
Review of Related Literature This chapter presents the review of literature and studies which are related to present investigation.

Concepts of Teacher’sMorale Morale is something that is easily described, but difficult to define. There are many definitions of teacher morale. According to Webster's Dictionary, Internet Edition (2010), teacher morale is a teacher's mental state that is exhibited by assurance, control, and motivation to perform a task. One source defines morale as the level of individual’s psychological well-being based on such factors as a sense of purpose and confidence in the future (merriam-webster.com, 2013). Another author quoted in her study the conceptualization of teacher morale by Bentley and Rempel, authors of the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire, as “the professional interest and enthusiasm that a person displays toward the achievement of individual and group goals in a given situation” (Moore, 2012).
Hacker described morale as “attitudes of individuals and groups toward their work, their environment, their managers, and the business.” She believed that “when morale is high, it’s worth its weight in gold. When morale is low, the cost is tremendous” (Hacker as cited by Pendino, 2012). Bruce (2003) explained that morale is the way that an individual feels about both his work and the organization for which he works. Bruce indicated that while individuals with low morale may do what is required of them, individuals with high morale are committed to their jobs and participate in work with enthusiasm. Sirota et al. (2005) expanded on this idea by describing four levels of employee morale, with the highest level being enthusiasm, followed by satisfaction, neutrality, and finally anger as the lowest level of morale. When satisfaction or neutrality exists, employees generally do what is expected of them. The highest and lowest levels of morale are those that drive employees to action— anger, in ways that may actually harm the organization, and enthusiasm, in ways that benefit and bring credit to the organization or employer.
The terms morale, motivation, and satisfaction frequently refer to similar things, with job satisfaction affecting workplace morale, which then influences employee motivation. Herzberg described motivation as a product of job satisfaction. (Herzberg as cited by Pendino, 2012). Litwin and Stringer as cited by Pendino (2012) described motivation as goal directed behaviour in which the goal may be a need or a want. Similarly, Haasen and Shea (2003) explained motivation as an inner force guiding actions, and that being in control of an activity, mastering challenges through use of skills, and the fun and enjoyment that results from this are factors that promote motivation. Emphasizing the close relationship between job satisfaction and employee morale, Evans as cited by Pendino (2012), described how these entities “continually interact and, by this process, present the illusion of being one”. Echoing a similar idea, Hacker as cited by Pendino (2012) asserted that teacher morale determines teacher motivation, while Bruce (2003) explained that morale has a direct impact on an employee’s (teacher’s) motivation and performance. Likewise, Sirota et al. (2005) stated that high morale is a result of teacher satisfaction, which results from satisfying the basic needs of employees.

Importance of Teacher’s Morale

Morale affects both individuals and organizations. Hacker explained that morale determines motivation at work, and she stated that there are significant payoffs for a company to build morale in the workplace (Hacker as cited by Pendino, 2012). Bruce (2003) indicated that when morale is high, teachers morale demonstrate greater creativity and are more motivated to do their best. In contrast, when teachers do not feel that their managers (principals) and organization appreciate the work they do, their performance at work decreases. Similarly, Deeprose (2007) stated that showing appreciation for employees by recognizing and rewarding their achievements directly contributes to “bottom-line results”. A 2007 report called 6 Dumb Ways to Kill Employee Moralefrom Progressive Business Publications (PBP) explained that when workplace morale decreases, employee productivity also decreases immediately and measurably.
According to Govindarajan (2012), high morale can be characterized by interest and enthusiasm for the job. While low morale is characterized by feelings of dissatisfaction and frustration. Teacher morale can be viewed as teachers striving to achieve their individual goals and educational goals of the school system and their perception of satisfaction that stem from the total school environment.
Individuals with high morale may exhibit many positive characteristics. Bruce (2003) associated high morale with characteristics such as confidence, generosity, hope, cheerfulness, high self-esteem, persistence, and positive attitudes. In the workplace, this includes loyalty to an organization, and employees supporting each other to work together toward meaningful goals. Conversely, low morale can lead to high turnover, decreases in employee performance, and employee disinterest in work.
Low morale can lead to undesirable characteristics in a school culture, and individuals can also experience negative effects of low morale. Pendino (2012) cited Briggs and Richardson findings on both internal and external reactions of teachers to low morale. These researchers asked the teachers participating in their study to identify descriptors of low workplace morale, and the selected descriptors were categorized as causes of low morale, internal reactions to low morale, and external reactions to low morale. The internal reaction to low morale most frequently selected by teachers in this survey was frustration. Other internal reactions to low morale identified by teachers included fear of supervision, insecurity, confusion, feelings of futility, lack of confidence, feelings of resistance to change, and excessive teacher absences. The external reactions identified in this study were equally as undesirable and negative, with backbiting and open hostility as the ones most frequently selected. Other external reactions to low morale identified by teachers included spitefulness and fighting in the workplace, high turnover rates, bitterness and anger, formation of cliques, and lack of consideration for others, with at least 22% of participants selecting each of these characteristics. These internal and external effects of low morale are clearly not beneficial or desirable in schools or to individuals within the schools.
Likewise, low morale has a high price, according to Bruce (2003), including the cost of employee turnover, poor employee attitudes, decreases in productivity and performance, low employee self-esteem, increased absenteeism, and poor customer service. O’Toole and Lawler (2006) concurred with the findings that low job satisfaction can lead to high levels of turnover and absenteeism, along with poor customer service.
Low morale can lead to undesirable characteristics in a school culture, and individuals can also experience negative effects of low morale. Briggs and Richardson discussed both internal and external reactions of teachers to low morale. These researchers asked the teachers participating in their study to identify descriptors of low workplace morale, and the selected descriptors were categorized as causes of low morale, internal reactions to low morale, and external reactions to low morale. The internal reaction to low morale most frequently selected by teachers in this survey was frustration.
Other internal reactions to low morale identified by teachers included fear of supervision, insecurity, confusion, feelings of futility, lack of confidence, feelings of resistance to change, and excessive teacher absences. The external reactions identified in this study were equally as undesirable and negative, with backbiting and open hostility as the ones most frequently selected. Other external reactions to low morale identified by teachers included spitefulness and fighting in the workplace, high turnover rates, bitterness and anger, formation of cliques, and lack of consideration for others, with at least 22% of participants selecting each of these characteristics. These internal and external effects of low morale are clearly not beneficial or desirable in schools or to individuals within the schools (Briggs and Richardson as cited by Pendino, 2012).

Dimensions of Teacher’s Morale
Morale is not a single dimension or a well-defined or precisely measured concept. It has many components or factors associated with it. This means that morale cannot be attributed sole to organizational or environmental factors. Neither can it be attributed to curriculum changes or global educational systems only, or to all group members in an organization.
Smith (2008) cited in the review of literature of his study the ten factors identified by Ralph Rempel and Averno Bentley in their Purdue Teacher Opinionaireto measure teacher morale. They are teacher rapport with principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curriculum issues, teacher status, community support to education, school facilities and services, and community pressures.
Rapport with Principal. This factor deals with the teacher's feelings about the principal - his professional competency, his interest in teachers and their work, his ability to communicate, and his skill in human relations.
Satisfaction with Teaching. This factor pertains primarily to the teacher's relationships with students and feelings of satisfaction with teaching. According to this factor, the high morale teacher loves to teach, feels competent in his [/her] job, enjoys his [/her] students, and believes in the future of teaching as an occupation.
Rapport among Teachers. This factor focuses on a teacher's relationships with other teachers. The items here solicit the teacher's opinion regarding the cooperation, preparation, ethics, influence, interests, and competency of peers.
Teacher Salary. This factor pertains primarily to the teacher's feelings about salaries and salary policies.
Teacher Load. This factor refers to public elementary school teachers’ beliefs on the matters such as record-keeping, clerical work, 'red tape,' community demands on teacher time, extra-curricular load, and keeping up to date professionally for the benefit of the pupils in their respective schools. Curricular Issues. This factor concerns with the teachers’ reactions to the adequacy of the school program in meeting students’ needs, providing for individual differences, and preparing students for effective citizenship. Teacher Status (in the community). This factor addresses feelings about the prestige, security, and benefits afforded by teaching, as well as the extent to which the teacher feels accepted as a member of the community. Community Support for Education. This factor “concerns with the teacher’s perception of the extent to which the community understands and supports a sound educational program. School Facilities and Services. This factor pertains to teacher’s perceptions of the adequacy of facilities, supplies, and equipment available, as well as the efficiency of the procedures for obtaining materials.
Community Pressures (expectations). This factor concerns with the teacher’s perceptions of community expectations with respect to the teacher’s personal standards, participation in outside school activities, and freedom to discuss controversial issues in the classroom.

Ways to Improve Teacher’s Morale
If a morale audit suggests that low morale exists in an environment, the next logical step is to formulate a plan to address the morale issue, since “having information about employee satisfaction is futile unless the firm is willing to take positive steps where there is low morale” (Roberts & Savage as cited by Pendino, 2012). While it may not be possible to address every issue that contributes to dissatisfaction or low morale among employees, many actions can improve morale, increase satisfaction, and decrease dissatisfaction in the workplace.
Vail (2005) made a number of suggestions for improving school climate. She emphasized the importance of addressing morale issues and negativity early because the longer these issues exist, the more difficult they are to change. She stressed the importance of providing support and assistance to new teachers, as low morale in an individual’s first few years of teaching can cause new teachers to leave the field of education. Vail also expressed that teachers need to feel respected as professionals and must feel that they have a voice in decision-making in the workplace.
Appropriately addressing disruptive student behavior is another way that administrators can help ensure a climate with positive morale. Recognizing and rewarding staff members, encouraging them, and showing appreciation helps to improve morale as well. Schmidt (2005) echoed similar themes when she contended that providing recognition to teachers improves morale. This recognition may include verbal praise, written notes, or public praise. Rewarding teachers, even with low-cost or no-cost rewards, shows teachers that they are appreciated and helps to build morale. Schmidt also believed that providing opportunities for staff members to build relationships with one another and developing traditions and rituals within the school community can help to improve the school culture and build positive feelings among staff. Utilizing many similar ideas, Lester listed 50 specific suggestions for improving teacher morale. Ideas included recognizing teachers for their accomplishments, providing opportunities for achievement and advancement, and including teachers in decision-making and problem-solving by giving teachers greater responsibility and opportunities for professional growth. Both within and outside the school setting, similar themes appeared repeatedly in research and literature about building morale. Recurring ideas include treating employees well, involving employees in decision-making, recognizing and rewarding employee achievements, making work fun, and encouraging personal responsibility for attitudes. Treating employees as people first is a significant way to improve morale. An early example illustrating the potential impact of treating individuals well involved the Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Plant during the 1920s and 1930s. Employees were involved in experiments that examined worker productivity as a function of changes in working conditions. Researchers found that employee productivity improved both when working conditions improved and when working conditions were made worse and offered as an explanation that the attention and recognition that employees received while participating in the experiment led to increased productivity (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009).
Kroth (2007) emphasized to managers that “there is no room in our society for leaders—people who have power over other people—to treat people as less than human beings”, and he asked managers to “treat the people you count on the most—your employees—like gold, or, more importantly, like human beings”. He exhorted managers to be honest and straightforward, to be fair to employees, and to be aware of the way that they (the mangers) speak to employees, as all of these factors signal how the manager values employees.
According to Bruce (2003), “Humanness and humanity are the cornerstones of selfesteem and high morale,” so treating employees as humans, not just as workers, is a necessity in building a high morale workplace. She said that if you “love your people. . . they’ll love where they work”. Because employees are real people with families, interests, and responsibilities outside of work, Bruce also mentioned that employers can help employees balance their personal and business lives by making the work environment a more satisfying, enriching, and enjoyable place to be. Fromm as cited by Pendino (2012) believed that managers need to show their employees that they (the employees) are actually more important than the customers, and managers need to let employees know that they will not tolerate customers who treat their employees poorly. Fromm also suggested treating everyone within the workplace as family and celebrating important occasions with them. He, along with Hacker proposed that acknowledging birthdays and other special events in employees’ lives makes individuals feel special and shows that the employer cares. Other small efforts can serve to make employees feel special as well. A gesture as simple as providing business cards for every employee within an organization shows each individual that he has significant value within the workplace, and it serves as a source of pride for employees. Fromm also stated that acknowledging work anniversaries every year, beginning with the first year, is an important way to let employees know that their years of service and dedication to the organization are important and worth celebrating. He believed that when providing employee education, in addition to offering work-related training designed for professional growth, employees should be encouraged toward personal growth through courses, training, and experiences in any area of interest to them. He reiterated the importance of treating employees well when he said that, “If you want the customer to be treated like a king, treat the people you manage like royalty”.
Individuals also need to feel loved and supported and to have a sense of belonging within their workplace (Bruce, 2003; Haasen & Shea, 2003). Employees who experience a closeness or “family spirit” (Haasen & Shea, 2003) with other employees and who feel that they are a part of a team may experience satisfaction and enjoyment. In an ideal work culture, employees should have the opportunity to share experiences with coworkers and to form close bonds with each other (Haasen& Shea, 2003. Paul and Reck (2006) believed that showing genuine caring to others is a key to help others to feel better about themselves and to encourage enthusiasm and positive energy in the workplace. Employees are more likely to have self-confidence and positive feelings toward work when they believe that their employer truly cares about them. Bruce (2003) expressed how managers who show that they care about employees in still greater self-confidence in employees, and this confidence builds morale. Treating people well is not incompatible with success in business. Paul and Reck (2006) described a study of 16,000 corporate managers that found that the highest achievers were the managers who believed that people, not just profits, were valuable. Paul and Reck (2006) encouraged individuals not to underestimate the significance of caring when they said,
While most people quickly admit that caring about others is a good thing to do, they fail to appreciate two very important aspects of caring: how huge the return is that comes back to you from caring and how quickly your personal and professional lives can change for the better once you start. Part of treating employees as people first is showing respect and treating them with dignity. Bruce (2003) suggested that asking employees to rate how much or how little employees are valued and treated with respect and dignity is an important way to assess an organization’s morale. One way of showing respect to employees is to trust them. Many workplaces have lengthy handbooks filled with rules telling employees what they can do and what they must not do. While job expectations must be clear, extensive rules, often unrelated to the actual work, come across as rigid and inflexible. Fromm asserted that rules can make staff members feel bitter and unhappy. Rules suggest that the employer does not trust employees and leads employees to feel that they are being treated like children.
He believed that an organization should not create rules to address the small number of employees who may be doing something inappropriate or wrong when the majority of employees are doing things well without rules. He suggested allowing the organization’s culture to replace rules, and then speaking directly to those whose behavior or performance is problematic instead of creating rules and policies that affect everyone.
Meeting employees’ basic human needs is another way of treating workers as people first. Sirota et al. (2005) described how important it is for an individual to feel that his organization takes a genuine interest in his well-being. The authors explained that, in order for employees to be satisfied in their jobs, they must feel that they work in a safe and comfortable environment and that the workload is reasonable. Employees need to believe that the compensation, both salary and benefits, they receive is equitable and adequate and that they have reasonable job security. Employees also have the need to receive respect, to know that they will receive a fair hearing for complaints, and to know that the employer will make reasonable accommodations for their personal and family needs. Sirota et.al.described the need of employees to have warm, cooperative relationships within the workplace. They explained that these relationships are important for encouraging teamwork and are also essential for mental health. Meeting these physiological, economic, and psychological needs can help to build employee satisfaction and enthusiasm.
Allowing and encouraging employee participation in decisions affecting their work is one key to increasing job satisfaction an employee productivity (O’Toole & Lawler, 2006), which benefits both employees and the organization. In fact, when managers give workers authority over their work and then reward them for doing the right thing, they address basic human needs for recognition, control, and belonging, needs that are more important determinants of employee morale and performance than are the physical conditions of work. Sirota et al. (2005) explained that a participative environment is an important part of employee feelings of achievement, which contribute significantly to employee morale.
Fromm (as cited by Pendino, 2012) emphasized the importance of moving decision-making down in an organization in order to empower people. Rather than managers making most decisions, front-line employees who are affected most by decisions should be giving input and having a significant say in decisions that need to be made. Paul and Reck (2006) highlighted the importance of being sure that everyonewithin an organization has the opportunity to be heard and to make suggestions for improvement. Involving everyone in an organization, from top to bottom and across all sectors, is important because excluding any employees is likely to result in apathy and resistance to change (Pritchett & Pound as cited by Pendino 2012). The organization benefits from soliciting employee participation as well because “the people who are out there with their feet on the street are likely to have the best ideas as to what needs to be done” (PBP Executive Reports, 2007).
One of the most common employee complaints about the workplace is a manager who micromanages (Kroth, 2007). While managers need to provide adequate guidance and support, micromanaging reduces employee creativity, diminishes initiative, leads employees to feel undervalued, and eventually causes employees to become dependent.
Micromanaging is “not only demotivating but humiliating”. Pascarella, as cited by Pendino (2012) explained that negative employee attitudes, poor job performance, and poor customer service can arise when systems in an organization do not allow employees to make decisions and use their own discretion in doing their job, but instead require employees to rely on supervisors and managers for approval or supervision of day-to-day tasks. Haasen and Shea(2003) agreed that a culture that embraces less control and fewer restrictive regulations promotes employee participation and contributions, greater employee involvement, and more initiative. Motivation increases when employees have full responsibility and control in their jobs. These authors believed that ideally, employees should have the freedom and personal autonomy “to make all job-related decisions”. They explained that “when people are treated as responsible adults at work, they will respond as such andtake ownership of their jobs”. Part of involving all employees in decision-making is allowing and encouraging employees to share their opinions and ideas. Bruce (2003) suggested that finding out if employees believe that all opinions at work are valued is an important part of a morale audit,indicating that the value placed on employee opinions can affect employee morale. Hacker, as cited by Pendino (2012), believed that employers should frequently ask employees for their opinions and include them in decision-making, and she even suggested that employees should receiverewards for giving input and sharing ideas. Listening to and valuing employee ideas and opinions is essential because, “Nothing demoralizes today’s employees faster—and therefore results in an immediate and measurable decrease in productivity—then the feeling that he or she is not being listened to” (PBP Executive Reports, 2007).
Enderlin-Lampe (2002) discussed positive outcomes that may results from including teachers in decision-making, such as empowering teachers and increasing teachers’ sense of efficacy, which in turn may lead to better job performance and increased persistence. Including employees at all levels of an organization can lead to greater productivity, greater satisfaction, and higher morale.
In studying teacher perceptions, as cited by Pendino (2012), Blase and Kirby found that inclusion of teachers in decision-making was “a way to diffuse problems that could demoralize faculty by making each teacher feels part of the school family”. Involving teachers in decision making can improve morale and can lead to teachers feeling greater self-esteem, excitement, satisfaction, and comfort. In Blase and Kirby’s study, including teachers in decision-making affected teacher behavior by improving faculty unity, raising morale, increasing support for decisions, and ultimately making better decisions.
Imber and Neidt as cited by Pendino (2012) described a study of teacher satisfaction specifically related to participation in decision making. They described a number of factors that may influence a teacher’s satisfaction in the decision-making process. These factors included the way that the decision personally and professionally affects the individual teacher, the benefit to self or school from the decision-making process, rewards received for participating, and the degree to which the decision was actually implemented. Therefore, not only must the opportunity for participation in decision-making be available, but teachers must also perceive the benefits as worth the cost of participation and must believe that their participation in the process resulted in an actual improvement and was not a waste of time.
Some principals or managers may be reluctant to include employees in decision making or to give employees the authority to make decisions themselves for fear that it will diminish their own power and authority (McEwan, 2003). McEwan, however, reassured leaders that “when you share power, responsibility and accountability, your return will exceed 100 percent and continue for as long as you keep sharing” (p.64). Deeprose (2007) echoed McEwan’s belief about managers’ power when she said, “Doesn’t empowering employees diminish their own power? Not at all. Power is not a zero sum game.
Empowered employees working creatively produce a more powerful work unit, thus increasing the power of the manager”. Deeprose suggested that employees should have the authority to set their own goals, make decisions, and work to solve problems. Confirming the benefits of including employees in decision-making, Langley and Jacobs
(2006) stated that “Empowering and allowing your staff to make decisions will not only helpget the job done correctly but also instill a sense of worth and accomplishment among your staff members”.
Most individuals entering a job beginning a new position want to do the job well and want to have the opportunity to experience success in the job (Sirota et al., 2005, PBP Executive Reports, 2007). Sirota et al. indicated that “people have a strong need to do somethingthat matters and to do it well”. Most employees want to feel successful, want to use their skills to make a difference, and want to be proud of the work they do. When employees perform well at their jobs, then “to receive recognition for one’sachievements is among the most fundamental of human needs”. Sirota et al.described how an employee “wants to believe that she counts…When workers have that feeling, it pays off in incalculable ways for the organization”. Recognizing the successes that an employee experiences and rewarding employees for their achievement are important ways to help employees feel more satisfied in their work (Bruce, 2003, Deeprose, 2007, Emmerich, 2009, PBP Executive Reports, 2007).
According to Herzberg as cited by Pendino (2012), achievement and recognition are among the strongest determiners of satisfaction at work. Litwin and Stringer as cited by Pendino (2012) acknowledged that theneed for experiencing achievement is one of the factors that drives work-related behavior. Using data from over four million employees in a period of 30 years, Sirota et al. (2005) cited achievement as one of three primary factors influencing workplace motivation. Indiscussing the emotional needs of employees, Bruce (2003) listed recognition andachievement as needs that, when met, can help contribute to greater morale in the workplace.
Providing opportunities for achievement and acknowledging successes help to createpositive attitudes and build morale and motivation. Paul and Reck (2006) explained that acknowledging and celebrating achievement and success “recharges batteries” andhelps to build excitement and energy in the workplace. Emmerich (2009) discussed the needfor employees to feel appreciated and to receive encouragement on a daily basis. Inaddition, she explained that besides the day-to-day appreciation and recognition, holdingspecial ceremonies to recognize and reward accomplishments of employees is beneficial.
She believed that it is important to focus continuously on success. Failing to recognize outstanding employee performance is an action that decreases morale and motivation, as employees feel that no one has noticed their achievement or that their accomplishment does not matter. In fact, when managers fail to recognize outstanding performance,it creates a negative environment, with negative consequences for morale andproductivity. This applies not only to the individual employee whose outstanding contribution isn’t acknowledged enough, but to all those around the employee as well,who see that the extraordinary effort is merely taken for granted. It kills their morale as well, and makes them think: “Why bother?” (PBP Executive Reports, 2007).
Recognition and rewards can come in many forms, from a verbal expression of thanks to elaborate gifts and awards. Praise is one form of recognition that, in a school setting, can contribute to improving teacher instructional performance, improve school climate, and build unity of staff (Blasé & Kirby as cited by Pendino, 2012). Blase and Kirby conducted a study that investigated teacher perceptions of strategies that principals use. Praise was “perceived asone of the most effective by teachers in our study”. These authors acknowledged thatin their investigation, praise led to an increase in motivation, and teachers who received praise recognized how it made them feel and attempted to use more praise with their students. The use of sincere praise specifically tied to teacher strengths helped build teacher satisfaction and confidence. One teacher who participated in the study explained the link between receiving praise and her job performance in saying, “…when I feel that what I do is noticed and appreciated, I have a better feeling about my job and try to do a better job”. The authors summarized the benefits of praise by saying, “It appears then that praise is an effective strategy for improving school climate because it enhances teacher morale and teachers’ attitudes toward students. It also enhances teachers’ instructional practices and the amount of effort they put forth”. Managers who are effective praise employee behavior that they wish to see repeated (PBP Executive Reports, 2007). Hacker as cited by Pendino (2012) cited a survey of 5,000 employees who indicated reasons for leaving jobs, and among the six reasons generated, one was the failure of managers to praise good work. She recognized that, “although no manager can offer employees everything they want, appreciation and understanding go a long way”. A 2009 surveyof 1,047 individuals around the world confirmed that employees rank praise and attention from leaders as even more effective motivators in the workplace than financial incentives (Dewhurst, Guthridge, & Mohr, 2010).
Deeprose (2007) stated that “the happiest and most productive employees are those who enjoy doing their work and who are recognized for their accomplishments”. She discussed recognizing employees as a way to encourage high performance. Employee recognition helps to build self-esteem, which leads to higher performance. She stated that recognizing employees helps to retain excellent workers and to recruit new high performers and to inspire employees to perform at a high level. She indicated that“recognizing and rewarding employees does more than make people happy. Solid numbers show that it contributes directly to bottom-line results”. According to Deeprose, rewards may meet employee needs, should reflect the values of the organization, and should make employees feel proud to receive them. Rewards can be individuals or teams within an organization, and the reason for the reward or recognition must be clear in order to maximize its effectiveness. Deeprose suggested many ways of recognizing and rewarding employees that have little or no cost. Some of her suggestions included developing a wall of fame or recognition board, allowing employees to choose a project, writing letters to employees and to their immediate supervisors, verbally praising employees at meetings, arranging for the president of the organization to offer a personal thanks to employees, and posting recognition information on the organization’s website or in a newsletter. Deeprose also suggested that creating a work environment that employees enjoy can itself be a reward and that doing this can involve encouraging innovation and giving employees morecontrol over their jobs, providing pleasant working conditions, providing workplace amenities, instituting health initiatives, and regularly adding fun to the workplace. Deeprose emphasized the importance of involving employees in developing a workplace reward program.
Highlighting the importance of workplace reward programs, Pritchett and Pound, as cited by Pendino (2012) asserted that employees will be more likely to make necessary changes if “you make it worth their while”. Managers should recognize and reward the employee behaviors that they want to encourage and should remember that many rewards have no monetary cost but can include celebrations, honor, time, and attention. The authors explained that it is important for rewards and recognition to relate to specific desirable employee behaviors, and they cautioned managers to not “contaminate the reward system by giving to everybody whether they’re deserving or not”.
Paul and Reck (2006) believed that “sincere appreciation gets results”. People like to feel appreciated, and employers who show appreciation for high performance encourage employees to continue to perform at high levels. The authors believed that it is important to extravagantly recognize and reward employees who have gone beyond their job requirements and who have done something extraordinary. While a simple “thank you” maybe nice, an unexpected, extravagant show of appreciation will motivate employees to want to continue to perform enthusiastically and beyond their job requirements. Not only is spontaneous, informal praise beneficial for employee morale in the school setting, but also scheduling time for teacher recognition is important (Blasé & Kirby as cited by Pendino, 2012).
The use of rewards and recognition can improve morale and can reduce absenteeism, and Blase and Kirby indicated that teachers in their study claimed that rewards and recognition encouraged them to put forth extra effort both in and out of the classroom. Rewards can be small tangible items, food, or earned privileges, such as a coupon to arrive late or leave early or for a half day off. Hacker also endorsed the use of small rewards or the “gift of time”.
Most individuals would love to have a job that they enjoyed and that they believed was fun. Many employees are unhappy at work, and many workplaces“ have become prisons for the human spirit and anchors for depression” (Berg as cited by Pendino, 2012).
Employers who work to create an environment that fosters fun and enjoyment help to build morale and greater workplace satisfaction (Fromm as cited by Pendino, 2012). Bruce (2003) believed that the inclusion of fun and creativity in the workplace is an indicator of workplace morale. Bruce and Pepitone, as cited by Pendino (2012) stated that employees who are having fun are the “singlemost important trait of highly effective and successful organizations” and that there are correlations between having fun at work and productivity, creativity, morale, employee satisfaction and retention, employee absenteeism, and customer satisfaction.
Employees who have fun at work have higher self-esteem, greater energy and enthusiasm,more team spirit, motivation, and positive attitudes. Including humor and fun in the workplace has many benefits, according to Bruce and Pepitone, such as creating energy, breaking up boredom and fatigue, alleviating stress, improving communication, uniting people, easing conflict, and providing natural healing properties. Underscoring the importance of humor in the workplace, Hurren (2006) conducted a survey in which data from 471 Nevada teachers suggested a positive relationship between use of humor by principals and the job satisfaction of teachers. Hacker concurred that humor and fun help to decrease stress and alleviate conflicts, help to prevent boredom and fatigue, and promote creativity. McManus (2000), an author and a leader in team qualityand effectiveness, suggested that fun is essential in promoting high performance in the workplace, and he stated that “work can’t seem like prison; it must be something that people look forward to”.
Work should be enjoyable for all employees (Fromm, AS CITED BY Pendino, 2012). Fromm believed that making work fun for all is the best way to improve productivity and that “the bottom line is that if you want to increase productivity, you should make it your top priority to ensure that people enjoy their work”. Fromm believed that every aspect of workshould be enjoyable, including meetings, which should always begin on a positive note and should always include a surprise. Fun can come in many forms, including parties, family events, and outings. Based on his experience, Fromm indicated that “If the people in your organization are having fun, I’ll guarantee you that the business is doing well”. One of Fromm’s employees, after participating in a fun event during the workday, commented, “When we go back to work, we’re all refreshed and feel a whole lot better about the place at which we’ve chosen to spend a big part of our lives”.
Factors that exist in the workplace may decrease workplace fun, and in doing so can negatively affect employee satisfaction and performance. A dysfunctional work environment, negative culture, distrust among individuals within a workplace, intolerance of creativity and employee input, and ineffective management practices can all decrease workplace fun (Pryor, Singleton, Taneja, & Humphreys, 2010). A reciprocal relationship between fun and its workplace correlates seems to exist. When workplace fun is present, benefits exist in the areas of employee performance, productivity, and retention. Meeting performance and productivity goals may cause individuals to experience fun andpleasure in the workplace as well.
Individuals are ultimately responsible for the attitudes that they bring to the workplace. When employees ina workplace consciously choose to have positive attitudes, the workplace becomes an enjoyable place to be, both for employees and for those the employees are serving. Lundin et al. as cited by Pendino (2012) expressed this philosophy in this way: “There is always a choice about the way you do your work, even if there is not a choice about the work itself”. Emmerich (2009) encouraged individuals to carefully choose their attitudes each day and to understand that each individual is in charge of her own attitude. She quoted William James, who expressed this sentiment when he said, “The greatest discovery of my generation is that ahuman being can alter his life simply by altering his attitudes”, and Charles Swindoll, who said, “I am convinced that life is 10 percent what happens to me and 90 percent how I react to it”. Individuals can choose to enjoy what they do, to excel by going beyond their job description, and to find solutions instead of making excuses.
Employees can make the choice to have a positive attitude, even when they do not feel like it (Hacker as cited by Pendino, 2012). Hacker believed that individuals should choose to start each day with positive thoughts and should understand that the individual alone is responsible for her happiness. She stressed that employees should “trade complaints for solutions”. Negative attitudes tend to spread quickly among employees, and Hacker warned that the resulting negative behaviors can have devastating consequences on job performance by interrupting work, causing stress, and decreasing morale. She emphasized the importance of employee attitudes by statingthat “a good attitude = high morale”. Affirming this belief in the importance of attitude, Paul and Reck (2006) said, “Have you ever heard the phrase, ‘Attitude iseverything’? Take it to heart, for there’s no such thing as an effective leader with a bad attitude. The best way to engage people is with your attitude, enthusiasm, and excitement”. Choosing a positive attitude, then, has positive consequences for both individuals and organizations.
Pritchett as cited by Pendino (2012) also believed that individuals are responsible for their own actionsand attitudes. He warned that “if you put someone else in charge of your morale, you disempower yourself”. He exhorted employees to create a better workplace by taking “charge of your moods. Act upbeat, and you will start to feel better. Show resilience— bounce back on your own—rather than allowing yourself to wallow in negative emotions, such as anger, depression, or grief”. He acknowledged that the way an organization operates and the way its employees are treated do matter, but “if we expect ourselves to stand personally responsible for our attitudes—we’ll all be much better off”.

Other Studies on Teacher’s Morale

Evers & Jean (2011) studied the relationship existed between elementary principals leadership traits and teacher morale. The study sought to identify the impact of the principal-teacher relationship on school achievement as it relates to student performance on state standards as outlined in the Mississippi state academic frameworks and as measured using the Quality of the Distribution Index (QDI) on the Mississippi state end-of-grade test, Mississippi Curriculum Test, Second Edition (MCT2). The end-of-year assessments, collectively known as MCT2: Reading-Language Arts and Mathematics, administered to students in grades 3 through 8 in the spring of each school year, provided additional quantitative data for the study. Further, the study identified whether a correlation existed between the way principals and teachers perceive the principals primary leadership traits. A quantitative survey-design method was used to conduct the study. The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) -Self and -Observer were used to measure the principals leadership traits that have been associated with organizational effectiveness. The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire (PTO) was used to ensure teacher morale as defined by two selected factors, rapport with principal and job satisfaction. School performance was measured by the end-of-grade state assessment for Mississippi, MCT2, which measures what students know and are able to do in the areas of reading-language arts and mathematics. State statisticians use the collectives schools and districts scores to develop Quality of the Distribution Indexes for each participating entity. Findings indicated that classroom-based study participants perceived that each of the Leadership Practices Inventory's five subscales of leadership traits correlated to the variable Teacher Satisfaction, whereas their Rapport with the Principal correlated with three of five subscales. Study participants also perceived that neither principal's leadership traits nor teacher morale predicts school performance, which disputes current research. Further, analysis of the data indicated that classroom-based participants did not agree with their principals regarding the principals primary modes of leadership by rating the principal lower on the LPI than their principals who rated themselves higher in each of the five factors.
Fisher (2010) conducted a quantitative study using the survey-design method with an adapted version of the Purdue Teacher
Opinionaire (PTO; R. R. Bentley & A. M. Rempel, "Manual for the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire," West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Research Foundation, 1980), measuring factors contributing to center teacher morale, and the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI; in J. M. Kouzes & B. Posner, "The leadership challenge" [3rd ed.], San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003), measuring leadership best practices. The results of the study indicated that the overall morale of the center teacher study participants was high, especially for the adapted PTO factors of center teacher satisfaction," "rapport with colleagues," and curriculum issues. Both the center teachers and center administrators were in agreement with low responses for "teacher load," which indicated low morale for this factor. The results of the LPI revealed that center administrators perceived their leadership best practices at higher levels than did their teachers. Results of the center teachers' responses indicated low agreement for their administrators in the factor "model the way," and both of the groups in the study revealed lower responses of agreement for the factor "encourage the heart." Finally, the results of this study indicate that perceptions of high center teacher morale are strongly linked to center administrators' use of leadership best practices.
Additionally, Rowland’s (2008) study examined the relationship of the leadership practices of middle school principals and the morale of the teachers in these schools. Seven middle schools in a Metropolitan Atlanta school system participated in the study. The Leadership Practices Inventory was used to collect information on the principal practices and the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire was used to collect information on teacher morale. Results indicated that principal leadership and teacher morale were significantly correlated and that the leadership practice of Enable Others to Act had the strongest positive correlation to teacher morale. These results imply that a principal’s daily behavior plays a vital role in the environment of the school. Implications for practice and recommendations for further research are also included.
Moore (2012) study examined the relationship between five teacher perceived leadership practices of high school principals and the morale levels of the teachers in their schools. Two high schools (grades 10-12) in the upstate of South Carolina participated in the study. One hundred twelve high school teachers were surveyed using the Leadership Practices Inventory to collect information about five teacher perceived principal leadership practices, and the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire to collect information about teacher morale levels. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to measure the relationship between the five teacher perceived leadership practices and teacher morale levels. One of the five predictor variables, model the way was excluded due to high zero-order correlations with the rest of the predictors. The statistical analysis provided a basis to support the assertion that the four teacher perceived leadership practices (i.e., challenge the process, enable others to act, encourage the heart, and inspire a shared vision) were related to teacher morale to a significant degree. However, the four teacher perceived leadership practices collectively accounted for only a modest portion of the variance in teacher morale levels. None of the four individual leadership practices was a statistically significant predictor of teacher morale when all other variables were controlled. The results imply that principals’ leadership practices make a difference in teacher morale. Suggested integration of leadership practices into administrative training and recommendations for future research are also addressed.
Hurley's (2010) study reported the understanding of distributed leadership in schools, the role of the school principal in the facilitation of distributed leadership and its impact upon teachers' morale and enthusiasm for their work. While both the empirical base and practical application of distributed leadership has grown phenomenally in recent years, the evidence related to its effect upon improved school performance reveals continued uncertainty. The authors accept claims that much of the research on educational leadership has been disconnected from the core purpose of schooling (the education of children). They argue, however, that only when there are improved understandings of the leadership processes that occur in schools, particularly as it relates to the distribution of leadership and how it impacts upon those that work directly with students (their teachers), can there be legitimate and meaningful study of the connection between school leadership and student learning. It is toward contributing to the empirical evidence in respect to this somewhat unexplored area that this study is directed. Through path analysis, they develop a best-fitting nested model to examine the relations among formal school leaders, teacher collaborative leadership, teachers' professional learning, shared decision-making, shared vision, teacher morale, and teacher enthusiasm. They conclude with a discussion of the pathways in a "best fitting model" as they explore in detail the direct and indirect effects of the various formal and distributed leadership variables upon Teacher Morale and Teacher Enthusiasm. Evidence from this study highlights an existing approach to distributed leadership that builds teacher leadership capacity through their engagement in school leadership while enhancing their morale and enthusiasm, thereby challenging findings by some who have reported negative effects of distributed leadership upon teachers and their work performance.
Acknowledgment of teacher perspectives and experiences helps bolster teacher resiliency. Korkmaz (2007) found that the level of job satisfaction either improved or decreased self-confidence, and loss of job satisfaction could cause an individual to exhibit aggressive tendencies toward other people. Korkmaz’s study, conducted in Turkey, found the major factor resulting in loss of job satisfaction was the principal’s administrative style toward their teaching staff. Successful administrators developed positive school climates by building upon teacher experience and expertise, encouraging teacher-led interaction in meetings and decision making, and praising and acknowledging the daily work of teachers. Teacher involvement is fundamental to increasing teacher morale (Korkmaz, 2007).
Yost (2008) found results contrary to Korkmaz’s. Yost looked for data to explain self-efficacy. Her interviewing process shed light on the reasons three of the teachers left their schools during their first year of teaching. All three left due to perceived lack of administrative support. Her findings also suggested that a positive school environment was not enough to keep teachers from leaving, even with support from the principal and colleagues.
Egley and Jones (2005) examined leadership behavior and impact on teacher morale during a time of test-based accountability. Using a quantitative study, they surveyed elementary school teachers to examine teachers’ perceptions of principal leadership behaviors. They found that teachers perceived their principals as having fairly high levels of positive leadership behaviors. They also found positive relationships between teachers’ perceptions of principals’ leadership behavior and teacher job satisfaction, school climate, and the accountability rating assigned to their school. This suggested a correlation between principal leadership style and teacher and student achievement. Interestingly, principals at the higher rated schools exhibited higher levels of professional and personal leadership behaviors.
Sheppard, Hurley and Dibbon’s (2010) study reported the understanding of distributed leadership in schools, the role of the school principal in the facilitation of distributed leadership and its impact upon teachers' morale and enthusiasm for their work. While both the empirical base and practical application of distributed leadership has grown phenomenally in recent years, the evidence related to its effect upon improved school performance reveals continued uncertainty. The authors accept claims that much of the research on educational leadership has been disconnected from the core purpose of schooling (the education of children). They argue, however, that only when there are improved understandings of the leadership processes that occur in schools, particularly as it relates to the distribution of leadership and how it impacts upon those that work directly with students (their teachers), can there be legitimate and meaningful study of the connection between school leadership and student learning. It is toward contributing to the empirical evidence in respect to this somewhat unexplored area that this study is directed. Through path analysis, they develop a best-fitting nested model to examine the relations among formal school leaders, teacher collaborative leadership, teachers' professional learning, shared decision-making, shared vision, teacher morale, and teacher enthusiasm. They conclude with a discussion of the pathways in a "best fitting model" as they explore in detail the direct and indirect effects of the various formal and distributed leadership variables upon Teacher Morale and Teacher Enthusiasm. Evidence from this study highlights an existing approach to distributed leadership that builds teacher leadership capacity through their engagement in school leadership while enhancing their morale and enthusiasm, thereby challenging findings by some who have reported negative effects of distributed leadership upon teachers and their work performance.
According to Mwangi and Mwai (2002), a well-functioning education system is necessary for sustained socioeconomic development and rapid progress in science and technology. Such a system requires well-trained teachers with high morale, who are good role models. Their study designed to determine agriculture teachers’ morale and factors affecting it, explains why low morale leads to teachers’ apathy, poor job performance, increased value for material rewards, dissatisfaction with school authorities, low turnover and constant shortage. This correlational study (N = 95, reliability = 0.91, a-level = 0.05) shows a gender imbalance favouring male teachers. Besides qualification, personal characteristics were not significantly related to teachers’ morale as morale factors, which were also related to teachers’ stress in England. They include inadequate pay; poor career structure, lack of promotion opportunities, poor school facilities, inadequate school disciplinary policy, attitudes and behaviour of the school head and of other teachers, and pupils’ poor work attitudes and lack of interest in school. Lack of trained teachers had forced schools to hire untrained agriculture teachers, which was likely to lower the quality of education. The researchers concluded that teachers’ morale could be improved by giving them pay that matches inflation, job tenure, improved teaching facilities, promotion opportunities, managerial responsibilities and administrative support.
Lee, Mansor and Anuwar (2011) explored the interrelationships between morale and job performance of secondary school teachers. It was a questionnaire survey involving secondary school teachers from four schools in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan. A total number of 92 respondents were involved in this study. The findings showed that all the five factors: leadership, belongingness, environment, personal development and collegiality contributed significantly to teachers’ morale. The working environment was rated as the most important factor among the five. The structural equation modelling indicates that the environment, personal development and collegiality factors affect the feeling of personal reward of the teachers while leadership, belongingness, environment and personal development influenced their cohesive pride. It was also found that only the leadership factor had a direct impact on job performance. The other morale determinants affect the job performance of the teachers indirectly either by affecting personal reward or cohesive pride.

Academic Achievement
Pupils’ academic achievement is a primary emphasis for schools today. Romney (2003) stated, "Achievement is usually defined in terms of a particular type of learning outcome, specifically performance on tests and grades achieved in courses taken". Achievement indicates performance at a given time in the learning process. Achievement is associated with pupil performance on specific tasks related to established academic indicators. A letter grade, number, or percentage is normally used to represent the achievement attained by the student (O'Connor, 2002). Pupils’ achievement can be reported for individual pupils or groups of pupils in the form of classroom scores, school building scores, school district results, state results, and international comparisons. Achievement represents indications of learning and is influenced by a variety of factors, including teachers, students, school climate, and home environment (Marzano, 2003; Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2009).
In the context of this study, pupils’ academic achievement is defined by overall NAT result of the grade six pupils who took the examination in tested subject areas such as English, Mathematics, Filipino, Science and Heograpiya, Kasaysayn at Sibika (HEKASI) last March 2012.
Various ideas exist about factors that affect pupil’s academic achievement. Socioeconomic status and minority status are commonly cited as factors that affect pupil’s academic achievement (Rothstein, 2008, Tajalli & Opheim, 2005), but even when disadvantages in these areas exist, teacher characteristics can contribute significantly to improving pupil’s academic achievement (Tajalli & Opheim, 2005). Researchers have studied parent involvement as a potential factor in pupil’s achievement. Research suggests that parent involvement has the potential to impact academic achievement and can benefit pupils by building confidence, sending a positive message about education to pupils, improving pupil’s behavior at school, and helping to hold schools to higher standards. However, data on the direct impact of parent involvement on academic achievement are not conclusive (DePlanty, Coulter-Kern, & Duchane, 2007, Domina, 2005, Machen, Wilson, & Notar, 2005, Sheldon & Epstein, 2005). In addition, teacher characteristics can influence the level of parent involvement that teachers solicit and receive (Deplanty et al., 2007). Educators often blame large class size for lack of pupil’s achievement and frequently suggest reducing class size as a measure to improve pupil’s achievement. Research has attempted to address the relationship between class size and pupil’s achievement, and results suggest that smaller class size may offer some academic and behavior benefits for pupils in early grade levels and for ethnic minority pupils and economically disadvantaged pupils, as well as for those with significant academic needs (Blatchford, Bassett, Goldstein, & Martin, 2003, Jepsen & Rivkin, 2009). Emphasizing the importance of the teacher, not class size alone, Blatchford et al. (2003) also noted that teacher practices may or may not take full advantage of a smaller class size and that teachers must appropriately adjust teaching practices to fit the size of the class in order for pupils to attain the greatest academic benefit possible.

The National Achievement Test
The Department of Education aims to lead young Filipinos in the discovery of their own potential through the academe provided for every Filipino enabling them to create their own destiny to the global community. To achieve this vision, DepEd reaches out responsive efforts for the students’ educational and worthwhile needs. One way is to determine the students’ capacity of learning. There comes, National Achievement Test (Cuevas, 2012). The National Achievement Test (NAT) is administered by the Department of Education though the National Educational Testing and Research Center (NETRC) which heads on research and assessment of the education provided for our youth, specifically in the Basic Education.The examination is designed to determine the students’ academic strengths and weaknesses though the five key-major subjects: Mathematics, Science, English, Filipino, HeKaSi (Heograpiya, Kasaysayan at Sibika) in elementary and AralingPanlipunan in high school. Ratings obtained from NAT for Grade VI serves also as a tool to measure the school’s competency and effectiveness as well as the students’ aptitude and mastery towards the basic learning areas.The nationwide exam is taken every near-end of the school year basically every first week March (Cuevas, 2012).
DepEd is facing a huge task of improving the quality of education in the light of the latest results of the National Achievement Tests which showed that elementary and high school students are faring poorly in Mathematics, Science and Filipino.
All the average scores in the year 2006 NAT were lower than that of 2005 NAT results and below the passing rate of 75%. In the elementary, Grade 6 pupils got mean percentage scores of 53.66% in Mathematics, 46.77% in science, and 54% in English. It is believed that the government should also improve access to education, thus increasing academic achievement by nurturing environments with caring teachers and a student sense of participation. The elements of how, where, when and from students learn are significant companions to what they learn (The Manila Times, Internet Edition, 2006)
Recently, achievement scores highlight our students’ poor achievement in national examinations. The National Achievement Test (NAT) results for grade 6 in SY 2009-2010 showed only a 69.21% passing rate while the NAT results for high school is at a low 46.38%. Moreover, international tests results in 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science study (TIMSS) show that the Philippines ranked 34th out of 38 countries in HS Math and 43rd out of 46 countries in HS II Science. Moreover, the Philippines ranked the lowest in 2008 even with only the science high schools joining the Advanced Mathematics category (Velasco, 2012).
Considerably, the following are the factors that affect the academic performance of the school, particularly the NAT, as cited by the Meriam College Project Team (2005):
1. Parenting Behaviors and Personal Characteristics Related to Academic Achievement.
All the parents expresses their belief in the importance of education, in general, and of the acquisition of a college degree, in particular, as a means to improve their standard of living. In line with this view, parents emphatically advise children to give priority to academic studies. Extracurricular activities, which they also recognize as contributory factor to their children’s development, were to be undertaken only if these did not interfere with studies. To help the children perform better, parents reported that they actively assisted in and supervised their children studies, especially in their earlier grades. Supervision and assistance which were mostly undertaken by mothers, consisted of helping children with assignments, correcting homework, making reviewers, attending parent-teacher conferences, and other similar activities.
Earlier studies in parenting styles related to academic achievement show that high achievers’ parents had common characteristics including the exposure of their children to many and varied activities designed to promote cognitive development, the setting of high performance standards, and the encouragement of initiative, independence and self-sufficiency within the context of a warm and loving relationship. These findings imply that parents of high achievers create conditions that provide their children with opportunities for exploring different ways of further developing their cognitive abilities. They motivate their children to continually challenge their developing skills, even as they provide the care and love that may cushion the frustration that accompanies the experiences of failure. On the other hand, parents of low achievers were described as “protective”, controlling and authority-oriented.

2. Reading Performance and Academic Achievement
Students who read poorly and have difficulty comprehending what they read will also do poorly when tested for knowledge from the text material they have read.
Recognizing that reading is a basic skill for learning and for academic achievement, reports of the decline of reading performance across grade levels have alarmed educators, researchers and parents alike. Research attention has thus been focused on identifying which factors facilitate or hinder the development/improvement of reading skills and the preparation of modules to guide teachers/learners in the use of strategies and formulation of programs to enhance reading levels.
The importance of reading achievement for academic performance was, once again clearly indicated by a significant relationships between reading test scores and the students reported grades in the last quarter. Although a majority of students claimed to have average passing marks, more good readers reported getting higher grades and more poor readers started getting poor grades.
3. Language Used for Instruction and Mathematics Problem Solving.
The performance of students was examined in solving mathematical problems in basic probability. The students were given study problems in probability; the experience was expected to facilitate solving transfer test problems, whose content was analogous to that of the study problems. An additional variable of interest was the effect on problem solving of consistency/inconsistency of the language of study problems and language of transfer test problems. It was hypothesized that transfer test problems were in the same language as the study problems, whatever the language was (Filipino or English). The participants were college students who were all Filipino-English bilinguals. They were given the study problems, half of which were in English and half in Filipino. The study revealed that:
(a) Participants for whom Filipino was used in the study performed better in the transfer testy problems given in Filipino, and
(b) Participants who were given study problems in English performed better in English than the Filipino transfer test problems. The important implication of the study’s findings for the issue which language, English of Filipino, to use as medium of instruction is that there seems to be no advantage nor disadvantage in using either language. The choice of language does not seem to be the critical factor. Rather, it appears that is the consistency of use of a particular language in teaching as well as in the assessment of what is learned, that facilitates learning.
4. Student’s Locus of Control and Academic Achievement
There was a significant correlation between locus of control and academic achievement. Students whose locus of control orientation was internal obtained higher grades than externals. Internals, recognizing that their grades were due to their own abilities and efforts, held themselves accountable for the level of their academic achievement. Thus they were motivated to work even harder and consequently, they performed better.
The results of the study reiterated that Filipinos in a rural setting attributed their academic performance to factors representing the internal-external continuum including ability, effort, difficulty of the task and luck. In addition, the study revealed that poor performers were less inclined to identify ability or effort as the reason for their performance.
5. Alternative Teaching Strategies and Academic Performance
The meta-cognitive approach, compared to the traditional approach, to have had a very significant positive effect on the reading performance of the students. In addition, students in the meta-cognitive condition were more aware of what they were doing while reading and viewed themselves as more effective readers than the students who were in the traditional method group. Thus, they were also more effective in monitoring their own reading and in using varied strategies as they consciously tried to understand the texts they read.
It was found out also that the right brain has been characterized to be primarily involved in learning nonverbal, spatial, analogical, and aesthetic content. In terms of school subjects, the right brain is recognized to be important in art, music and athletics. Left-brain processing, on the other hand, is seen as the locus of traditional method of instruction which makes use of the students’ skills in reading, writing, conceptualizing, and logical problem-solving. The study also examined whether the outcomes of the right-brain compared to the traditional method was moderated by the student’s perceptual strength/preferred mode the learning, categorized as visual, auditory or tactile-kinesthetic.
The lessons in the right-brain approach included activities that made use of alert relaxation, guided imagery, music, drawing, films, storytelling, sensory experiences and games. The traditional method used lecture, description, discussion, recitation and the like. The results of the study revealed a significant enhancing effect of the right-brain approach on the acquisition of both environmental knowledge and values. On the other hand, the students’ perceptual strengths had no significant effect on either knowledge or values. The data did seem to suggest however that the traditional method, which typically consists of lecture-discussion, was more effective for auditory learners. Considering that left-brain functions are more fully utilized by the traditional learning exhibited by those who were given lessons to make use of right-brain processes probably capitalized on the advantage that they could now employ the functions of both processes.
Similarly, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has identified what it refers to attributes of high achieving schools (Fouts& Associates as cited by Arguelles, 2012). These include:
1. Common Focus: In high achieving schools, the staff and students are focused on a few important goals. The school has adopted a consistent research-based instructional approach based on shared beliefs about teaching and learning. The use of time, tools, materials, and professional development activities are aligned with instruction.
2. High Expectations: In high achieving schools, all staff members are dedicated to helping every student achieve state and local standards; all students are engaged in an ambitious and rigorous course of study; and all students leave school prepared for success in work, further education and responsible citizenship.
3. Personalized: In high achieving schools, the school is designed to promote powerful, sustained student relationships with adults where every student has an adult advocate and a personal plan for progress. It is vital that schools are small, intimate units of no more than 600 students (less than 400 strongly recommended) so that staff and students can work closely together.
4. Respect and Responsibility: In high achieving schools, the environment is authoritative, safe, ethical, and studious. The staff teaches. Models, and expects responsible behavior and relationships are based on mutual respect.
5. Time to Collaborate: In high achieving schools, staff has time to collaborate and develop skills and plans to meet the needs of all students. Parents are recognized as partners in education. Partnerships are developed with business in order to create relevance and work-based opportunities and with institutions of higher education to improve teacher preparation and induction.
6. Performance Based: In high achieving schools, students are promoted to the next instructional level only when they have achieved competency. Students receive additional time and assistance when needed to achieve this competency. Data driven decisions shape a dynamic structure and schedule.
7. Technology as a Tool: In high achieving schools, teachers design engaging and imaginative curriculum linked to learning standards, analyse results, and have easy access to best practices and learning opportunities. Schools publish their progress to parents and engage the community in dialog about continuous improvement.

Studies on Academic Achievement
School effectiveness refers to the school’s measure of progress based on the goal and outcome of basic education as evidenced by the school achievement profile. The indicators of school effectiveness are (a) student achievement which refers to the school’s NAT results in Mathematics, Science, English, and Filipino for the past 3 school years; (b) teacher’s competence which refers to the teacher’s rating in the Faculty Performance Evaluation; (c) faculty development refers to the seminars/conferences attended by the faculty for personal and professional development which is either school sponsored or sponsored by other agencies; (d) community factors which refer to the activities initiated or participated in by the school plus the major awards received by the school for participating and winning in the different inter-school contests and competitions; (e) completion rate refers to the percentage of elementary school pupils who were able to graduate in Grade VI based on their original number (enrolment in Grade I to VI); and (f) dropout rate refers to the proportion of elementary school pupils who left school during the school year to the actual enrolment for the 3 school years (Quezada as cited by De Juan, 2010).
Victorino’s(2011) study aimed in looking into students’ problems. She stated that to be able to relate themselves harmoniously to the environment, individuals should see through themselves and know their self-adjustments. Hence, there is a need to determine students’ problem, so that favorable adjustments could be facilitated. Certain measures based on facts can be adopted to solve students’ problems. Students may be given more attention an motivation thus enhancing their academic performance. This study determined the relationship of family and environment to the academic performance of second year students of high school in Santa Maria, Bulacan. The researcher wanted to know the factors that may affect the National Achievement Test performance of the respondents in terms of: technology, extra-curricular activities, media study habits, and motivational practices of the family. It is an attempt to find out if there are a significant relationship between the factors and the NAT performance of the respondents. The undertaking utilized triangulation approach, employing both quantitative and qualitative probes. Trough survey, the study dealt with the relationship of family and environment to the academic performance of second year students of Santa Maria public high schools in the National Achievement Test. Technology has a pivotal role in students research. There is a dominant usage of cell phones and internet among students. Most of the students are not involved in extracurricular activities. There is a massive consumption of TV among students. Radio and newspapers are not preferred media. The media provides minimal help in their studies. Students allot a small portion of their free time in doing their assignments and other school works. Internet and textbooks are of equal footing when it comes to information sources. Students receive support and encouragement from their family members as regard with striving harder to achieve better grades. Nevertheless, the lack of the tools on the part of the parents and siblings makes it impossible to maximize the level of support that the students receive. Technology, media, and study habits are said to have a direct causal relationship to the performance of the students in the National Achievement Test. It means that the more a value of the independent variable increase, the more it is likely to cause favorable results. On the other hand, there is an inverse causal relationship between the existing motivational practices of the students’ family.Based on the summary of findings, there has been a pattern on the preferences and the attitudes of the students of the four high schools in Santa Maria, Bulacan. Most of the students of these four public high schools are a picture of a typical medium-sized family from the lower to middle-lower income levels of the economic hierarchy. The participants schools did not perform well in the 2010-2011 National Achievement Test(NAT) for second year. Most of them are placed in the bottom half of the rankings.
Laman (2007) studied the secondary school head’s empowerment and teachers’ teaching performance when taken as a whole group and classified according to identified variables and their relationship to student’s performance in the National Achievement Test (NAT). Findings revealed that when the students were classified according to congressional district, the first district students outperformed the other students in the three subjects, English, Science and Mathematics with mean ratings surpassing the national average. ANOVA, however, showed no significant difference in the students’ NAT performance except in English, where there was significant difference.
Students from the town had higher mean ratings than the barangay students in English, Science and Mathematics subject in NAT. The results of t-test showed significant difference in NAT performance in English, Science and Mathematics when the students were classified according to school location.
Additionally, Akiri & Ugborugbo(2009) study determined the influence of teachers’ classroom effectiveness on students academic achievement in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. It was descriptive in nature and involved 979 teachers, made up of 450 males and 519 females, drawn from 72 out of the total of 361 public secondary schools inthe State by stratified random sampling technique. Academic achievement records of 50 students per teacher, whichis 48,950 students’ scores were also used. Two questionnaires and a rating scale were used to collect data for the study. Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.98 and 0.79 respectively were obtained from the two questionnaires used for the study. Four hypotheses were tested at the 0.05 level of significance using correlation, simple regression, t-test, and single factor analysis of variance. The results showed that effective teachers produced better performing students. However,the observed differences in students’ achievement were statistically not significant. This could be due to the influence of student and school environment related factors which were not included in this study. It was concluded that teachers’ effect is not the only determinant on students’ academic achievement.

Teachers’ Morale and Pupils’ Academic Achievement
Improved teachers’ morale has a positive impact on academic achievement of pupils. According to the result of study of Ames as cited Yisrael (2008) there is a positive correlation between teachers with high morale and pupils’ academic achievement.
Considering the multiple factors that may be important and may influence pupil’s achievement, the teacher is consistently a significant factor in determining pupil’s success (The Leadership and Learning Center, n.d.,). Porter-Magee (2004) discussed the lasting positive impact that good teachers have on pupils, as well as the lasting negative impact that poor teachers can have on pupils, while Goldhaber (2002) believed that providing pupils with good teachers is the most important things that a school can do. Wong and Wong (2005) stated that improving student achievement is simple—“Improve the teacher and you improve the pupils”.
If teachers have such potential to impact pupils, then teacher morale has the potential to affect pupils’ achievement. Among nine factors identified in research that affect pupil’s learning, pupil’s motivation and classroom learning morale are included, which seem likely to be influenced by teacher morale. Vail (2005) explained that while there is a lack of current research on the relationship between teacher morale and student achievement, it makes sense that satisfied teachers will perform better in their jobs than teachers who are dissatisfied. She stated that teacher attitudes affect pupil’s attitudes, and that schools with happy and productive adults will have happy and productive pupils. Teachers who feel good about themselves and their work are more likely to find ways to address the needs of all students, even those with learning or behavior concerns, and students and teachers alike want to be in this type of environment. According to the study conducted by Covington (2010), the effect teachers have on student achievement is perennial. Several factors contribute to declining teacher morale. Teachers have an insuperable amount of responsibilities and duties. Stress related to increased federal, state, and local demands, low pay, lack of administrative support, and heightened discipline problems, are all factors that contribute to low teacher morale. With the current economic state, job security is another heightened concern of teachers. The basis of this study suggests that morale is complex and affects a myriad of components in education. This concept, merged with student achievement, will be explored in this paper. The purpose of this research is to highlight major factors of teacher morale and determine whether there is a significant relationship between teacher morale and student achievement. The aim of this study is to understand and measure teacher morale as it relates to student achievement in one Fulton County middle school. First, a literature review attempts to define teacher morale, its major components, and its impact on student achievement. Second, an attempt was made to understand the role of school administrators and their impact on teacher morale. Lastly, the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) was used to measure student achievement. The results of the study showed that there was no correlation between teacher morale and student achievement using the CRCT scores. The study also found that there is no relationship between teacher morale and student proficiency (meets expectations or does note expectations) on the CRCT and no significant correlation between the teachers' level of education, teacher morale, and students' CRCT scores. The study did find that the following were major factors of teacher morale working conditions, level of belongingness, work load, student discipline, relationships with employees and employer, decision making procedures, and administrators' dispositions. Another study by Regis (2012) sought to determine whether teacher morale affected the standard of academic achievement at an urban denominational primary school in Trinidad and Tobago. Data were collected from 10 teachers through a questionnaire, as well as from the Secondary Entrance Assessment (SEA) examination scores at both the school and national level. Findings indicated that: 1) there was a low level of achievement at the school, 2) teacher morale was moderately positive, and 3) there was a weak positive correlation between teacher morale and student achievement, suggesting that high teacher morale would lead to high student achievement and vice versa.
Houchard (2005) also conducted a study to understand and measure principal leadership practices and teacher morale as it relates to student achievement in Mitchell County at two elementary schools, four middle schools, and one high school. First, a review of the related literature attempted to define teacher morale as much as possible given that it is an ever-changing individual characteristic. Second, the researcher tried to understand teacher morale and distinguish between high and low elements and characteristics of teacher morale. Third, the researcher examined the difficult task of measuring the morale of teachers in public education today. Fourth, an attempt was made to understand what role school leaders play in the development of teacher morale and how their specific behavior affects the morale of teachers. Lastly, student achievement was reviewed using the North Carolina End-Of-Grade tests. All of these variables were examined to determine if there was a connection or pattern to high or low student achievement based on teacher morale.This quantitative study was conducted using a survey-design method. The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire was used to measure factors contributing to teacher morale. The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) was chosen to measure leadership practices that best supports great accomplishments in organizations. The North Carolina End-Of-Grade/End-Of-Course tests were used to measure student achievement.Overall results for Mitchell County Schools showed that there was a moderately high level of teacher morale. Satisfaction with teaching led the way in contributing to higher morale whereas the issue of teacher salary was found to lower morale. School leaders in Mitchell County proved to inspire a common vision as well as encourage teaching from the heart more so than found in existing research. Teachers from two of the seven schools rated their principals higher in leadership practices than the principals themselves; this is contrary to presented research. Many significant relationships existed between perceived leadership practices and teacher morale factors. All factors of teacher morale as measured by the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire had a positive correlation with the End-Of-Grade/End-Of-Course test scores.

Analysis The foregoing related literature and studies have generated understanding and awareness of range of theories and concepts, related methodologies, and conceptual problems for the study, thereby giving it definitional clarity, investigative coherence, and relevant focus. Familiarity with the cited research methodologies and statistical treatment, contributed to the confirmation on the use of methodology for this study. Finally this review of literature includes several resources that show a link between teacher morale and academic achievement.
It is the purpose of this study to determine if this relationship is present in the specific population studied.

CHAPTER III
Methodology
This chapter discusses the research design, respondents of the study, locale of the study, data gathering instruments, data gathering procedure and data analysis procedure.
Research Design A descriptive-correlational research design was employed in this study. According to Calmorin (2003), descriptive research describes the nature of the situation as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the causes of a particular phenomenon. Correlational research, on the other hand, involves collecting data in order to determine whether, and to what degree, a relationship exist between two or more quantifiable variables (Basillo, 2003). Accordingly, this study used the correlational approach to determine the relationship between teachers’ morale and pupils’ achievement in public elementary schools in the Division of Antique.

Locale of the Study This study was conducted in the 17 public elementary schools in southern part of the Division of Antique, namely: Bayo-Crispin Unica Memorial School from the District of Anini-y, Masayo Elementary School and Villaflor Elementary School from the District of Tobias Fornier, Maladog Elementary School and Tubeza-Marcaliñas Elementary School from the District of Hamtic North, Guintas Elementary School and Pu-aoElementary School from the District of Hamtic South, Atabay Elementary School and CanutoPefianco Science School from the District of San Jose, ABC Elementary School and Pangpang Elementary School from the District of Sibalom North, Ilabas Elementary School and Odiong Elementary School from the District of Sibalom North, Cadolonan Elementary School and Carawisan Elementary School from the District of San Remigio I, and Bugo Central School and Osorio I Elementary School from the District of San Remigio II. The site of the study is reflected in Figure 2 (Map of of Antique) presented below (google.com):

Respondents of the Study The respondents of the study were 165 permanent teachers from 17 public school elementary schoolsrandomly selected in southern part of the Division of Antique under the administration and supervision of the Schools Division Superintendent. Sample Size and Sampling Technique. The sample size of teachers and pupils in this study were determined using the Gay’s formula. To ensure that all parts of the population are represented in the sample, a stratified random sampling was implied in this study. The public elementary schools were group according to districts, from each district 10% of the total schools were selected using simple random (fishbowl) sampling technique.
On the other hand, all teachers from 17 out of the 168 public elementary schools in of southern part of the Division of Antiquewere involved as respondents of the study. Table 1 shows the distribution of the respondents by school.

Table 1
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Distribution of Respondents by School
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Name of School N
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1. Bayo-Crispin Unica Memorial School 5 2. Masayo Elementary School 8 3. Villaflor Elementary School 12 4. Malandog Elementary School 14 5. Tubeza-Marcaliñas Elementary School 6 6. Guintas Elementary School 12 7. Pu-ao Elementary School 6 8. Atabay Elementary School 21 9. Canuto B. Pefianco Science Elementary School 12 10. ABC Elementary School 12 11. Pangpang Elementary School 10 12. Ilabas Elementary School 7 13. Odiong Elementary School 6 14. Cadoldolan Elementary School 6 15. Carawisan Elementary School 6 16. Bugo Central School 15 17. Osorio I Elementary School 7
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Total 165

Data Gathering Instruments This study utilized a published-standardized instrument for data collection, the Perdue Teacher Opinionaire validated by experts in the field of education. The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire (PTO). To ascertain the level of teacher’s morale among public school teachers, the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire (PTO) Rempel& Bentley (1980) was used.
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The PTO consists of 100 questions which relate to ten factors of teacher’s morale and are ranked on a 4 point Likert scale. These factors of teacher’s morale were identified in the following items in the scale:
Factor Title: Questions:
Rapport with Principal 2, 3, 5, 7, 12, 33, 38, 41, 43,
44, 61, 62, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 92, 93, 95.
Satisfaction with Teaching 19, 24, 26, 27, 29, 30, 46, 47,
50, 51, 56, 58, 60, 76, 78, 82, 83, 86, 89, 100.
Rapport among Teachers 18, 22, 23, 28, 48, 52, 53, 54, 55, 77, 80, 84, 87, 90.
Teacher Salary 4, 9, 32, 36, 39, 65, 75.
Teacher Load 1, 6, 8, 10, 11, 14, 31, 34, 40, 42, 45.
Curricular Issues 17, 20, 25, 79, 88.
Teacher Status (in the community) 13, 15, 35, 37, 63, 64, 68, 71.
Community Support for Education 66, 67, 94, 96, 97.
School Facilities and Services 16, 21, 49, 57, 59.
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Community Pressures (expectations) 81, 85, 91, 98, 99. The instrument require the respondents to rate themselves of how they feel about their work as a teacher and various school problems in their particular school situation as: 4-agree, 3-probably agree, 2-probably disagree, and 1-disagree. Twenty-six (26) items were stated negatively in the instrument and were scored in reverse. These items were 1, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 14, 18, 25, 30, 31, 34, 40, 42, 45, 54, 56, 60, 71, 72, 76, 79, 81, 85, and 98, 99. In these items the scale is reversed 4, 3, 2, and 1 with Disagree=4 to Agree=1.Therefore, mean scores for each factor may range from 1.0 to 4.0. Data on Pupil’s Academic Achievement. Data on pupils’ academic achievement (NAT overall rating) of respondent public elementary school were taken from the data filed in the Office of the Principal/Head Teacher of the respondents’ school through a written request made by the researcher.

Validation of the Instrument
The questionnaire-checklist on teacher’s morale used in this study underwent a content validation by a jury composed of five members. This jury was requested by the researcher to validate the items in the questionnaire by writing before each item options: Include, Improve, or Exclude.
The researcher then examined the responses and after which the ratio of the positive responses were computed for each item using the formula describe on the next page:

Σx AR = X 100 N where: AR = Agreement Ratio (the ratio of positive responses to the total number of persons who validated the instrument)

Σx = sum of positive responses

N = total number of jury members

To determine the validity of the instrument, the agreement ratio was computed. Items with an agreement ratio of 80% and above were accepted and included in the final draft of the instrument while items with an agreement ratio of below 80% were excluded. Items that were rated by the jury members as Improve were revised based on the suggestions given.

Data Gathering Procedure Permission to conduct the study will be sought from the Office of Schools Division Superintendent, Department of Education (DepEd), Division of Antique and from the Office of Principal in which the elementary school teachers were presently teaching. The research instrument was personally administered by the researcher to the 165 respondents in 17 public elementary schools randomly selected in the southern districts of the Division of Antique. The researcher allotted one week time allowance for the respondents to answer the research instrument. After one week, the researcher personally retrieved them. Before leaving every school, the researcher checked the quantity as well as reviewed the completeness of entries in each accomplished instrument. Accordingly, the pertinent data obtained were subsequently tabulated, computer processed, analysed, and interpreted.

Data Analysis and Procedure The data gathered will be computed and the results were subjected to certain computer-processed statistical tests: Mean. To determine the level of teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement, mean was used. The following scales of means were utilized for interpretation. For Teachers’ Morale Scale Description 3.25 – 4.00 Very High 2.50 – 3.24 High 1.75 – 2.49 Low 1:00 – 1.74 Very Low For National Achievement Test overall rating, the interpretation was based on the mastery level descriptive equivalent found on the individual certificate of rating: Scale Description 96% - 100% Mastered (M) 86% - 95% Closely Approximating Mastery (CAM) 66% - 85% Moving Towards Mastery (MTM) 35% - 65% Average Mastery (AM) 15% - 34% Low Mastery (LM) 5% - 14% Very Low Mastery (VLM) 0 – 4% Absolutely no Mastery

Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation (Pearson r). Pearson r will be used to determine the significant relationship between teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement in public elementary schools. All statistical computations were processed through the Data Analysis of Microsoft Excel Software Version 2003.

CHAPTER IV
Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data This chapter presents the findings and analyses of the data which were used to answer the problems on teacher’s morale and pupils’ academic achievement in schools in the Southern part of the Division of Antique.

Level of Public Elementary School Teachers’ Morale The level of morale of public elementary school teachers in terms of rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curricular issues, teacher status, community support for education, school facilities and services, and community pressures this study was determined by computing the mean scores. As revealed in Table 2, the public elementary school teachers in this study exhibited a “high” level of teacher’s morale with an obtained grand mean of 2.88. This result means that public elementary school teachers have high feeling of professional interest and enthusiasm toward the achievement of pupils and school goals in a given situation as affected by various factors of teachers’ morale. A careful scrutiny of the means in the dimensions of teachers’ moralein the same table reveals that only in terms of school facilities and servicesthe public elementary school teachers had “low” level of morale and all the rest have “high” level of morale, in terms of satisfaction with teaching and teacher status (M=3.14), community support for education (M=3.13), teacher rapport among teachers (M=3.07), teacher rapport with the principal (M=3.00), community pressures (M=2.88), curricular issues (M=2.86), teacher load (M=2.80), and teacher salary (M=2.77). This shows that teachers have affirmative feeling on the most factors that affects teachers’ morale except in terms of school facilities and services.
Table 2 presents the data.
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Table 2
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Level of Public Elementary School Teacher’s Morale

Teachers’ Morale Mean Description
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1. Rapport with the Principal 3.00 High

2. Satisfaction with Teaching 3.14 High

3. Rapport among Teachers 3.07 High

4. Teachers’ Salary 2.77 High

5. Teachers’ Load 2.80 High

6. Curricular Issues 2.86 High

7. Teacher Status (in the community) 3.14 High

8. Community Support for Education 3.13 High

9. School Facilities and Services 2.39 Low

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10. Community Pressures(expectations) 2.88 High
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------------------------------------------------- Entire Group 2.88 High
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Pupils’ Academic Achievement

For pupils’ academic achievement, the lowest mean is 51.89% while the highest mean is 84.95%. The average means score is 67.01 which falls under 66% - 85% described as “Moving Towards Mastery”. This result implies that the pupils performed around towards mastery of the competencies being taught to them as prescribed in Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Relationship between Teachers’ Morale Dimensions and Pupils’ Academic Achievement

This study is also aimed to determine the significance of the relationship between the dimensions of teachers’ morale in terms of rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teachers’ salary, teachers’ load, curricular issues, teacher status (in the community), community support for education, school facilities and services, and community pressures (expectations) and pupils’ academic achievement. Results of Pearson r show that positive and significant relationship existed between the dimensions of teachers’ morale in terms of rapport with the principal and pupils’ academic achievement, (r=.530, p < .05), satisfaction with teaching and pupils’ academic achievement
(r=278, p < .05), rapport among teachers and pupils’ academic achievement (r=.356, p < .05), teachers’ salary and pupils’ academic achievement (r=.184, p < .05), teachers’ load and pupils’ academic achievement (r=.156, p < .05), curricular issues and pupils’ academic achievement (r=.385, p < .05), teacher status (in the community) and pupils’ academic achievement (r=.219, p < .05), community support for education and pupils’ academic achievement (r=.193, p < .05), school facilities and services and pupils’ academic achievement (r=.179, p < .05), and community pressures (expectations) and pupils’ academic achievement, (r=.108, p < .05). These results imply that pupils’ academic achievement of elementary schools is dependent on all the dimensions of teachers’ morale, that is, the higher the level of the dimensions of teachers’ morale the higher the academic achievement of pupils. These findings find support to the result of the study conducted by Houchard (2005) that all dimensions of teachers’ morale have positive significant relationship with pupil’s academic achievement. Table 3 presents the data.

Table 3
Pearson r Results of the Relationship betweenTeachers’ Morale Dimensions and Pupils’ Academic Achievement

Morale Dimensions | Pupils’ Academic Achievement | | r-value | Two-tail Probability | 1. Rapport with the Principal 2. Satisfaction with Teaching 3. Rapport among Teachers 4. Teachers’ Salary 5. Teachers’ Load 6. Curricular Issues 7. Teacher Status 8. Community Support for Education9. School Facilities and Services 10. Community Pressures (expectations) | .530.278.356.184.156.385.219.193.179.108 | .000*.000*.000*.000*.000*.000*.000*.000*.000*.000* | *p < .05 (significant)

Relationship between Teachers’ Morale and Pupils’ Academic Achievement

This study finally aimed to determine the significance of the relationship between the teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement. Results of Pearson r show that positive and significant relationship existed between instructional behaviour of teachers and pupils’ academic achievement (r=.444, p < .05). This result means that academic achievement of pupils is influenced by teachers’ morale. This result affirmed the findings of Ames as cited by Yisrael (2008) and Regis (2012) that there is a positive correlation between teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement but contradicting the findings of Covington (2010). Table 4 presents the data.

Table 4
Pearson r Results of Teachers’ Morale and Pupils’ Academic Achievement

Pupils’ Academic Achievementr-value Two-tail ProbabilityTeachers’ Morale 0.444 .000* | *p < .05 (significant)

CHAPTER V
Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations

This chapter presents the summary of the findings, conclusions drawn, and the recommendations forwarded by the researcher.

Summary of Findings The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement in elementary schools in southern part of the Division of Antique for academic year 2012-2013. Specifically, this study sought answers to the following questions:
1. What is the level of teachers’ morale as in terms of rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curricular issues, teacher status, community support for education, school facilities and services, and community pressures?
2. What is the pupils’ academic achievement?
3. Is there a significant relationship between teachers’ morale in terms of rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curricular issues, teacher status, community support for education, school facilities and services, and community pressures and academic achievement?
4. Is there a significant relationship between teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement? This study was conducted from November 2012 to February 2013. The respondents were 165 teachers of 17 public elementary schools randomly selected in the southern part of the Division of Antique. Data for teachers’ morale were gathered with the use of adapted “Purdue Teacher Opinionaire” (PTO) developed by Rempel and Bentley (1980). On the other hand, the data on pupils’ academic achievement were obtained through National Achievement Test (NAT) results filed of in the office of the principal of the respondents’ school. Statistical tools employed in this study were mean and Pearson r set at 0.05 alpha level used as inferential statistics. All statistical computations were processed through the data analysis of Microsoft Excel Version 2003. The findings of the study were the following:
1. The teachers in public elementary schools in southern part of Division of Antique have “high” level of morale in terms of rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curricular issues, teacher status (in the community), community support for education, and community pressures (expectations).
2. The teachers in public elementary schools in southern part of Division of Antique have “low” level of morale in terms school facilities and services.
3. The academic achievement of pupils in public elementary schools in southern part of the Division of Antique in terms of the National Achievement Test overall rating was “moving towards mastery”.
4. Positive and significant relationship was found between teachers’ morale in terms of rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curricular issues, teacher status (in the community), community support for education, school facilities and services, and community pressures (expectations).
5. Positive and significant relationship between teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement.

Conclusions
In view of the foregoing findings, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. Teachers in public elementary schools in southern part of the Division of Antique possess a highly positive internal feeling or thought towards their principal’s professional competency, personal and interpersonal qualities; their relationships with other teachers regarding the work values; their relationships with pupils and feelings of satisfaction with teaching; their workload, extra-curricular load, and keeping up to date professionally for the benefit of the pupils; on the adequacy of the school program in meeting pupils’ needs, in providing for individual differences, and in preparing pupils for effective citizenship; their salaries and salary policies; and their prestige, security, and benefits afforded by teaching.
Furthermore, they have a strong belief on the extent to which the community understands and is willing to support a sound educational program, and on community expectations with respect to their personal standards, participation in outside-school activities, and freedom to discuss controversial issues in the classroom.
2. The teachers in public elementary schools in the southern part of the Division of Antique believed their school have inadequate facilities, supplies and equipment, and inefficient procedures for obtaining materials and services which affect their workplace in increasing pupils achievement and attaining the goals of the school.
3. The academic achievement of pupils in terms of National Achievement Test in the public elementary schools in southern part of the Division of Antique is moving towards mastery. This implies that pupils did not master some of the competencies required by the Department of Education not mastered.
4. All dimensions of teachers’ morale in terms of rapport with the principal, satisfaction with teaching, rapport among teachers, teacher salary, teacher load, curricular issues, teacher status, community support for education, school facilities and services, and community pressures have direct relation to the academic achievement of pupils in public elementary schools in the Division of Antique. This means that the academic achievement of pupils is dependent on the internal feeling or thought of teachers towards all the factors that influence their morale.
5. Teachers’ morale has direct relation to pupils’ academic achievement. This result implies that pupils’ academic achievement is dependent on the professional interest and enthusiasm of teachers toward the achievement of pupils and school goals in a given situation which generally called “morale”. In other words, the higher the morale of teachers, the higher the academic achievement of pupils.

Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are presented:
1. Considering the role of principals or school heads in improving the morale of teachers, the division planning committee should design programs and trainings among school heads on improving their professional competency, personal and interpersonal qualities which is vital in heightening the morale of teachers.
2. Results of the study indicated that support of the community for education and their expectations have something to influence the level of morale of teachers. Thus, it is recommended that the community should continue to support the programs and activities of any educational institutions particularly in public elementary schools.
3. Result of the study reveals that teachers’ morale is low in terms of school facilities and services. Thus, it is recommended that the Division of Antique should conduct further investigation on the adequacy of facilities, supplies and equipment, and efficiency of procedures for obtaining materials and services for planning and budget appropriation to improve school facilities and services for the benefit of teachers and pupils.
4. The public elementary schools in southern part of the Division of Antique fall short in meeting the standard of academic achievement set by the Department of Education. It is therefore recommended that elementary schools should strive to improve their present level of academic achievement in terms of their overall rating in the National Achievement Test. Stakeholders of the school should join hands to improve the quality and system of education that elementary schools are presently offering to provide pupils with the right education needed in shaping their bright future.
5. Teachers’ morale has something to do with the pupils’ academic achievement, thus, the Department of Education, Division of Antique is encouraged to whether by using the same survey tool that this investigation employed or through another means, assess and address teacher’s morale on an ongoing basis to help ensure that the school continues to make progress in the area of teacher’s morale.

Areas for Further Research
To substantiate other areas not covered by this present investigation, the researcher identified the following researchable areas that can be the focus of future studies to be conducted by other researchers and scholars:
1. A study on the influence of principals’ professional competency, leadership practices on teachers’ morale. 2. A comparative study on teachers’ morale and pupils’ academic achievement in public and private elementary schools in the Division of Antique. 3. An assessment of the K+12 curriculum towards improvement of pupils’ academic achievement. 4. An investigation of school facilities and services of public elementary and secondary schools in the Division of Antique: Implication to teachers’ morale and students’ academic achievement.

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Appendix A
Letter to the Officer-In-Charge
Office of Schools Division Superintendent

January 23, 2013

MR. JOHN ARNOLD S. SIENA
Officer-In-Charge
Schools Division Superintendent
Department of Education
San Jose, Antique

Sir:

I am presently conducting a study for my thesis titled “Teachers’ Morale and Pupils’ Academic Achievement in Elementary Schools,” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Education (Educational Management) at the University of Antique.

In this regard, I would like to ask your permission to administer my research instrument among the public elementary school teachers in randomly selected schools in Southern part of Antique.

Your kind support to this endeavor is highly appreciated.

Truly yours,

ELMER G. DORONILA, IV
(MEd Candidate)

Noted:

LEONARDO T. ZARAGOZA, Ph.D.
Adviser

Approved:

JOHN ARNOLD S. SIENA
Officer-In-Charge, Schools Division Superintendent
Appendix B
Letter to the Jury
January 13, 2012
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________

Sir/Madam:
I am presently undertaking the writing of my thesis titled “Teachers’ Morale and Pupils’ Academic Achievement in Elementary Schools,” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Education (Educational Management) at the University of Antique.
An essential part of this undertaking is the validation of my research instrument. Considering your expertise in test construction and research. I am earnestly requesting your kind assistance in the validation of the attached standardized questionnaire to be reliable for local setting. Kindly list down any suggestion and/or detected flaws on the instrument in terms of wording, format, and content. The options to be used in the evaluation of the instrument are ACCEPT (A), IMPROVE (I), or EXCLUDE (E). The items evaluated as Include and Improve should be included while items evaluated as Exclude will be totally rejected. However, if improve option is chosen, kindly indicate your suggestions in the blank provided.
Thank you very much for sharing with me your time and expertise.

Truly yours,

ELMER G. DORONILA
(MEd Candidate)

Noted:

LEONARDO T. ZARAGOZA, Ph.D.
Adviser
Appendix C

Letter to the Principal/School Head

January 24, 2013

___________________________
___________________________
___________________________

Sir/Madam:

I am presently conducting a study for my thesis titled “Teachers’ Morale and Pupils’ Academic Achievement in Elementary Schools,” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Education (Educational Management) at the University of Antique.

In this regard, I would like to ask your permission to administer my research instrument among the teachers in your school. I would like also to request you to provide me the National Achievement Test (Grade Six) overall rating result for school year 2011-2012 to be used in the said study.

Your kind support to this endeavor is highly appreciated.

Truly yours,

ELMER G. DORONILA, IV
(MEd Candidate)

Noted:

LEONARDO T. ZARAGOZA, Ph.D.
Adviser

Appendix D

Letter to the Respondents

January 24, 2013

___________________________
___________________________
___________________________

Sir/Madam:

I am presently conducting a study for my thesis titled “Teachers’ Morale and Pupils’ Academic Achievement in Elementary Schools,” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Education (Educational Management) at the University of Antique.

In this regard, I would like to solicit your help by being one of the respondents in this study.

Your kind support to this endeavor is highly appreciated.

Truly yours,

ELMER G. DORONILA, IV
(MEd Candidate)

Noted:

LEONARDO ZARAGOSA, Ph.D.
Adviser

Appendix F
Results of Jury Validation Item | Jury 1 | Jury 2 | Jury 3 | Jury 4 | Jury 5 | AR (%) | Remarks | 1 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 2 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 3 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 4 | A | I | A | A | I | 100 | Accepted | 5 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 6 | A | I | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 7 | R | A | A | A | A | 80 | Accepted | 8 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 9 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 10 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 11 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 12 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 13 | A | A | A | A | R | 80 | Accepted | 14 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 15 | A | A | A | A | I | 100 | Accepted | 16 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 17 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 18 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 19 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 20 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 21 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 22 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 23 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 24 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 25 | R | A | A | A | A | 80 | Accepted | 26 | I | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 27 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 28 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 29 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 30 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 31 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 32 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 33 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 34 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 35 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 36 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 37 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 38 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 39 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 40 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 41 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 42 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 43 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 44 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 45 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 46 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 47 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 48 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 49 | I | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 50 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 51 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 52 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 53 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 54 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 55 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 56 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 57 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 58 | A | A | A | A | R | 80 | Accepted | 59 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 60 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 61 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 62 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 63 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 64 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 65 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 66 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 67 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 68 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 69 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 70 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 71 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 72 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 73 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 74 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 75 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 76 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 77 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 78 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 79 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 80 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 81 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 82 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 83 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 84 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 85 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 86 | I | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 87 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 88 | R | A | A | A | A | 80 | Accepted | 89 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 90 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 91 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 92 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 93 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 94 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 95 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 96 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 97 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 98 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 99 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted | 100 | A | A | A | A | A | 100 | Accepted |

Legend:

A – Accept I – Improve E – Exclude

Appendix G
Research Instrument THE PURDUE TEACHER OPINIONAIRE
(Adopted from Bentley and Rempel,1980)

This instrument is designed to provide you the opportunity to express your opinions about your work as a teacher and various school problems in your particular school situation. There are no right or wrong responses, so do not hesitate to mark the statements frankly. Please do not record your name on this document.
Respond to questions below by circling the number based on the following rating scale:

4 – Agree 3 – Probably Agree 2 – Probably Disagree 1- Disagree 1. Details, “red tape,” and required reports absorb too much of my time. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 2. The work of individual faculty members is appreciated and commended by our principal. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 3. Teachers feel free to criticize administrative policy at faculty meetings called by our principal | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 4. The faculty feels that their suggestions pertaining to salaries are adequately transmitted by the administration to the Department of Budget and Management. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 5. Our principal shows favoritism in his relations with the teachers in our school. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 6. Teachers in this school are expected to do an unreasonable amount of record keeping and clerical work. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 7. The principal makes a real effort to maintain close contact with the faculty. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 8. Community demands upon the teacher’s time are unreasonable. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 9. I am satisfied with the policies under which pay raises are granted. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 10. My teaching load is greater than that of most of the other teachers in our school. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 11. The extra-curricular load of the teachers in our school is unreasonable. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 12. Our principal’s leadership in faculty meetings challenges and stimulates our professional growth. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 13. My teaching position gives me the social status in the community that I desire. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 14. The number of hours a teacher must work is unreasonable. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 15. Teaching enables me to enjoy many of the material and cultural things I like. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 16. My school provides me with adequate classroom supplies and equipment. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 17. Our school has a well-balanced curriculum. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 18. There is a great deal of griping, arguing, taking sides, and feuding among our teachers. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 19. Teaching gives me a great deal of personal satisfaction. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 20. The curriculum of our school makes reasonable provision for student individual differences. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 21. The procedures for obtaining materials and services are well defined and efficient. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 22. Generally, teachers in our school do not take advantage of one another. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 23. The teachers in our school cooperate with each other to achieve common, personal, and professional objectives. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 24. Teaching enables me to make my greatest contribution to society. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 25. The curriculum of our school is in need of major revisions. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 26. I love to teach. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 27. If I could plan my career again, I would choose teaching. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 28. Experienced faculty members accept new and younger members as colleagues. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 29. I would recommend teaching as an occupation to students of high scholastic ability. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 30. If I could earn as much money in another occupation, I would stop teaching. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 31. The school schedule places my classes at a disadvantage. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 32. Within the limits of financial resources, the school tries to follow a generous policy regarding fringe benefits, professional travel, professional study, etc. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 33. My principal makes my work easier and more pleasant. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 34. Keeping up professionally is too much of a burden. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 35. Our community makes its teachers feel as though they are a real part of the community. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 36. Salary policies are administered with fairness and justice. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 37. Teaching affords me the security I want in an occupation. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 38. My school principal understands and recognizes good teaching procedures. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 39. Teachers clearly understand the policies governing salary increases. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 40. My classes are used as “dumping grounds” for problem students. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 41. The lines and methods of communication between teacher and the principal in our school are well developed and maintained. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 42. My teaching load at this school is unreasonable. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 43. My principal shows a real interest in my department. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 44. Our principal promotes a sense of belonging among teachers in school. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 45. My teaching load unduly restricts my nonprofessional activities. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 46. I find my contacts with pupils, for the most part, highly satisfying and rewarding. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 47. I feel that I am an important part of this school system. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 48. The competency of the teachers in our school compares favorably with that of teachers in other schools with which I am familiar. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 49. My school provides the teachers with adequate audio-visual aids and projection equipment. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 50. I feel successful and competent in my present position. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 51. I enjoy working with pupil organizations, clubs, and societies. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 52. Our teaching staff is congenial to work with. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 53. My teaching associates are well prepared for their jobs. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 54. Our school faculty has a tendency to form into cliques. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 55. The teachers in our school work well together. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 56. I am at a disadvantage professionally because other teachers are better prepared to teach than I am. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 57. Our school provides adequate clerical services for the teachers. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 58. As far as I know, the other teachers think I am a good teacher | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 59. Library facilities and resources are adequate for the grade or subject area which I teach. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 60. The “stress and strain” resulting from teaching makes teaching undesirable for me. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 61. My principal is concerned with the problems of the faculty and handles these problems sympathetically | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 62. I do not hesitate to discuss any school problem with my principal. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 63. Teaching gives me the prestige I desire. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 64. My teaching job enables me to provide a satisfactory standard of living for my family. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 65. The salary schedule in our school adequately recognizes teacher’s competence. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 66. Most of the people in this community understand and appreciate good education. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 67. In my judgment, this community is a good place to raise a family. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 68. This community respects its teachers and treats them like professional persons | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 69. My principal acts interested in me and my problems. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 70. My school principal supervises rather than “snoopervises” the teachers in our school. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 71. It is difficult for teachers to gain acceptance by the people in this community. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 72. Teachers’ meetings conducted by our principal waste the time and energy of the staff | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 73. My principal has a reasonable understanding of the problems connected with my teaching assignment. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 74. I feel that my work is judged fairly by my principal. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 75. Salaries paid in this school system compare favorably with salaries in other systems with which I am familiar. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 76. Most of the actions of pupils irritate me. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 77. The cooperativeness of teachers in our school helps make our work more enjoyable. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 78. My pupils regard me with respect and seem to have confidence in my professional ability | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 79. The objectives of the school cannot be achieved by the present curriculum. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 80. The teachers in our school have a desirable influence on the values and attitudes of their students. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 81. The community expects teachers to meet unreasonable personal standards | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 82. My pupils appreciate the help I give them with their schoolwork. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 83. To me there is no more challenging work than teaching. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 84. Other teachers in our school are appreciative of my work. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 85. As a teacher in this community, my nonprofessional activities outside of school are unduly restricted. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 86. As a teacher, I think I am as competent as most other teachers. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 87. The teachers with whom I work have high professional ethics. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 88. Our school curriculum does a good job of preparing students to become enlightened and competent citizens. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 89. I really enjoy working with my students. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 90. The teachers in our school show a great deal of initiative and creativity in their teaching assignments. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 91. Teachers in our community feel free to discuss controversial issues in their classes. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 92. My principal tries to make me feel comfortable when visiting my classes. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 93. My principal makes effective use of the individual teacher’s capacity and talent. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 94. The people in this community, generally, have a sincere and wholehearted interest in the school system. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 95. Teachers feel free to go to the principal about problems of personal and group welfare. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 96. The community supports ethical procedures regarding the appointment and reappointment of members of the teaching staff. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 97. This community is willing to support a good program of education. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 98. Our community expects the teachers to participate in too many social activities. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 99. Community pressures prevent me from doing my best as a teacher. | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 100. I am well satisfied with my present teaching position | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 |

Appendix H
Profile of Jury Members 1. Dr. Esperanza F. Mission
Division Education Supervisor I
DepEd, Division of Antique

2. Dr.Ponciana B. Vegafria
Division Educaton Supervisor I
DepEd, Division of Antique

3. Mr.Fabian M. Niebre
District Supervisor
DepEd, District of San Jose

4. Mrs. Julia G. Magtiza
Elementary Principal II
Col. RupertoAbellon Memorial School

5. Mrs. Melba A. Hallado
Master Teacher I
Sibalom Elementary School

Appendix I
Curriculum Vitae
I. Personal Information Name: ELMER GRATIL DORONILA, IV Age: 30 Date of Birth: September 3, 1982 Place of Birth: Sibalom, Antique Civil Status: Married Religion: Roman Catholic Present Address: Apgahan, Patnongon, Antique

II. Educational Background Elementary: Sibalom Elementary School Sibalom, Antique

Secondary: Polytechnic State College of Antique Sibalom, Antique

Undergraduate Course: Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED) Polytechnic State College of Antique

III. Work Experiences

Executive Researcher Philippine Research Center International Mandaluyong, Manila April, 2004 – December 2004

Teacher I DepEd, District of Sibalom North October 2005 –February 2011

Master Teacher I DepEd, District of Sibalom North February, 2011 - present…...

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