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VOCATIONAL HIGHER SECONDARY
TEACHER’S SOURCE BOOK

COMPUTER SCIENCE
FIRST YEAR

Government of Kerala
Department of Education
SCERT - 2005-06
STATE COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING

Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram-12

Prepared by:
State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT)
Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram -12
Kerala
E-mail:scertkerala@asianetindia.com

Type setting by:
SCERT Computer Lab.

©
Government of Kerala
Education Department
2005

P REFACE
Dear Teachers,
Computer Science is concerned with the gathering, manipulation, classification, storage and retrival of knowledge. Understanding Computer
Science, is necessary because of its power and influence in modern society.
Learning of Computer Science should be activity based, process oriented, student-centred, environmental based and life oriented. The approach to learning is based on five domains of science: Knowledge domain, process domain, application and connection domain, domain of attitudes and values and creativity domain. But we know that most of the present vocational higher secondary teachers are not familiar with this paradigm. Hence for the first time we are introducing sourcebooks for all the subjects in the vocational higher secondary curriculum.
This source book for computer science aims to provide guidelines to the teachers of our state to change their pedagogy from the conventional content-based approach to the process oriented approach.
The source book has three parts: Part I gives you the general approach to the teaching - learning process of computer science.
Part II of the book details the activities that can be carried out to attain the curriculum objectives. Part III contains the sample questions of each unit.
We welcome suggestions for improvement as well as constructive criticism from practising teachers on the content and approach of this source book. With regards,
Thiruvananthapuram
25.11.2005

Dr. E. Valsala Kumar
Director
SCERT, Kerala

CONTENTS
Part I
I

General Approach ................................................................... 06

II.

Subject Approach .................................................................... 20

II

Strategies of Teaching and Learning ........................................ 28

III Curriculum Objectives ............................................................ 34
IV Syllabus and Contents ............................................................. 38
V

Planning ................................................................................... 50

VI Evaluation ............................................................................... 56
Part II
1

Principles of Data processing .................................................. 73

2

Data Representation ................................................................ 78

3

Computer system organisation ................................................. 84

4

Principles of programming ..................................................... 100

5

Programming in C++ ............................................................ 104

6

Computer Networks .............................................................. 130

7

Digital Electronics ................................................................. 136

8

Linux ..................................................................................... 140

Part III
Sample Questions .................................................................. 147

PART I

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

GENERAL APPROACH
Introduction
The ultimate aim of education is human refinement. Education should enable the learner to formulate a positive outlook towards life and to accept a stand which suits the well being of the society and the individual as well.
The attitude and potential to ‘to work’ has determined the destiny, progress and cultural development of the human race. As we all are aware, the objective of education to form a society and individuals having a positive work culture. The educational process expected in and outside our formal schools should concentrate upon inculcating concepts, abilities, attitudes and values in tune with these ‘work culture.’ Hence vocationalised education cannot be isolated from the main stream of education. In anthor sence, every educational process should be vocationalised.
However, due to our inability to utilise the resources wisely, scarcity of job oppurtunities is a severe issue of the present society. For overcoming this deep crisis, emergent techinques have to be sorted out and appropriate researches have tobe seriously carried out. It is in the sence that the content and methodology of vocational Higher Secondary Education have to be approached.
The Vocational Higher Secondary course was envisaged as a part of the National
Policy on Education with the noble idea of securing a job along with education. The relevance of Vocational education is very great in this age of un employment. This education system, which ensures a job along with higher education, stands aloof from other systems of education.
A learning enviornment which ensures vocational aptitude, vocational training, basic life skills, competencies related to different subjects, appropriate values and attitudes and existential readiness has to be provided here.
The curriculum should be one which recognises the specific personality of the learner and should develop it in a desirable way. It should provide opportunity to imbibe novel ideas to follow a ctritical approach and for learning through experiences.
The competency to transform ones own resources for the betterment of the society and the individual is to be ensured in each individual. Training in the sense of equality, democratic sense, enviornmental consiousness and devotion to the constitution is an inseparable factor of the curriculum.
The need of a systematic curriculum is prevailing in vocational subjects. A scientifically structured curriculum incorperating the unique features peculiarity of Kerala ensuring the possibility of higher education and utilising the national and international possibilities of employment is required.
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Computer Science

The new curriculum should be capable of assimilating the life skills, scientific temper, attitude of co-existence, leadership qualities and mental health to face the challenges of life. It should be capable of strengthening the competencies imbibed by the learners up to the tenth class.
A curriculum for selecting vocational areas according to the aptitude of the students, learning it in depth, acquire general awareness in the basic areas and to secure jobs has become the social need of the day. A learner centred, process oriented, need based vocational curriculum is envisaged.

What is learning?
Learning is construction of knowledge and so it is a live and continuous mental process. l
Learning is a process of advancement through adding and correcting in the light of comparing the new issue with the previously learned concepts. l Learning takes place as a part of the effort to solve problems. l Learning takes place by assimilating bits of knowledge into ones own cognitive structure. l
Learning is not a linear process. It is a spiral process growing deeper and wider. l Learning is an intellectual process rather than the mere memorisation of facts.
Learning is a conglomeration of a variety activities like problem analysis, elucidation, critical thinking, rational thinking, finding out co-relations, prediction, arriving at conclusions, applications, grouping for other possibilities and extracting the crux. When opportunities are proviced for intellectual processes learning will become effective and intellectual ability will get strengthend. Theoretical foundations of learning l Education is the best device that can be adopted for creation of a new society. It should be democratic in content and process and should acknowledge the rights of the learner. It should also provide opportunity for better citizenship training. The concept of equality at all areas should get recognition in theory and practice.
There should be consious programme of action to develop nationality, humaness and love and against the enchroachment of the sectarianism of caste and religion.
The learner should be able to take firm steps and deferred against the social crisis like privatisation, liberalisation, globalisation etc and against all kinds of dominations. They should develop a discrimination to use the acquired learning as a liberative weapon.
They should be able to view education and life with the perspective of social well being. 6

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

They should get opportunity to recognise that co-operation is better than competition and that co-operation is the key to social life and culture.
A basic awareness of all the subjects needed for life essential for all students.
The remnants of perspectives formed in us during the colonial period still influence our educational philosophy. The solution to the present day perplexities of the society which approaches education on the basis of competitions and marketisation is only a comprehensive view of life.
It is high time that education was recognised on the basis of the philosophy of human education. The human approach to education has to reflect in its content, learning process and outlook. The perspective of ‘learning to be ‘ and learning to live together as expressed by the UNESCO and the concepts of existentialist intelligence intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence.
The basis of new approaches on curriculum, teaching- learning process are derived from the developments place in the east and west of the world.
When we begin to see the learner at the centre of the learning process, the teaching process has to be changed timely. It is the result of the rapid growth and development of Science and Technology and Pedagogy. If we want to undergo the changing process, we have to imbibe the modern hypothesis regarding learner, they have;











Great curiosity
Good imagination
Numerous other qualities and interests
Independent individuality
Interest in free thinking and working in a fearless atmosphere.
Have interest in enquiring and questioning.
Ability to reach conclusions after logical thinking. ability for manifest and establish freely the conclusions arrived at.
Interest for recognition in the society.
Determination to face the interference of society and make components which is a part of social life.


When we consider the learning system, the domains to be stressed in education according to the modern development becomes relevant.
The knowledge domain consists of




8

Facts
Ideas
Laws
The temporary conclusions and principles used presently by scientists.

Computer Science

The learning is a process. The continuous procedures we undergo to reach a particular goal is process. The skills which are parts of the process to analyse the collected ideas and proofs and come to a conclusion is called process skills. Some important process skills are, the skills;









To
To
To
To
To
To
To

observe collect data and record classify measure and prepare charts experiment predict recognise and control the variables

To raise questions








To
To
To
To
To
To

generalise form a hypothesis and check. conclude communicate predict and infer use tools.

Observation is the process of acquiring knowledge through the senses. It is purely objective oriented. Learning experiences which provide the opportunity to use all the senses may be used.
The process of grouping is known as classifying. Starting from simple groupings of data, it can extend to the level of classification into minute sub-groups.
In addition to this, consider the skills related to creative domain also, they are skills:








To
To
To
To
To
To

visualize connect facts and ideas in new ways findout new and uncommon uses of objects fantasize dream develop creative isolated thoughts

Creativity is an essential component of process and activities. The element of creativity is involved in finding out problems, formation of hypothesis, finding ‘solutions’ to problems etc. Through activity oriented learning experiences, opportunities to express creativity can be created.
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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

Again, the following factors consisting in the Attitudinal domain are also important as; •






Self confidence
Love for scientific knowledge
Attitude to know and value history
Respect human emotions
Decide with reasonable present problems
Take logical decisions ragarding personal values

‘Hypothesis’ is a temporary conclusion drawn using insight. Based on knowledge and experiences relating to the problems the causes and solutions can be guessed.
As regards the application domain the important factors are the ability to:






observe in daily life examples of ideas acquired. take the help of scientific process to solve the problems of daily life. choose a scientific life style connect the ideas acquired with other subjects. integrate the subjects with other subjects.

Some basic stands have to be taken on the new scientific knowledge about intelligence learning and teaching. When such basic concepts are accepted changes are required in the following factors. l l l l

The vision, approach, structure and content of the curriculum.
The vision, approach, structure and content of the textbooks.
Role of the teacher and the learner.
Learner atmosphere, learning materials and learning techniques.

Some scientific pespectives accepted by modern world in educational psychology are given below.
Constructivism

This approach puts forward the concept that the learner constructs knowledge. New knowledge is constructed when ideas are examined and practiced in new situations relating them with the previously acquired knowledge and experience. That is assimilated into the congnitive structure of one’s knowledge. This method which gives priority to critical thinking and proble solving provides opportunity for self motivated learning.
Social Constructivism

Social constructivism is a sub section of constructivism. Knowledge is formed, spread and imbibed and it becomes relevant in a social enviornment. Interactive learning , group learning, co-operative participatory learning, all these are concepts put forward by social constructivism.
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Computer Science

The main propounders of constructivism are piaget, vygotsky and Bruner.
Discovery learning and interactive learning have prime importance. Learning takes place as a part of the attempt for problem solving. The activities of a learner who confronts cognitive disequilibrium in a learning situation when he tries to overcome it is leades to the renewal of cognitive structure. It is through this process construction of new knowledge and the assimilation of them that learning take place. Observation and enquiry are unavoidable factors. The learner advances towards new areas of acquisition of knowledge where he tries to compare his new findings with the existing conceptions. Learning is a live mental process. Rather than the ability for memorisation of facts cognitive process has to be given emphasis. The process of problem analysis, elucidation, critical thinking, rational thinking, finding out co-relation, prediction, hypothesis formation, application, probing for other possibilities, extracting the crux and other processes are of critical importance in learning.
Constructivism gives greater predominonce to co-operative learning. Social and cultural factors influence learning. Sharing of knowledge and experience among learners, collective enquiry, assessment and improvement, group activity and collaborative learning, by sharing responsibilities with the objective of public activity, provide opportunity for effective learning.
In learning internal motivation is more important than external motivation. The learner should have interest and initiative in learning. Learning situation should be capable of forming a sense of ownership in of the learner regarding the learning process. Learning is not a linear process. It progresses in a spiralled way advancing deeper and wider.
Learner-his nature and features

The learners in standard XI has undergone a learner centered and process oriented learning experience up to X standard. He is adequately competent to select vocational subjects according to his aptitude and interest and to acquire higher education and profession as he wishes. The aspirations about future life is framed in this particular age foreseeing national and international job oppurtunities. Some of the peculiarities of the learner at this stage are: l l

l l l l Physical, intellectual an emotional planes are intensive changes during this age and their reflections can be observed.
Ability to enquire, discover and establish cause-effect relationship between phenomena. Readiness to undertake challenges.
Capacity to shoulder leadership roles.
Attempt to interprest oneself.
Susceptibility to different presseures.
10
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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE l l

Doubts, anxities and eagerness about sex.
Longing for social recognition.

Needs of the learner l l l l

To make acquaintance with a job through vocational education.
To acquire more knowledge in the concerned area through higher education.
To recognise and encourage the peculiar personality of the later adolescent period. To enable him to defend against the unfavourable circumstances without any help Role of the Learner














Active participant in the learning process.
Acts as a researcher
Sharer of information
Sharer of responsibilities
Collects information
Takes leadership
Involves in group work
Acts as a co- participant
Observes his environment
Experiments and realises
Makes interpretations and draws inferences.

Role of the Teacher

The













12

teacher should; consider the ‘Stress and strain’ of the teenagers understand the socio- economic and cultural background of the students. promote and motivate the students to construct knowledge. arrange proper situations to interact in and outside of the classroom. guide the students by explanations, demonstrations etc. promote opportunity for co-operative learning and collaborative learning. facilitate interpersonal and intra-personal interactions. act as a democratic leader. act as a problem solver effectively guide the students for the selection and conduct of various continuous evaluation elements. continuously evaluate the progress of the learners. gives scaffolding/support wherever necessary. motivate for learning

Computer Science


















promote divergent thinking. act as a democratic group leader. act as a co-learner gives variety of learning experiences. be a constant student facilitate for reference/data collection have a clear under standing about the age, needs, peculiarities, abilities, nature, aptitude etc. of the learner. have the ability to motivate the learner in order to acquire and enrich their knowledge. be a guide to the learner in developing insights and creating responses on current affairs. be capable to lead the learner into a variety of learning methods and process based on curricular objectives. be a link between school and community. be a good organiser, guide, friend, philosopher and co-learner. have an inter disciplinary approach in learning activities. be able to guide the learner in his/her career prospects based on his interest aptitude and ability. be impartial and democratic. provide ample experiences to attain the basic values and objectives of the curriculum. •
New Concepts of Learning
1.

Discovery Learning-

The teacher has to create a motivating atmosphere for the learner to discover concepts and facts, instead of listening always. Creating occasion to progress towards discovery is preferred. Instead of telling everything before and compelling to initiate the models, situations are to be created to help the children act models as themselves.
2.

Learning by discussion

That discussion leads to learning is Burner's theory. Here discussion is not opposing each other. It is a sharing on the plane of ideas. New ideas are arrived at by seeking explanations, by mutual giving and taking of ideas and by problem solving.
3.

Problem solving and learning

Only when the learner feels that some thing is a problem to be solved that he takes the responsibility of learning it. It is an inborn tendency to act to solve a problem that causes cognitive disequilibrium in a particular area. It is also needed to have confidence that one is capable of doing it. The problems are to be presented in consideration of the ability and level of attainment of the learner.
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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

4.

Collaborative learning

This is the learning in which the responsibilities are distributed among the members of the group keeping common learning objectives. The common responsibility of the group will be successful only if each member discharges his duties. All the members will reach a stage of sharing the result of learning, equally through the activity with mutual understanding. The teachers who arrange collaborative learning will have to make clear the responsibilites to be discharged. This is possible through the discussion with the learners. Collaborative learning will help to avoid the situations of one person working for the whole group.
5.

Co-operative learning

This is the learning in which the learners help one another. Those who have more knowledge, experience and competency, will help others. By this exchange of resources the learners develop a plane of social system in learning also. As there are no high ups and low ones according to status among the learners they can ask the fellow students doubts and for helps without any hesitation or in hesitation
Care should be taken not to lead this seeking of help to mechanical copying. It should be on the basis of actual needs. So even while encouraging this exchange of ideas among the members of the group cautions acceptance is to be observed as a convention. There should be an understanding that satisfactory responses should come from each member and that the achievement of the group will be assessed on the basis of the achievement of all the members
6

Zone of Proximal Development

Vygotsky observes that these is a stage of achievement where a learner can reach by himself and another higher zone where he can reach with the help of his teachers and peers and elders. Even though some can fulfil the learning activity by themselves there is the possibility of a higher excellence. If appropriate help is forth covering every learner can better himself.
7

Scaffolding

It is natural that the learner may not be able to complete his work if he does not get support at the proper time. The learner may require the help of the teacher in several learning activities. Here helping means to make the learner complete the activity taking responsibility by himself. The teacher has to keep in mind the objective of enabling the learner to take the responsibility and to make it successful.
8

Learning: a live mental process

Learning is a cognitive process, only a teacher who has an awareness as to what the cognitive process is alone can arrange learning situations to the learner to involve in it. Learning can be made effectively and intellectual sharpness can be improved by giving opportunity for the cognitive processes like reminding, recognising compromising , co- relating, comparing, guessing, summarising and so on. How is cognitive process considered in language learning? Take guessing and prediction
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Computer Science

for example. l l l l l l

l l l l l l 9

Guessing the meaning from the context.
Guessing the content from the heading.
Predicting the end of the story.
Guessing the incident, story from the picture.
Guessing the facts from indications. and other such activities can be given the following activities can be given for the cognitive process of summarisation.
Preparation of blue print.
Preparation of list.
Preparation of flow chart.
Epitomising in one word.
Giving titles and so on.
Symbols, performance of characters indications, lines of a poem, tables, pictures, concepts, actions, body language and such things can be given for interpretation.
Process based language given for interpretation. Process based language learning has to give prime importance to the cognitive process.

Internal motivation

Internal motivation is given more importance than external motivation. The teacher has to arouse the internal motivation of the learner, A person internally motivated like this alone can immerse in learning and own its responsibility. How motivating is each of the activities is to be assessed.
10

Multiple intelligence

The Theory of Multiple Intelligence put forward by Howard Gardener has created a turning point in the field of education. The National curriculum document has recommended that the curriculum is to be designed taking into consideration of this theory.
Main factors of the intellect :
1.

Verbal/linguistic Intelligence -

Ability to read and write, making linguistic creations , ability to lecture competence effective a communication , all these come under this . This can be developed by engaging in language games and by teaching others.
2.

Logical /mathematical Intelligence

Thinking rationally with causes and effect relation and finding out patterns and relations come under this area, finding out relations and explaining things sequential and arithmetical calculations are capable of developing this area of intelligence.

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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

3.

Visual /spatial Intelligence

In those who are able to visualise models and bringing what is in the imagination into visual form and in philosophers, designers and sculptors this area of intelligence is developed. The activities like modelling using clay and pulp, making of art equipments, sculpture, and giving illustrations to stories can help the development of this ability.
4

Bodily Kinaesthetic Intelligence

The activities using body language come under this. This area of intelligence is more developed in dancers and actors who are able to express ideas through body movements and in experts in sports, gymnastics etc.
5

Musical Intelligence

This is an area of intelligence which is highly developed in those who are able to recognise the different elements of music in musicians and in those who can here and enjoy songs. Playing musical instruments, initiating the songs of musicians, listening silently to the rhythms and activities like this are capable of developing this area of intelligence.
6 Interpersonal Intelligence

Those in whom this area of intelligence is developed show qualities of leadership and behave with others in a noble manner. They are capable of understanding the thought of others and carrying on activities like discussion successfully.
7 Intrapersonal Intelligence

This is the ability to understand oneself. These people can recognise their own abilities and disabilities. Writing diaries truthfully and in an analysing way and assessing the ideas and activities of others will help developing this areas of intelligence 8

Naturalistic Intelligence

A great interest in the flora and fauna of the nature, love towards fellow beings interest in spiritual and natural factors will be capable of developing this area.
9.

Existential Intelligence

The ability to see and distinguish ours own existence as a part of the universe, ability to distinguish the meaning and meaninglessness of life, the ability to realise the ultimate nature of mental and physical existences, all these are the peculiarities of this faculty of intelligence.
Emotional Intelligence

The concept of emotional intelligence put forward by Daniel Golman was used in framing the new curriculum. The fact that one’s Emotional Quotient (E.Q) is the greatest factor affecting success in life is now widely accepted. The teacher who
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Computer Science

aims to focus on improving the emotional intelligence of students need to concentrate on the following.
i) Ability to take decisions
Rather than imposing decision on students while planning and executing activities, the students may be allowed to take part in the decision making process. Taking decisions through open discussion in the class, inviting students suggestions on common problems etc. are habits to be cultivated. ii) Ability to reach consensus l When different opinions, ideas and positions arise the students may be given the responsibility to reach a consensus. l Imaging what would be the course of action in some situtations, allowing to intervene in a healthy way in problems between individuals. iii) Problem solving l Developing the idea that there is reason and solution to any problem. l Training in finding reasons for problems. l Suggesting solutions through individual or group efforts. l Discussing social problems. l Analysing the shortcomings in methods to solve problems.
Whether plastic can be banned within school premises can be given as a problem.
Group discussion will provide reasons and solutions. Problems which can influence classroom learning and for which the learner can actively contribute solutions need to be posed. l l l Self criticism, evaluation
Ability to face problem-situation in life
Thinking what one would do if placed in the situation of others, how one would respond to certain experiences of others - All these foster the growth of emotional intelligence. iv) Life skills
Life skills need to be given a prominent place in education. W.H.O. has listed ten skills required for success in life. l l l l l l l l

Self awareness
Empathy
Inter personal relations
Communication
Critical thinking
Creative thinking
Decision making
Problem solving
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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE l l

Copying with emotion
Copying with stress

The new curriculum addresses these areas.
Knowing the characteristics of the learner, role of the teacher and how to use the teachers handbook help the teacher to plan and effectively implement learning activities. Objectives of the Vocational Higher Secondary Curriculum. l l

l l l l l l l l l

l

To facilitate higher education while giving opportunity to enter in the field of employment. To develop enviornmental awareness, sense of national integration, tolerence and human values so as to ensure social and cultural improvement.
To enable the learner to find on his own employment.
To inculcate mental courage in the learner to face unfavourable situations.
To make human resource development possible.
To enable the learner to understand social problems and to react appropriately.
To develop the learner to identify and develop his own competencies.
To develop vocational aptitude, work culture and attitude in the learner so as to provide useful products and services to the society.
To create an awarenss about mental and physical health.
To acquire awareness about different job areas and to provide backgrounds for acquiring higher level training in subjects of interest.
To develop possibilities of higher education by creating awareness about common entrance examinations.
To provide situation for the encouragement of creative thinking and organising training programmes in each area, creative abilities and to develop artistic talents.

Nature of Approach
The learning device is to be organised in the selected vocational subjects in such a way that adequate practical experience should be given, making use of the modern technology. The development in each area on the basis of information technology is to be brought to the learner. The work experience in the respective fields(OJT, Field trip, Production/Service ..... training, Survey, Workshop, Exhibition, Youth festival,
Physical fitness etc.) are to be adjusted suitable to the learning and evalution process.
The participation and leadership of the students in planning and execution is to be ensured through this kind of activities. Social service is to be made a part of the course. Approach towards Vocational Higher Secondary Education
The learning methodology has to be organised so as the learning provide adequate practical thinking on the opted vocational subject utilising the new technology. The
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Computer Science

development of information technology should be made available in each sector.
Work experience, OJT, Field trip production, Service cum training centre, Survey,
Workshops, Exhibitions, Youth festivals, Physical fitness etc should be systematised well appropriate to learning and evaluation. Learner participation should be ensured in the planning and implementation of these activities. Social service should be a part of the course. If a learner has to change his school, he should be provided an oppurtunity to continue his studies in the new school. While considering criteria for admission to higher courses, grades of vocational subjects should also be given due weightage. In tune with the changes in the Vocational Higher Secondary
Education changes should be ensured in the field of higher education.
The teachers have to take special care in arranging learning activities for the development of all the faculties of intelligence.
Learning activities and learning atmosphere.
A proper learning atmosphere is essential for the betterment of learning activities.
They are: l l l l l l l Proper physical environment
Healthy mental atmosphere
Suitable social atmosphere
Active participation of PTA, Local bodies and SRG
Reference materials and visual media equipments.
Academic monitoring
School Resource Group (SRG)

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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

SUBJECT APPROACH
The main objective of Vocation Higher Secondary Education is to make a self reliance society who are capable of being self employed as well as to obtain higher studies.
As you know, Information Technology (IT) has been made a compulsory subject in high school classes and it has been included as one of the subjects for the SSLC examination.
It is the only subject which has practical examination.
So the students who have previous knowledge in working on computers. They have undergone various learner centred activities like assignments, project, lab work, seminar etc. for the learning of IT. So the teaching in Vocahonal Higher Secondary classes also should utilise such learner centred and process oriented methods which suit the constructive paradigm. What is a Constructivist Paradigm?
The method of teaching in which students are ‘told’ everything, activities are
‘explained’ and teachers teach the children everything, is very familiar and convenient for the teachers. But we have seen over the years that this cannot take all students to new heights of learning. Students will reach the higher levels of learning only if teachers follow an approach of continuous learning, planning the learning activities and sharing knowledge with the students as co-learner, co-researcher and facilitator.
What teachers should do is to arrange the facilities for the children to acquire knowledge by themselves and develop their creativity by involving in learning activities out of interest.
On the approach to education, NCERT observes that we need a shift from the traditional learning atmosphere to a climate of values that encourages exploration, problem solving and decision making and from the prescriptive classroom teaching to participatory, decentralised interactive group learning.
We have to follow a method in Computer Science that would make this possible. The contents of Computer Science in Std XI is fixed in such a way that this method is unavoidable.
The discussions in the class room take place with the active participation of students. They learn through individual work, co-operative group work, interaction with different materials and find solutions themselves for the problems posed to them. They evaluate themselves and directly apply the learned skills in new and challenging situations. This process helps the students to create knowledge by themselves upto their optimal level. The teachers have to give only scaffolding to go upto their ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development).
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Computer Science

Modern teaching philosophy respects teachers who give students a curriculum that stimulates thinking, freedom to select study methods and an opportunity to develop their own perspectives. They give more importance to the process than to the content. The above detailed approach is that of constructivism. Computer Science also has to be approached on the basis of this pedagogy. The constructivist pedagogy promotes various processes like: 1. Discovery learning

2. Inquiry learning

3. Co-operative learning

4. Collaborative learning

5. Interactive learning

6. Problem based learning

7. Activity-oriented learning

8. Project based learning

The above processes help teachers to make teaching learner-centred, locally specific and life-related. Possibilities for using the above techniques according to learning situation have to be tried out in the classroom. A set of such activities are given in the concerned chapters of this Source Book.

What are the changes needed in the role and approach of teachers and students? If the activities envisaged in the curriculum have to take place in the class room, teachers should take up the following roles as and when needed:

• An assistant who sympathetically solves the problems of students.
• A friend who simplifies learning activities.
• A group leader who shows by example the democratic methods.
• A co-learner who actively participates in learning activities.
Every teacher who wishes to behave well with children and to earn their love and respect should examine whether they are constantly playing the above roles.
What has been said here is about the attitude and approach the teachers should have towards their students. Now let us think about the policy and approach, teachers should have towards teaching and learning. Obviously, such policy and approach are to be transformed into learning activities. Good teachers

• Pay more attention to how their students learn, in addition to what they learn.
• Find learning also as a process.
• Give importance to learning to learn, self-learning and the construction of knowledge.
• Give prominence to learning instead of instructions.
• Accept the personality and initiative of the students and promote them.

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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

• Consider students to have will power and motivation.
• Encourage their natural inquisitiveness and desire to explore.
• Recognise the ways of thought, attitudes and mental makeup of students and accept them. In addition to these, the new curriculum visions the responsibilities of teachers as follows: • Diagnose the learning activities and provide suitable experiences or remediations.
• Plan and provide challenging situations.
• Continuously evaluate the progress of learners.
• Promote divergent thinking.
• Facilitate inter-personal and intra-personal interactions.
The new approach, also visions the learner in a new perspective. In the learner centered activity oriented pedagogy, the learner :



Activley participates in the learning process.



Acts as a researcher.



Shares information.



Shares responsibilities.



Collects information.



Leads a group.



Interacts in a group.



Works as a co-participant.



Observes environment.



Experiments.



Interprets and makes inferences.

In short, teachers provide sufficient opportunities for the students to think, guess, tryout, experiment, devise alternative ways, check, correct mistakes and produce outputs or arrive at conclusions.
Computer Science is a suitable subject to make use of all these teaching-learning strategies. This approach is helpful for meeting the objectives defined by UNICEF as the
‘four pillars of education’, namely, l earning to know, l earning to do, l earning to live together and l earning to be. Also remember that the NCERT has given a directive that the curriculum should stand on the three pillars of relevance, equity and excellence* .
In the background of this approach, let us examine how the learning methods mentioned in the beginning can be implemented in Computer Science.
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Computer Science

Inquiry and Discovery Learning
In inquiry and discovery learning, students learn as per the descriptions in the textbook and instructions/guidence of the teacher, finding out facts by themselves through various activities and comparing his/her own findings with others or those in the Internet. Discussing with another student about some features that he/she discovered, and the ways he/she used or the logic used while preparing a program, can also be considered as discoveries. While finding out each source of knowledge, the confidence and authenticity of the student develops. Co-operative Learning
The maximum possibility for co-operative learning exists in group learning activities.
A group using the same computer/tools or doing project activities together will help in cooperative learning. The student gets convinced about his/her own abilities and inabilities and to appreciate others, and to improve himself/herself. Co-operative and collective learning become possible and the students experience their advantages through sharing of experiences, seminars, projects and other group activities.

Interactive Learning
Shy students who withdraw into themselves in the classroom can be seen to take part with confidence in quiz and group discussions in Computer Science classes, especially when working in small groups. Discussion stimulates logical thinking, inquisitiveness and recognition. When a member of a group suggests an action, other members of the group are stimulated to look for a better or more logical way. Each student accepts the challenge to re-examine his/her own rationality by presenting different points of view and debating with others. Discussion need not necessarily be oral. It could be through leaflets, posters, reports, email, chatting and mail groups or through publications. IT thus provides opportunity for different kinds of interactions.

Activity Oriented Learning
Knowledge leads to activity and activity leads to new knowledge. This is a complementary process. Learning becomes practical, target-oriented and adaptable to different environments only when we learn through activities. Product or result, is a natural consequence of any activity. Therefore, the learning process of Computer Science is activity oriented and product based. Through laboratory work, students acquire skills like ability to develop programs and debug source code; to achieve speed and precision; and to acquire values like co-operation, sharing mentality, self correction and mutual help. They acquire a number of life skills through doing projects, seminars, assignments and practicals. Out of these activities, project itself gives opportunity for a number of subsidiary activities.
Continuous evaluation strengthens activity based learning.

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Activity based learning continuously increases experiences and inquiry. When each new practical experience is added to earlier experiences, new understanding and knowledge are created. A properly planned learning activity:

• Ensures the participation of all students
• Guides the students to think actively and develop logical conclusions.
• Provides opportunities for self co-opeative and/or collabarative works.
• Uses and develops mental abilities of the students.
• Creates interest for self-learning and self-evaluation and peer-evaluation.
• Provides opportunities for various interactions with peers, learning-materials and teachers. • Provides chances for any student to succeed and to proceed up to his maximum level.
• Provides chances for teacher to support, guide and enrich the students.
• Raises challenges for enquiry, discovery and further learning.
The teachers’ success lies in designing such learning activities and giving them to the students. This sourcebook will be really helpful to you in this regard.

Collaborative Learning
Another method based on constructivist theory is ‘collaborative learning’. When all students together, or in small groups, carry out activities, they are able to solve problems and meaningfully complete learning better than when they do it individually. This finding is the basic principle of collaborative learning. Computer Science is a subject that gives ample possibilities for this kind of learning. This is a method that emphasises group thinking and collective knowledge. This requires changes in the roles of students and teachers and in how they interact.
In a class, where collaborative learning takes place

• teachers and students mutually exchange knowledge.
• teachers share some authority and responsibility with the learners.
• teachers act as links between students and learning.
• students will be divided into mixed groups.
The teacher’s role in collaborative learning is as follows:

• Facilitates the activities of each child (facilitating).
• Shows necessary models (modelling).
• Gives training in certain areas (coaching).

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Computer Science

Students also have some responsibilities in collaborative learning. A student in a collaborative class,

• decides own learning target at each stage.
• takes up the responsibility for own study and completes it in a time-bound manner.
• evaluates own learning. At the same time, evaluates the performance of the group also.
• improves own learning, helps others.
In short it recognises the intrinsic talents of the learner; emphasises the thinking process; gives importance and opportunity for mutual interaction; accepts the role of society and culture in personality development; gives importance to discussion in learning; gives opportunity for self assessment and mutual assessment; encourages self learning. The teacher only prepares a scaffolding for learning. The rest has to be built up by students themselves.
The teacher acts as an intermediary of learning. She/He finds experiences that are most suitable for learning and prepares them. She/He accepts the learner’s grasping power, self determination ability and learning strategies.

Multiple Intelligence
The modern studies on intelligence are especially relevent to computer education.
The traditional view is that intelligence is hereditary and does not change. Because of this some students are considered to be deficient in logical thinking, mathematical operations and analytical skills and it is believed that such students cannot perform well in computer related subjects.
Modern theories however consider that given suitable environments, through continued efforts, students can improve the intelligence relating to the specific area.
According to the theory of Howard Gardner, human intelligence has different components and all these components are present in all individuals in different proportions. Some components may be more prominent in some individuals.

Components of Intelligence
1.

Verbal/linguistic intelligence

The abilities for reading, writing, verbal production, speaking and lecturing and communicating effectively belong to this type. This type of intelligence can be developed through activities such as teaching, seminar presenting, report writing etc.
2.

Logical/mathematical intelligence

Abilities like logical thinking and finding out patterns and relations belong to this component. This type of intelligence is developed through finding correspondences, ordered explanations and mathematical operations.

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3.

Visual/spatial intelligence
People with prominently visual/spatial intelligence will be able to design models and

execute ideas they have. Architects, designers and sculptors will be strong in this type of intelligence. Model building, making of art materials, digital painting and drawing, using and developing graphical software, developing presentations with animation will help this component development. 4.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
This is related to the ability to move various parts of the body. Dancers, actors, sports

people and gymnasts who can more the body aesthetically and express emotions through body movement belong to this category. Activities involving dance, aerobics, sports and games help the development of this type of intelligence. In computer education, typing skill, mouse movement skills etc. will be more in those who have this kind of intelligence.
5.

Musical Intelligence
It is belived that this type of intelligence is highly developed in people with the ability to

distinguish the different elements in music, performing musicians, people who can humtunes and those who can appreciate music. Playing musical instruments, singing along with others, keeping rhythm etc. are activities that help the development of this component.
6.

Interpersonal Intelligence

People who demonstrate leadership qualities and are able to interact in a positive way with others will have a better developed interpersonal intelligence. They can understand the thinking of others intelligence. They can understand the thinking of others and can successfully involve in negotiation activities. Role play and group activities can be used to cultivate this intelligence.
7.

Intra Personal Intelligence

This is essentially the ability to understand oneself. Such people will have the ability to understand their abilities and shortcomings. Analytical diary writing, assessment of ideas and activities of others and assignments can help the growth of this factor.
8.

Naturalistic Intelligence

This is characterised by deep interest in nature and the flora and fauna, love for fellow beings, interest in spiritual and naturalistic phenomena. This component can be strengthened through nature study and enjoying the beauty of nature.
Gardner speaks about another dimension of intelligence - existential intelligence.
But this has not been elaborated sufficiently. The teachers may ensure that learning activities that cater to all the components of intelligence are provided to the students.

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Computer Science

Emotional Intelligence and EQ
Recent researchers say that there is evident of having another area of intelligence and it is the emotional intelligence. Mr. Daniel Goleman and some others have developed devices for measuring the emotional intelligence. The emotional quotient (EQ) is more relevant than the IQ in the process of learning and development.
The fact that ones Emotional Quotient (E.Q) is the greatest factor affecting success in life is now widely accepted. The teacher who aims at improving the emotional intelligence of students need to concentrate on the following.
i)

Ability to take decisions

Rather than imposing decision on students while planning and executing activities, the students may be allowed to take part in the decision making process. Taking decisions through open discussion in the class, inviting students' suggestions on common problems etc. are habits to be cultivated.

ii) Ability to reach consensus
When different opinions, ideas and positions arise the students may be given the responsibility to reach a consensus. Imagining what would be the course of action in some situtations, allowing to intervene in a healthy way in problems between individuals will help the students to reach consensus.

iii) Ability to solve problems
Teacher should make the students aware of the fact that any problem will have a solution. Students are to be given chances for:






finding reasons for problems. suggesting solutions through individual or group efforts. discussing social problems. analysing the shortcomings in methods to solve problems.

Let us consider, for example, the following cases:
Whether the Information technology enhances or worsen the human abilities?
Is it necessary to learn and promote freesoftware?
Students should be given opportunity for group discussion and debate over these issues and let them come out with their own views and take decisions. This kind of discussions will help the children to experience:





self criticism and self evaluation problematic situations in life what one would do if placed in the situation of others
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how one would respond to certain experiences of others etc.

All these foster the growth of emotional intelligence.

Improving Life Skills
Life skills need to be given a prominent place in education. W.H.O. has listed ten skills required for success in life. They are:







Self awareness
Inter personal relations
Critical thinking
Decision making
Coping with emotion







Empathy
Communication
Creative thinking
Problem solving
Coping with stress

The new curriculum addresses these areas.

General Aims of Learning Computer Science
1.

To obtain job in the field of IT related and IT enabled services.

2.

To undergo higher education

3.

To develop skills for self learning, continuous learning and communicating the ideas and concepts in the field of computer science.

4.

To create interest among learners to study about computer science and undertake small learning projects for programming and research.

5.

To acquire self employment

6.

To develop skills for applying the knowledge of computer for learning other subjects and solving the problems of daily life.

4.

To develop skills for learning in a domestic knowledge based, exploitation free, digital world by participating in various learning activities in a co-operative, collective and creative way.

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Computer Science

TEACHING
AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
Learning Computer Science in the classroom takes place through activities like reading individually and in groups, discussion, debate, quiz, seminars, preparing notes, observation and program writing. Preparation for practical work also should take place in the classroom.
Preparation notes for laboratory work, programs and data are some of the things that have to be developed in the classroom before the practical work in the laboratory.
Among these, individual activities such as assignment and self-check questions given in the textbook could be done at home. But they have to be discussed in the classroom.
The students should also record such assignments in the notebook. The teacher should give clear instructions as to what are the activities to be done at home and how they could be done.
On the Job Training (OJT) and field visit have to be conducted and the report should be prepared by the studens. The teacher should give clear instruction to prepare reports.

Observation Book
The student who comes to the computer laboratory to do practical work should be clear about the work he/she intends to do. He/She should also know the steps for doing the job using a computer, the software to be used, how it has to be operated, what the product should be, what should be its specifications, and so on. If the student has an observation book with him/her in which these things are clearly written down, then the work in the computer laboratory will be very easy so that laboratory time can be effectively utilised.
The desired product will be correctly created. Corrections and modifications made in the programs/procedure/steps are to be recorded after obtaining the correct output. If possible, sample output(s) can be noted down.
Preparation for the laboratory work may be made at home or in the school. The students may be instructed to compare the notes they have prepared with those prepared by others and to rectify the defects if any. It will be possible to prepare the notes if the students just read the textbook carefully. Such notes will be helpful to try out later what they have learned now. These observation notes are records to be considered forcontinuous evaluation. How to conduct classroom discussions
Discussion is the most commonly used medium for communication. This is a very good activity that can be used in the learning process. Effective discussion will stimulate the intelligence of the child. It will make the absorption of knowledge easier. Discussion is
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neither merely asking questions and answering nor explanations given by teachers.
Classroom discussions will become effective only if it is systematically organised. The following points are to be considered while conducting a discussion.


There should be a problem or a question or a topic that requires clarification or a decision.



If possible, the topic of discussion should be informed in advance. Then the students get an opportunity to think about it and study.



Information about those who are interested in taking part in the discussion should be collected and everyone should be given an opportunity. This is not possible for discussions that are planned there itself. Then either each person can be given a chance, or those who express a desire at that time to take part can be given an opportunity. Those who keep quiet also should be brought forward by asking them to give their opinion or according to their turn.



If many people are participating in the discussion, strategies can be used to make effective use of the available time.



When everyone has to speak, speak briefly. Limit may be specified for time, number of points, or sentences. Write down the important points that are mentioned in the discussion. Repetition of the same points are to be discouraged.
Through this, methods of expressing ideas briefly, clearly and precisely may be familiarised. More than one round of discussion can be had if there is time.



It is good to have a chairperson to control the discussion.



Allow only one person to talk at a time and others should listen carefully. Some children may feel like responding during this time. But they should wait till they get their turn. They should participate in the discussion when they get an opportunity. Only good listeners can react properly.



One or two people can be given responsibility to write down the opinions
(prepare the minutes) that are raised during the discussion. Decisions and understandings arrived at in the discussion should be noted down. The chairperson should put his/her signature. Some of these things are in the nature of official discussions. Classroom discussions need not be that formal. Still, activities may be such that all procedures are familiarised.



Students should be trained to stick to the timing themselves.



Very different opinions may arise in the discussion. Responses should be healthy and in a democratic spirit. Opposition or support should be only to the opinion expressed and not to the person who expressed it. The discussion should be taken forward through mutual respect.

Debate
Debate is a ‘hot’ and interesting learning activity. A debate can be organised only on a topic on which there is difference of opinion. Therefore a topic suitable for debate has to be found.
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Computer Science

Debate can be on relevant topic that is different and interesting to the students and relevant to society. Students with different opinions have to be identified for the discussion.
Those who have similar opinion should join together to form a side. Those who hold the opposite view will form the other side. It would be good to write down the topic of the debate on the black board in advance. There should also be a person to control the debate.
Children should be given opportunity to absorb the ideas obtained from discussions and debates, develop the ideas through reading and study, and to express them through writing or other means. Only the opinions expressed in the discussions and debates need to be paid attention.

How to organise a quiz in the classroom
Quiz is an activity that is very much helpful for self-learning. Students should be instructed to read and classify the ideas, technical terms, methods of activity, definitions, different procedures, etc. discussed in the textbook. This can be given as an assignement to be done at home. Quiz can be conducted in different ways as follows:

Team Quiz
Divide the class into two equal teams. The teams may be named A and B, or one and two. The points they receive can be marked on the black board in two columns. Points may be given in different ways. For instance, a member from Team A asks a question aloud and a member of Team B is specified to answer the question. If he/she fails, this can be continued up to four other members. When all the five fail, anyone from Team B may answer. If no one from Team B answers the question, then the author of the question will have to give the answer and 5+ marks will be added to Team A (5 marks for defeating five students). If no one from Team B answers the question, then Team A gets one more ‘plus’ (Total 6+ marks) . If the first student answers correctly, then Team A gets no points. If the answer given by the student of Teacm A who asked the question is not correct, then also Team A gets no points. The next question is asked by Team B by which they can get their marks.
Team quiz can be conducted in another way also. Here, when a student asks a question, it is the teacher who identifies the student who has to give the answer. Therefore the teacher will control the quiz. In the other case, all questions will be directed towards the weaker children in the opposite team. This will spoil the interest in the quiz.
It may also be stipulated that only the children sitting next to the student who was first asked can be given subsequent chances to answer the question. Then also the above problem arises. That has to be avoided. The method and rules of conducting the quiz can be devised in consultation with the students.

Group Quiz
Divide the class into convenient groups. A group can consist of students sitting on one or two benches. Let group A ask a question and group B thinks and answers the
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question. In group quiz, marks go to the group that answers the question. If group B gives the correct answer they get 10 marks. Otherwise the question goes to group C. If group C gives the answer, then they get 8 marks. Like this the question can be passed to the subsequent groups and marks are given accordingly. Now group B gets its chance to ask the question and the above process can be continued.

Queue Quiz
Queue quiz is another form of team quiz. The students sit as two teams and the students in each team are numbered sequentially. The first student in Team A has to ask a question to the first student in Team B. If the student does not answer, then the others also can be asked in sequence. The team that asked the question will get marks according to the number of students in the other team who did not answer. Subsequently, the first student from Team B asks a question to the first student of Team A. This can be continued by each student of a team asking a question to the corresponding student of the other team. Thus everyone gets a chance to ask a question and to answer. Quiz can be arranged in many ways like this. If discipline and interest are maintained, quiz is a very good activity for learning. Reverse Quiz
This is the exact opposite of a quiz. Here the opposite group has to say what the questioner has in mind. Students are divided into teams or groups. The first group together thinks of the name of a software, a technical term, an activity or some such thing. The opposite team/group has to find out what it is through a maximum of ten questions. They can ask only questions that can be answered with ‘yes’ or ‘no’. If they succeed, then they get ten points, as in the case of group quiz. If they do not answer, then the next group can ask four more questions and find the answer, and they get four points. Otherwise, the next group gets the chance to find the answer through three more questions. If they succeed, they get three points, and so on. This is a game that develops the thinking and analytical skills of all the students.
For example, let us imagine that the quiz is based on the Unit 3 - 'Computer System
Organisation'. The first group thought of a hardware name. How will the opposite group find this out? They can do it through ask questions like:

1

Is it a hardware? (Ans: Yes)

2

Does it belong to I/O devices? (Ans: Yes)

3

Is it an input device? (Ans: Yes)

4

Is it a commonly used device? (Ans: No)

5

Whether it is used in evaluatioin process? (Ans: Yes)

6

Does it relate with examination process? (Ans: Yes)
(Now the group has obtained the answer as ‘Optical Mark Reader’ (OMR))

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For the special attention of the teacher while conducting a quiz
Any quiz could become a very competitive game. There could be arguments and noise. Therefore announce the rules well in advance. Instruct them to maintain sportsman spirit along with team spirit. The teacher may have to tactically intervene to ensure that the same team does not always find success. Only then can quiz be regularly conducted. What is important is whether everyone in the class is listening to and understanding the questions and answers, since this is a learning activity. The teacher should explain the questions and answers, as needed, and decide on points of argument. Only if the topic for the quiz (the relevant portion from the textbook) is decided in advance can the students come prepared with the necessary questions. The objective of the quiz is, naturally, to promote self learning in the students. The competitive nature of the quiz maintains the interest of the children; and also their team spirit. Even though this has a competitive nature, it is helpful also for collaborative and co-operative learning.

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CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES
Unit I Principles of Data Processing
1.

To identify data, processing and information through discussion and make information from data.

2.

To identify the components of data processing through discussion and prepare an assignment. 3.

To understand Electronic data processing and Manual dataprocessing through discussion, demonstration and list the advantages of Electronic data processing over
Manual data processing.

4.

To identify the role of computer in data processing through discussion and prepare a brief note.

5.

To identify the characteristics of computer through discussion and list the characteristics of computer.

Unit II Data Representation
1.

To familiarise different number system through discussion and illustrations.

2.

To acquire the ability to perform various operations in number system through discussion and familarise conversion of numbers from one system to another through assignment. 3.

To acquire the ability to perform binary operations using 1’s and 2’s compliment through problem solving.

4.

To understand MSB and LSB of decimal number and representation of signed numbers through assignments.

5.

To familiarise various character representation codes through discussion and list the character representation through illustrations.

Unit III Computer System Organization
1.

To identify various types of computers through discussion and observation.

2.

To understand computer as a system through discussion, observation and demonstration and prepare notes.

3.

To identify and familiarise various input/output devices through discussion and demonstration. 4.

To understand various types of memory used in computer through discussion and observation. 5.

To understand hardware, software and firmware through discussio.

6.

To classify the types of software through discussion and prepare a list.

7.

To get a awareness of multimedia and related field through discussions and demonstration. 34

Computer Science

8.

To understand digital page setting using pagemaker through discussion, demonstration and presentation.

9.

To familiarise graphics, animation using photoshop through discussion, demonstration and presentation.

Unit IV Principles of Programming
1.

To understand various phases of programming through discussion, listing and problem solving.

2.

To get an awareness about legal implications in using software through discussion and debate.

Unit V Programming in C++
1.

To understand the basics of C++ language through discussions and illustrations; and list the steps involved in creating and running a simple program.

2.

To familiarise different data types in C++ by collecting and classifying data from real life situations; prepare a detailed list showing C++ data types and their features.

3.

To understand C++ operators through reading and discussion and prepare a categorised list of operators.

4.

Identify the logic requiring in problem solving and familiarise various control structures in C++ by using real life problems and their solutions; prepare flow charts for various control structures.

5.

To develop C++ programme to solve various problems through discussion and practicals. 6.

To understand I/O functions through discussion, observation etc. and develop programs using them.

7.

To understand various techniques to improve the readability of source code and write programme using proper indentation and naming conversions.

8.

To familiarise the concept of arrays and its operations through illustrations and discussion and develop programmes stating the advantages of arrays.

9.

To understand the concepts of stacks and queues and their operations with the help of real life examples; and develop algorithms.

10.

To familiarise the significance of functions through discussion and note down the advantages of using functions and develop programmes.

11.

To familiarise different types of functions and prepare a classification table for the pre defined functions.

12.

To understand the significance of user defined functions and different methods of function calls through illustrations.

Unit VI Computer Networks
1.

To acquaint the terminologies used in computer networks through discussions and observation. 2.

To identify various types of computer network through discussion, observation and demonstration. 34
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3.

To know the concept of various network topologies through discussion and demonstration. 4.

To understand the reference models in computer networks through discussion.

5.

To discuss the concept of Internet and various types of connectivity through demonstration and practices; list the merits and demerits of each.

Unit VII Digital Electronics
1.

To understand the terminologies related with Boolean algebra, Basic Postulates,
Basic theories, de Morgan’s theorem and Truth tables through discussions and problem solving.

2.

To introduce basic logic gates; OR, AND, NOT and advance logic gates, NAND,
NOR, OR and XNOR and the truth tabels through discussion demonstration and assignments. 3.

To study the application of logic gates through discussion and demonstration.

4.

To get an awareness of Microprocessor and familiarise the 8085 Microprocessor, block diagram and description of each block through discussion.

Unit VIII Linux
1.

To understand various operating system through discussion and demonstration.

2.

To familiarise free software through discussion.

3.

To understand the installation procedure of Linux through demonstration.

4.

To famliarise the KDE desk top through demonstration, observation & practice.

5.

To surf the web through demonstration & practice.

6.

To understand Linux Office suite through discussion, demonstration & Practice.

7.

To familiarise multimedia in Linux through demonstration & practice.

8.

To acquire shell concept through discussion & demonstration.

9.

To understand the extension of Linux system through discussion & demonstration.

Why frequent updation of Syllabus
The Computer Science syllabus in Vocational Higher Secondary has been designed in a manner that familiarises the students with the rapid progress in the field of Information
Technolgoy and the changes that may take place in the coming years. Students come out from VHSE should not become be wildered by the widespread of Information Technology.
They should keep abreast of developments. They should be able to select suitable fields for study or employment/training. The curriculum is helpful for this. This has to be modified periodically. Only then will contemporary information and skills become available to the new students reaching on Vocational Higher Secondary School.

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UNIT WISE HOUR DISTRIBUTION
THEORY
Unit No.

Name of Unit

No.of hours

1

Principles of Data Processing

5

2

Data Representation

8

3

Computer System Organisations

27

4

Principles of Programming

6

5

Programming in C++

40

6

Computer Networks

14

7

Digital Electronics

20

8

Linux

20

Total Hours

140

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SYLLABUS
Unit 1 Principles of Data Processing [5 hrs]
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Data, Processing Information
Components of data processing
Types of data processing
Characteristics of computers

-

1hr
1hr
2 hrs
1 hr

Unit 2 Data Representation [8 hrs]
2.1

Various Numbers systems

- 1 hr

2.2

Number conversion

- 3 hrs

2.3

Binary Arithmetic

- 2 hrs

2.4

Complement of a Number

- 1 hr

2.5

Character codes

- 1 hr.

Unit 3 Computer System Organisation [27 hrs]
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8

Types of Computers
Organisation of Computer System
Input/Output devices
Memory Unit
Hardware & Software
Types of software
Multimedia - DTP (Pagemaker)
Photoshop

-

1 hr
2 hrs
2 hrs
2 hrs
1 hr
2 hrs
7 hrs
10 hrs

Unit 4 Principles of Programming [6 hrs]
4.1
4.2

Phases in Programming
- 4 hrs
Legal Implication in the use of software - 2 hrs

Unit 5 Programming in C++ [40 hrs]
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

Introduction to C++
Operators and Expressions
I/O functions
Control Statements
Arrays & Structure
Functions

-

3 hrs
3 hrs
4 hrs
10 hrs
10 hrs
10 hrs

Unit 6 Computer Networks [14 hrs]
6.1
6.2
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Introduction to Computer Network
Types of Networks

- 1 hr
- 3 hrs

Computer Science

6.3

Network Topologies

- 3 hrs

6.4

Reference Models

- 5 hrs

6.5

Internet

- 2 hrs

Unit 7 Digital Electronics [20 hrs]
7.1
7.2
7.3

Boolean Algebra
Logic Gates
Microprocessor

- 4 hrs
- 8 hrs
- 8 hrs

Unit 8 Linux [20 hrs]
8.1

Introduction to Linux

- 1 hr

8.2

Installing Linux

- 2 hrs

8.3

Exploring the KDE desktop

- 2 hrs

8.4

Surfing the web

- 2 hrs

8.5

Linux file structure

- 3 hrs

8.6

Handling files

- 2 hrs

8.7

Linux Office Suite

- 2 hrs

8.8

Linux Shell

- 2 hrs

8.9

Scripting for the shell

- 2 hrs

8.10

Extending Linux System

- 2 hrs

Specific Objectives
Unit 1 Principles of Data Processing [5 hrs]
1.1

Data, Processing, Information
1.1.1.
1.1.2

1.2
1.3

1.4

Definition of Data and Information
Need of Information

1.1.3 Qualities of Information
Components of data processing
1.2.1 Input, Process and Output
Types of data processing
1.3.1 Manual Data Processing
1.3.2 Electronic Data Processing
Characteristics of computers

Unit 2 Data Representation [8 hrs]
2.1

Various Numbers systems
2.1.1

2.2

Number System – Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal

Number conversion
2.2.1

Decimal to Binary and vice versa

2.2.2

Decimal to Octal and vice versa

2.2.3

Decimal to Hexadecimal and vice versa
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2.3

Binary Arithmetic
2.3.1

Binary Addition and Subtraction

2.3.2

MSB and LSB of Decimal Number Representation of
Signed Number

2.4

Complement of a Number
2.4.1
1’s Complement and 2’s Complement

2.5

Character codes
2.5.1

BCD, ASCII, EBCDIC

Unit 3 Computer System Organisation [27 hrs]
3.1

Types of Computers
3.1.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

40

Analog, Hybrid, Digital-Mini, Micro, Mainframe, Super
Computer
Organisation of Computer System
3.2.1
Block diagram of computer system
3.2.2
Functional unit of a computer
Input Unit, Output Unit, CPU, Memory Unit, Brief
Description of Each Unit
Input/Output devices
3.3.1
Input Devices - Keyboard, Mouse, OCR, OMR, MICR,
Scanners, Digital Camera, Microphone, Joystick, Trackball,
Light Pen
3.3.2
Output devices - VDU, CRT, LCD, PLASMA
Printers - Impact Printer [Line Printer, Dotmatrix Printer]
Non Impact Printers [Laster Printer, Inkjet Printer, Flexi
Printer]
Plotters
I/O Devices - Floppies, Hard Disks, Optical Disks, CD, VCD,
DVD
Memory Unit
3.4.1
Primary Memory & Secondary Memory
3.4.2
RAM, DRAM, SDRAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM
3.4.3
Floppy, Hardware, CD, DVD
Hardware & Software
3.5.1
Hardware & Firm ware
3.5.2
Software
Types of software
3.6.1
System Software - Operating System, Language Processors
– Assembler, Interpreter, Compiler)
3.6.2
Application Software - (GUI Packages, Word Processors,
Electronic Spreadsheets, Presentation and Graphics,
Database Packages, DTP Packages

Computer Science

3.7

3.8

Utilities – Text Editor, Backup Utility, Compression Utility,
Disk Defragmenter, Virus Scanner
Multimedia - DTP Packages
3.7.1 Introduction to DTP
3.7.2 Introduction to Pagemaker
3.7.3 Document Planning - Page Layout, Margin, Header, Footer,
Fonts, Styling.
3.7.4 Uses of File, Edit, Page, Frame, Font, Graphics and Option menu 3.7.5 Preparation of Table Contents, Index, Generation of
Stylesheets, Usage of Widthtable, Add/Remove fonts.
Photoshop
3.8.1

Getting started with photoshop

3.8.2

Working with Images and Colours

3.8.3

Making Selection

3.8.4

Painting & Editing Tools

3.8.5

Layers

3.8.6

Type

3.8.7

Filters

Unit 4 Principles of Programming
4.1

Phases in Programming
4.1.1
4.1.2

Algorithm and Flow charts

4.1.3

4.2

Problem Identification
Implementation of Algorithm through a language, traslators, debugger

Execution and Documentation, Testing, Certification
Legal Implication in the use of software - Licensing, and Copyright,
Piracy, Free software.

Unit 5 Programming in C++
5.1

Introduction to C++
5.1.1

Character set

5.1.2

Basic Data Types

5.1.3

Tokens

5.1.4

Structure of C++ Program

5.1.5

Use of I/O operators

5.1.6
5.2

Use of IDE compiler to demonstrate basic commands of editing, compilation, linking and execution.
Operators and Expression
5.2.1 Arithmetic (+, –, *, /, %), Unary + and –, Increment and
Decrement, Relational Operators (=, = =, !=),
40
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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

Logical Operators ( ||, &&, ! ), Conditional Operator;
Precedence of Operators
5.2.2
Expressions - Type Conversions – Implicit & Explicit
Methods; C++ Short hands; Assignment Statement; Variable initialization; Type Compatibility.
I/O functions
5.3.1
Header file – iostream.h; Stream functions – get( ), getline(), put( ), write( );
Header file – stdio.h; Console functions – getchar( ), getc(
), gets(), putchar( ), putc( ), puts( ).
Control Statements
5.4.1
Conditional Statements – if statement, if-else, if-else-if ladder, switch statement; Nested switch; default statement; break and continue statement
5.4.2
Loop Statements – for, while, do-while; Nested Control
Structures
5.4.3
Jump Statements – goto, break, continue, exit function.
Arrays & Structure
5.5.1
Concepts of Data Structures
Basic data structures - Arrays, Stacks, Queues; Concepts of arrays - One dimensional and Two dimensional arrays
(Declaration, Initialization, Reading ); Ope rations on 1D arrays (Both algorithms and programs) - Traversal,
Searching (Binary and Linear), Insertion, Deletion, Sorting
(Selection and Bubble), Merging (Simple and Sorted);
Operations on 2D arrays (Both algorithms and programs) Matrix arithmetic (Addition, Subtraction & Multiplication);
Implementation of string using array; String manipulation such as reversing a string, counting vowels, consonants, special characters from a string.
Functions
5.6.1

Defining a function;

5.6.2

Types of Functions; Predifined Functions - Character functions { isalnum( ), isalpha( ), isdigit( ), islower( ), isupper( ), tolower( ), toupper( )}, String Manipulating functions {strcpy( ), strcat( ), strlen( ), strcmp( )},
Mathematical Functions {abs( ), sqrt( ), pow( ), exp( ), log(
), sin( ), cos( )},
Miscellaneous Functions {setw( ), getch( ), clrscr( ); Use of endl.}, Header Files - ctype.h, string.h, math.h, conio.h, iomanip.h; User defined functions; Function prototype; Invoking a

42

Computer Science

function; Passing arguments to a function; Specifying argument data types; Default arguments; Call by Value;
Call by Reference; Returning values from a function;
Calling functions with arrays; Recursive functions
Unit 6 Computer Networks
6.1

Introduction to Computer Network
Need for Networks; Definition and Advantages of
Networks; Terminologies used – Nodes, Server, Protocol

6.2

Types of Networks – LAN, MAN, WAN, Wireless Network.

6.3

Network Topologies -Bus, Star, Ring, Tree, Mesh, Graph;
Internet and Intranet

6.4

Reference Models-OSI Reference Model, TCP/IP Reference
Model

6.5

I n t e r n e t - H/W and S/W requirements for Internet
Connection; Types of Connectivity – ISDN, Dial Up;
Browsing; Email – Use, Advantages & Disadvantages.

Unit 7 Digital Electronics
7.1

7.2

7.3

Boolean Algebra
7.1.1 Basic Postulates of Boolean algebra; Basic theorems of
Boolean algebra; De Morgan’s theorems; Principle of
Duality; Evaluation of Boolean expressions (using Truth table and Algebraic method)
Logic Gates
7.2.1 Basic Logic Operations – OR, AND, NOT; Truth Tables
7.2.2 Basic Gates – OR, AND, NOT
Advanced Gates – NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR
7.2.3 Implementation of Basic Logic Gates using NAND and
NOR Gates;
7.2.4 Application of Logic Gates – Half adder, Full adder,
Encoder, Decoder (using Basic Logic Gates).
Microprocessor
7.3.1

Functional Block Diagram of 8085

7.3.2

Brief description of each block

Unit 8 Linux [20 hrs]
8.1

Introduction to Linux
8.1.1

What is Linux?

8.1.2

Choosing the Linux Distro

8.1.3

Evaluating Hardware Suitability

8.1.4

Making space for Linux
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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

8.2

Installing Linux

- 2 hrs

8.2.1
8.2.2

Choosing the right security level

8.2.3

Allocating the disk space

8.2.4

Creating drive partitions

8.2.5

Choosing the packages to install

8.2.6

Setting the root password

8.2.7

Creating a user account

8.2.8

Setting automatic login

8.2.9
8.3

Preparing to install Linux

Installing the Bootcoader

Exploring the KDE desktop
8.3.1

Introducing the KDE Taskbar

8.3.2

Launching applications

8.3.3

Understanding virtual desktops

8.3.4
8.3.5

Changing the screen saver

8.3.6
8.4

Installing a desktop theme
Setting event sounds

Surfing the web
8.4.1
8.4.2

Web Browser

8.4.3

Setting up E-mail

8.4.4

Transfering files

8.4.5
8.5

Connecting to the internet

Composing Webpages

Linux file structure
8.5.1
8.5.2

Standard sub directories

8.5.3

File Manager

8.5.4

Navigating from the command line

8.5.5

File system

8.5.6

Creating a new text file

8.5.7

Moving files around

8.5.8

Deleting files

8.5.9

Making shortcuts

8.5.10

Changing access permissions

8.5.11

Accessing files in windows

8.5.12
8.6

The Linux directory tree

Compressing and extracting files

Linux Office Suite
8.6.1

44

Introducing the open office suite

Computer Science

8.6.2
8.6.3

Exporting documents from open office

8.6.4

Spreadsheets in open office calc

8.6.5

Presentation in open office impress

8.6.6

Charts and Graphs in open office drow

8.6.7
8.7

Documents in open office writer

Formulas in open office math

Playing Sound and Video
8.7.1
8.7.2

Playing recorded sounds

8.7.3

Listening to music

8.7.4

Watching videos

8.7.5

Playing CD’s

8.7.6
8.8

Synthesizing sounds

Burning CDs

Linux Shell
8.8.1
8.8.2

Understanding run levels

8.8.3

Editing with Vi

8.8.4

Switching between virtual consoles

8.8.5

Moving between shell applications

8.8.6

Viewing text files

8.8.7

Searching for a word

8.8.8
8.9

What is the shell?

Printing from the shell

Scripting for the shell
8.9.1
8.9.2

Editing text streams

8.9.3

Substituting varriables

8.9.4

Creating shell scripts

8.9.5

Branching a script

8.9.6

Looping a script

8.9.7
8.10

Using shell commands

Handling input values

Extending Linux System
8.10.1

Installing packages

8.10.2

Removing packages

8.10.3

Downloading packages

8.10.4

Installing downloads

8.10.5

Installing other desktops

8.10.6

Switching between desktops

8.10.7

Linux resources
44
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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

TERMWISE DISTRIBUTION
THEORY
First Term

Hours

Unit 1

5

Unit 2

8

Unit 3

27

Total (hrs)

40

Second Term
Unit 4

6

Unit 5

48

Unit 6

6

60

Third Term
Unit 7

20

Unit 8

20

Total

40
140

UNIT WISE HOUR DISTRIBUTION
PRACTICAL
Unit No.

Name of Unit

No.of hours

1

Practice on PC Softwares

90

2

Desk Top Publishing

80

3

C++ Programming

130

4

Practice on GNU

120

Total Hours

420

Practical Syllabus
Unit 1 Practice on PC Software

Hours

1.1

Windows OS

10

1.2

Word Processing Package

30

1.3

Spread Sheet Package

30

1.4

Presentation Package

20

Unit 2 Desk Top Publishing
2.1

Page Maker

30

2.2

Photoshop

50

Unit 3 C++ Programming

130

Unit 4 4 . 1

Practice on GNU

80

Open Office

40

4.2

46

Computer Science

Specified Syllabus
Unit 1 Practice on PC Software
1.1

Windows OS

Control panel, Window control button, Menu, Internet explorer,
Getting your work done, Managing files, folders
1.2

Word Processing Package
- Introduction to menus, sub menus and tools
- Creating a document, saving a document
- Adding headers and footers
- Inserting a table
- Spell check utility
- Printing a document
- Mail merge

1.3

Spread Sheet Package
- Opening and saving a worksheet
- Spread sheet operations
- Editing the worksheet
- Printing a worksheet
- Formulas and Functions
- Charts, Macros

1.4

Presentation Package
- Opening an existing presentation
- Creating a new presentation
- Saving and closing a presentation
- Using masters, Editing text
- Drawing objects, Rotating objects
- Adding headers and footers

Unit 2 Desk Top Publishing
2.1

- Uses of foots, frames, page layouts, document planning - page layout, Margin, Header, Footer, Fonts, Styling
- Use of a file, edit, page, frame, font graphics and optimum.
- Generation of stylesheets, preparation of table contents, index, usage of width table, add/remove fonts
- Managing files, using the drawing tools
- Manupulating the objects
- Working with text

2.2

- Get documents into photoshop
- Draw and paint
46
46

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

- Create and manupulate path
- Make images pop with special effect
- Enhance your photograph
- Take it to the web
- Print your masterpiece
Unit 3 C++ Programming
- IDE demonstration
- Simple programs
- Programs using control structure
- Programs on arrays, structures
- Programs using functions
- Programs using string.h, math.h, ctype.h
Unit 4 Practice on GNU
4.1

- Introducing the KDE Taskbar
- Changing the screen saver
- Setting event sounds
- Surfing the web
- Connecting to the internet
- Web browser, setting up e-mail
- Trnasfering files, composing web pages
- File structure

4.2

- Open office package
- Documents using open office writer
- Exporting documents from open office, spread sheet using calc.
- Presentation using impress charts and graphs - using draw.
TERMWISE DISTRIBUTION
First Term
Unit 1.1
Unit 1.2
Unit 1.3
Unit 1.4
Unit 2.1
Second Term
Unit 2.2
Unit 3
Third Term
Unit 4.1
Unit 4.2
Total

48

PRACTICAL
Hours
10
30
30
20
30
50
130
80
40

Total (hrs)

120

180

120
420

Computer Science

REFERENCE

1.

Fundamentals of Computer

- V.Rajaram (Tata Mac)

2.

Computer Science + 1

- Sumitha Arrora (Dhandapani Publication)

3.

Photoshop Ver 8 CS

- Collins Smith (Dreamtech Press)

4.

Programming in C++

- E. Balaguruswamy

5.

Object Oriented Programming Concepts - PHEEEdition

6.

Programming in C++

- Shrum’s Series

7.

Computer Networks

- Andrew TenneBhand

8.

Linux in easy steps

- M.Ke Mcgrath (Dream tech Press)

9.

Adobe Pagemaker

48
48

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

PLANNING

In the context of changing scenario in the field of education. The role of teacher as well as the role of learner has changed. The emerging needs of education evolved the role of teacher as a facilitator. The learning process has been learner centered and activity oriented. Learning activities must enable the child to develop process domain and multiple intelligence skill to its maximum extent. No matter whether these skills are attained inside or outside the classroom. The teacher must be in mind that they are to be accomplished in time. In order to achieve this the teacher must take necessary plans. The plan must be structured as
Year plan, covering the entire activities for the whole year.
Term plan, covering the activties for the prescribed term.
Unit plan which has to be prepared just before each unit.
Day to day plan to provide activities for a day learning.

50

June

July

August

September

I

2

3

4

Computer

Observation
Assignment

Unit IV

Principles of programming Programming in C++

Unit V

Textbook

Discussion

Charts, computer, reference mannual Completion of unit III

software)
Practical, Discussion

Charts

Practical

(Upto types of

Computer

Seminar

Computer system organisation Library Books

Computer

Charts

Reference mannual

Discussion

Demonstration

Assignment

Preparation of Notes

Discussion

Unit III

Data Presentation

Unit II

Principles of data processing Unit I

Activities

Learning Materials

Month

Sl.No.

Unit No

COMPUTER SCIENCE

YEAR PLAN

STANDARD XI
Remarks

Computer Science

50
50

52

October

November

December

January

February

5

6

7

8

9

Completion of Unit
VIII

Unit VIII, Linux (upto exploring the KDE
Desktop)

Digital Electronics
(upto logic gates
Completion of Unit VII

Unit VII

Completion of unit VI

Computer Nteworks
(upto network topologies) Unit VI

Completion of Unit V

Continuing Unit V upto arrays and structures Reference mannual

Internet

Computer

Computer

Textbook

Practising

Discussion, Observation

Practice in Lab

Discussion

Seminar

Assignments

Computer, Reference mannual Reference mannual

Computer

Textbooks

Reference mannual

Charts

Observation
Discussion

Model

Listing

Seminar

Discussion

Problem solving

Assignment

Discussion

Activities

Learning Materials

Month

Sl.No.

Unit No

COMPUTER SCIENCE

STANDARD XI

YEAR PLAN
Remarks

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

16

16
16

October

November

15

August

September

17

July

II

13

June

I

Unit No

Month

Term

STANDARD XI

COMPUTER SCIENCE

Computer networks (upto network topologies)

Unit VI

Functions

Unit V

Unit V
Control statements, arrays and structure

Unit V
Introduction in C++, operators and expressions, I/O function

Principles of programming

Unit IV

Multimedia - DTP (Page maker ), Photoshop

Unit III

Types of computer, organisation, I/O devices, memory unit H/W and S/W,
Types of software

Computer system organisation

Unit III

Data Representation

Unit II

Unit I
Principles of Data Processing

Remarks

TERM PLAN (MODEL)

Computer Science

52
52

54

III

Term

Unit No

17

16

February

December

January

14

Month

STANDARD XI
Remarks

COMPUTER SCIENCE

Surfing the web, LINUX file structure, handling files, linux office suite, Linus shell, Scripting for the shell, extending linux system

Unit VIII

Introduction installation, exploring the KDE Desktop

Linux

Unit VIII

Microprocessor

Unit VII

Unit VI
Reference models, internet
Unit VII
Digital electronics, boolean algebra, logic gates

TERM PLAN

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

4

Do

To identify the role of computer in data processing through discussion

Do merits of electronic data Listing processing Discussion Textbook

Observation

Discussion

Discussion

To understand types of data processing through discussion and listing the

3

charts

To identify the components note of data processing through discussion Learning strategies 2

Activities

To identify data, processing D i s c u s s i o n Reference and information through p r e p a r e mannual discussion and prepare notes
Computer,

Curriculum Objectives

ü

ü

ü

ü

Class test

UNIT PLAN (MODEL)

1

Sl.No

STANDARD XI

project

ü

Assignment

seminar

Evaluation
Practical

COMPUTER SCIENCE

ü

ü

ü

ü

GD

1hr

1hr

1hr

1hr

Hours

Computer Science

54
54

56

Unit IV Principles of programming

Debate on free software V/s licensed software.

Supporting activity

Students are asked to represent the pictorial form of algoritham using flowchart symbols

Activity 3

Studenrs are asked to list the steps, for making an omlet to introduce algorithm

Activity 2

Students are asked to prepare a recipe for making an omlet inorder to understanding the concept of programming

Activity I

Students are asked to discuss flowchart symbols and its functions

Students are aked to discuss the term algorithm

Students are asked to discuss the concept of programming through a real life problem

Learning activity

Reference Manual, charts, internet, textbook

Learning Materials

To get an awareness about the legal implications in using software through discussion and seminar

To understand various phases of programming through discussion, demonstration and listing

Curriculum Objectives

Record of Daily Plan ( Model)

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

Computer Science

EVALUATION
Evaluation helps to assess the rate of progress of the students in scholastic and non scholoastic area and to recognise to what extent each student has achieved the specific capabilities. These evaluation results are the basis on which the student, teachers, parents and society can access the educational progress.
Written examination based on the textbook alone is not of much use. An evaluation that comprehensively assess the abilities envisaged in the curriculum is what is required.
Therefore continous evaluation (CE), practical evaluation (PE), vocational competency evaluation (VCE), Internship evaluation (IE) and Terminal evaluation (TE) are required in computer science
The teachers have to make learning in computer science activity based, product based, student centered and society bound.

Part II Vocational Subject - Computer Science
Evaluation of First year

CE

TE

PE

IE

Total

Minimum

VT

20

80

-

-

100

30%

VP

-

-

150

-

150

40%

-

50

50

30%

VCE
No minimum for CE

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
It is through continous evaluation that the knowledge related fields and products are evaluated. Through this every learning activity that takes place with an year can be subjected to continous evaluation. Evaluation should be done not by the teachers alone. Students can evaluate themselves. Classmates can evaluate one another. Activities in the classroom like discussion, quiz, seminar, presentation, symposium, debate, data collection, preparation of observation notes and preparation of reading notes should be evaluated by children also, along with the teacher.

Evalutation activities for CE

Discussion
Presentation of ideas that are new, different and original (that gives clarity to the topic of discussion)




Presenting one’s own opinions in clear language
Waiting for one’s turn and making use of it
56
56

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE




Listening carefully to what others say
Speaking with mutual respect in respectable and moderate language.



Preparation of questions in the workbook ensuring quality and comprehensive of the questions
Giving correct answers
Obeying rules

Quiz




Notes




Comprehensiveness (inclusion of all important materials)
Clarity (clear language, clear writing)
Doing correctly according to instructions

Debate





Speaking relevantly without deviating from the topics
Presenting opinion with clarity in ideas
Presenting logical arguments in friendly language
Accepting agreeeable parts of opposite view points

Seminar

Seminar is a very effective self learning activity which helps to go deeper into the different asepcts of a particular topic in the syllabus. The information collected from various sources with the guidance of teacher are systematically organised and presented in the class so that the information is shared among the student. The students from the audiance side can raise doubts. A seminar paper or notes is prepared and submitted to the teacher for verification and authentication.
Assignment

Assignment is an activity to achieve the curriculum objectives undertaken by the students. It is a self learning cum evaluation activity and it should ensure that the work is completed with in stipulated time according to the teachers direction. If same topic is give to all the students, the involvement of the student should be assured using viva voce. If different tasks are assigned the level of tasks should be uniform and evaluation indicators should be specified in advance. If a student delivers more than one seminar the best is taken for CE reporting
Class Test

The unit tests or quarterly examination are considered and the average marks obtained by the students are converted into 20 scores. Those who are absent in a test may be given a chance on his/her request, if it is found genuine.
Objectives for Class Test

• test the concept of curriculum objective.
• how far students achieving the fixed CO.
58

Computer Science









assess the participation of students in the class room activities. to provide scafolding in areas of weakness method of conducting classtest should be a learning activity. use written text along with other teachniques not for ranking but for identifying lackness provide sufficient time and suitable method record the scores in teaching manual

Project

A properly planned and systematically conducted activity can be in generally called a project.
Project is an activity of scientific inquiry, carried out as part of the learning process by students.
In computer science,a software development is regarded as a project and it is a process oriented activity. It is a group activity through which a software for an application is developed using a language or any other development tool.
The project begins with identifying the application area and the associated problems.The data involved in the processing and the information to be attained are recoginsed and procedure or steps are derived.
Once the group is formed, it is intimated to the teacher and initial planning is done in consultation with the teacher. A project diary is to be maintained by each group.
After designing and testing the software, it should be verified by the teacher and preparation of project report is begun. Each of the group member should have a copy of the report. While setting the
CE, the teacher may conduct a vivavoce to ensure the involvment of the student in this activity.

Structure of Project Report
1
2
3
4

4
5

Cover page (Project title, name of students, course and duration)
Certificate
Preface /abstract
Content
• Introduction
• Aims (objectives
• Problem study/analysis
• Development tools and facilities used
• source code/procedure/steps
• outputs
• conclusion
Annexure (sample data, data sheet etc)
Bibliography

Project presentation

To get the project assessed and recognised it may be presented before an audience (class)
58
58

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

Evaluating the project

After the project has been presented in the class, teachers or students themselves may evaluate the project. The norms for evaluating the project may be communicated to the students in advance
Teachers role as a guide

The teacher should be ready to extend help and guidelines to conduct the project. At least some teachers may have the limitation that they themseleves have no experience of self learning methods like projects and semianrs. The teacher should make a sincere effort to overcome this limitation. More reading and self reflection is needed in this regard.
The items to be considered for recording in continuous evluation (CE) are class test
(compulsory) and any other two activities given above.
When this CE is to be submitted for publishing the result, there are 3 CE items for computer science, the total score is calculated out of 60, the total score is divided by 3 and is fixed as CE score.
The table showing the CE items, their indicators, weightage and score is given below:
CE Items
Data Collection

Evaluation Indicators

Weightage

Score

4/3/2/1

5 Time bound

60

4/3/2/1

4 Presentation and neatness

Class test

4/3/2/1

3 Uniqueness

Assignment

4/3/2/1

2 Diversity

Seminar

1 Content

4/3/2/1

1 Ability to plan and organise
2 Skill in the collection of data
3 Awareness of the context
(Presentation of the paper, participation in discussion, ability to substantiate the ideas and views
4 Ability to prepare the report
(sequence in the presentation of the concepts, authenticity and clarity of ideas/views/concepts)
5 Quality of seminar document

4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1

4/3/2/1

20

1
2
3
4
5

4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1

20

Awareness of the content
Comprehensiveness of the content
Systematic and sequential arrangement
Observation/suggestion/../judgement evaluation
Timely submission
Average marks of all tests including Iterm and
II term (minimum three) converted into 20 score

20

4/3/2/1

20

Computer Science

CE Items
Project

Evaluation Indicators
1 Ability to plan
(selection of the method for solution of the problem. identifying suitable tools, planning the various activities to be carried out in each stage.)
2 Ability to collect data
(Sufficiency and relevance of data, classification and arrangements of data for analysis relaibility and authenticity of the collected data)
3 Ability to analyse the data and procedure
( structuring of data and developing logic, efficiency in using the langauge/tool, error detection and correction of data).
4 Ability to prepare the project report (Reflection of the process skills communicability and authenticity of the report)

Debate/
Group
discussion

5 Viva Voce
(Knowledge of the content and processes)
1. Attitude & Planning
2. Awareness of the content
3. Concept & justification
4. Clarity and appraisal
5. Presentation

Weightage

Score

4/3/2/1

4/3/2/1

4/3/2/1

4/3/2/1

4/3/2/1
20
4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1
4/3/2/1

20

Terminal Evaluation (TE)
Terminal evaluation is conducted through written test. The written examination will be conducted at the end of the academic year. The question paper will be uniform for all vocational higher secondary schools in kerala. The syllabus is given in this source book.
Sample question are given in part III of this book. The following guidelines are to be kept in mind while setting the questions for terminal evaluation

Guidelines for developing TE Question
1. Selection of the curriculum Objectives (COs) for assessment








The question should aim at a specific learning outcome/CO should be selected from the list of COs which have been included in this source book.
The possibility of integrating multiple outcomes/ clustering of COs shall be explored so as to give an adequate representation to the lists of COs. This would also make the questions more relevant, meaning ful and challenging to the students.
The questions should focus on assessing students higher order learning and higher order thinking capabilities. They shouldn’t focus on memorization of isolated and discrete of knowledge elements.
Select the COs for which sufficient learning opportunities are provided with through the text books, class room learning process and CE learning strategies.
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So scan the entire set of materials before finalizing the selection of the outcome to be assessed.
2. Developing the text of the assessment




















62

The question should be in consonance with the approach of each subject
The question shouldn’t violate the basic beliefs, assumptions and premises of the curriculum. These are foundation stones on which the curriculum has been built. The question should provide scope for the application of innate thinking capabilities of all learners (The list of the innate thinking capabilities has been given the box given below). These are the elements to be assessed against each question. Both the process and product have to be assessed in each questions. Otherwise assessing the real learning of learners will not be materialized.
According to the new curricular assumption and approaches, there can be definitely more than one answer to some questions, This possibility shall be explored while developing questions.
While selecting open ended type of questions, a balance shall be maintained between the number of open ended question and other type of questions
The text should provide sufficient information for students to apply their thinking capabilities The questions should be realistic and natural to the students. Great care shall be taken for not making the items contrived, unnatural and ambiguous for the learners. But efforts shall be made to place the questions in challenging and real life situation.
Analyse each questions in terms of scope for application of mental process/ thinking capabilities (before finalizing the questions). The questions shall be designed in such a manner that the learner is challenged to apply majority of thinking skills in the task so that acquisition of rich and well structured knowledge taken place.
The language of questions shall be simple and clear an in consonance with the reading/ comprehension level of students
The time required by learners for reading, thinking and writing responses shall be taken into consideration while each questions is developed. The question text should have the quality of permitting the learner to take more time for communicating his/her knowledge and the process than spending more time on reading and deliberation.
Each questions paper should include different types of questions/ variety of assessment procedure so as to provide variety of assessment experiences to the learners. But selection of the type of questions shall be done according to the nature of the mental processes involved in the task. Then the test maker will get enough flexibility to choose a particular text item.

Computer Science












For avoid guessing, mixing of selection and supply text items and careful designing of distracters shall be done.
Even if multiple choice questions are individual they should be used to test higher order thinking than testing discrete and irrelevant information as for as possible The question shall not be based as possible isolated text. Sufficient text/ context/ information shall be included in the question text for encouraging the learner to apply his/her thinking capabilities for constructing knowledge
Repeated use of textbook material shall be avoided while developing questions.
Even if the test used to elicit a higher order thinking processes and hot the same questions given along with each lesson
When selecting out of textbook material for developing questions, the selection has to be made on the basis of difficulty level and thematic similarity.
Great care shall be taken to avoid any amount of bias in questions and question papers - political, social, gender, culture, occupational etc.
There should be close agreement between the COs, the nature and type of learning experience provided in classrooms and assessment procedure used in evaluation. 3 Scoring key










The scoring key should specific to each question in terms of content, mental process involved and the elements for assessing and scoring the process and the products.
The scoring shall be written in such a manner that it is concise, simple and unambiguous. It should provide clarity about the elements to be assessed in the context of the particular question. The relationship between variables in a specific questions shall be elaborates in the scoring key precisely.
Since the question address the issue of multilevel learning situation, the scoring also should be developed in such a manner to assess the different levels of responses For assessing open ended questions, the scoring should provide enough direction with regard to the number, type and nature of expected responses
While fixing scores each one of the elements of a question, the scores shall be distributed in such a manner that it maintains balance between the task element and the score.

Innate thinking capabilities






Detection of similarities and dissimilarities
Detection of cause effect relationships
Formulation of initial ideas / concepts
Categorization using concepts
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Reasoning and drawing inferences from experience/text/speech
Applying knowledge and understanding in new situations
Storming and /or retrieving information into/from memory
Communication of knowledge/understanding through different media
Imagination, fantasy, translation and transformation of knowledge/ understanding Evaluation of concepts, situations, products procedures etc based on norms and reasoning.

Practical Evaluation
In practical evaluation, the ability of the students to use PageMaker, Photoshop and to develop programs using C++ languages are to be examined
In practical evaluation of PageMaker and Photoshop, the ability of the learners to use software PageMaker and Photoshop in various application areas is to be examined. Questions are to be framed in such a way that it should evaluate the learner’s skills in using the tools/ facilities of the package to solve the problems in a given application area. The teacher/ examiner should prepare a bunch of question covering the syllabus and each students should be given a question randomly to write steps/ procedure in using the software for solving the problem contained in the questions. The steps and tools/facilities used are to be verified and allow the students to do it in the computer, if these are found correct. Once the student is completed the work, the teacher checks for its correctness and clarity of the output and scores are awarded.

Sample questions
1
2
3
4

5

6

64

Preparation of neatly formatted timetable
Preparation of neatly formatted notice
Preparation of a content page of a textbooks
Give an image and perform the following
(i) rotate ii) resize
(iii) crop (trim) border Select a part of an image using
Marquee tools
Lasso tools
Magic wand tools
Add to an existing selection
Fill a selection with colour
Select an image file and perform painting strokes using
Air brush
Pain brush
Pencil tool

(iv)

add

Computer Science

7

Create different layers and perform the following
Show layers
Hide a layer
Deleting layers
Merging layers
Moving layers between images

In practical evaluation of C++ the ability of the students to develop programs using
C++ language is to be examined. Questions are to be framed in such a way that it should evaluate the learner’s problem solving skills and the competency in using C++ language to express his/her logic to solve the problem. The teacher/ examiner should prepare a bunch of questions covering the syllabus and each students should be given a question randomly to write program for solving the problem contained in the question. The written algorithm/ procedure and source code are to be examined and allow the students to do it in the computer, if the source code depicts the correct logic. Once student is completed the program entry and execution, the teacher/examiner checks for its correctness and scores are awarded.

Sample questions
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

9
10

Write a program to input a number and check whether it is prime or not
Write a program to find the roots of a quadratic equation
Write a program to find the factorial of a number
Write a program to display the Fibonacci series upto N terms
Write a program to input a line of text and count the number of vowels in it
Write a program to sort a set of N numbers in ascending /descending order
Write a program to search a given number in a set of number
Write a program to swap two numbers using functions
Call by value method
Call by reference method
Write a program to find the factorial of a number using recursive function
Write a program to add two matrix of given order.

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Item
1.PageMaker

2. Photoshop

Evaluation Indicators
1. Use of proper tools / facilities
2. Correctness of procedure
3. Accuracy of output
4. Viva voce

Weightage
7
7
10
6

7

3. Accuracy of output

10

4. Viva voce

6

1. Preparation for the work
(Understanding the steps/procedure/ statements/algorithm) 10

2. Skills in using proper variables / functions/ control statements

15

3. Accuracy in using syntax

15

4. Analysis of data and accuracy of output

20

5. Viva voce

15

30

7

2. Correctness of procedure

3. C++

1. Use of proper tools facilities

Score

4. Observation 1. Neatness/clarity book 2. Timely submission
3. Completeness

30

75

5
5
5

15

General instruction to teachers about practical evaluation

1
2
3
4

The practical classes should be started in first year itself
A proper record of the programs done in the lab should be maintained in the observation books
Separate observation book should be used for recording the first year and second year works
Valuation of the observation book will be done continuously at the time of PE

Vocational Competency Evaluation (VCE)
Being a vocational course a system to judiciously evaluate required value addition and consequent capacity building in computer science is highly essential. As the other evaluation components like CE, PE and TE cannot assess the vocational competencies and professional skills acquired by the students, an Internship Evaluation (IE) component has been introduced to meet this requirement.
Internship Evaluation should be done based on the following components.
I.

Reqularity and Punctuality

A regular presence and habit of time bound completion of task is a must for attaining maximum efficiency.
66

Computer Science

II.

Value addition

Value addition can be evaluated through Field Visit. The experiences gained through field visits increase the level of intrinsic motivation and positive attitude towards the computer field and thereby increase his/her value as a skilled semi-professional.
III. Capacity building
Capacity building can be evaluated through Mini Project/OJT/Production cum Training
Centre (PTC). These components enable the students to practice the acquired skills in the real situation and thereby increasing self confidence and promoting self reliance.
1. Regularity and Punctuality can be evaluated by 5 point grading system.
Rating Scale
1

2

3

4

5

1. Regularity

Never regular Often regular Usually regular Most of the time regular

Always regular 2. punctuality

Never punctual Often punctual Usually punctual Most of the time punctual

Always punctual Regularity and Puntuality can be assessed by using attendance of the student and time bound completion of tasks.
2. Indicators for field visit [4/3/2/1]







Attitude & readiness towards the task
Capacity for observation
Data collection
Application of ideas
Documentation/Recording [20 score]

3. Mini project [4/3/2/1]







Ability for planning
Ability for data collection
Ability to analyse the data and procedure
Presentation
Documentation

[20 score]

4. OJT [4/3/2/1]







Involvment/participation
Skills in doing work/communication skills
Time bound action
Capacity for observation, analysis & innovation
Documentation, recording & display

[20 score]
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5. Production cum Training Centre (PTC) [4/3/2/1]


Mastery of vocational skills

Managerial capacity

Promoting self confidence

Innovative approach

Promoting self-reliance
Internship Evaluation (IE)
No.
Item
1
Regularity & Punctuality
2
Field visti
3
• Mini project
• OJT
(any one)
• PTC
Total

}

[20 score]
Score
10
20
20

50

A minimum of 80% attendance is required for promotion to the second year. Those who have storage of attendance should repeat first year. Those who have more than 80% attendance but failed to achieve 30% of Internship Evaluation will be promoted to the second year. He/She has to improve the component in which he/she performed poor.
Then he/she has to attain the minimum by improving the particular component to get eligible for appearing second year public examination.

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Sl no:

Name

1 (20) 2 (20)
Class AsTest signment

3 (20) Total
Semi- (60) nar/ Project

CCE
Total
out of
20

TE (80)
(100)

Total
Grade
1

2

3

4

5

PE
6

Total Grade

Format for Subject Wise Evaluation

Regularity and Punctuality
(10)
Value
Addition
(20)
Capacity
building
(20)

Total
(50)

Vocational Competency Evaluation
Grade

Computer Science

68
68

Grade

Total

TE

CE

Total

TE

Physics

Chemistry

PE

TE

Total

PE

TE

Total
Grade PE

Grade

Total

TE
TE

CE
CE

Vocational Subjects

Total

VCE
Grade

General
Foundation
Course
Total

English

Mathematics

CE

Name

TE

Sl no:

Total

Grade

70
Grade

Format for School wise Score Sheet

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

Grade

Grade
CE

CE

CE

Computer Science

Government of Kerala
Board of Vocational Higher Secondary Examinations
Thiruvananthapuram

Reg: No.

Dated :

Evaluation Sheet

Sri./Smt. i s awarded
Scores/grade as detailed below in the First Year Vocational Higher Secondary
Examination held in
Name of School

:

Admission No :

Name of Vocational Course :
Subject

Positional

Score Obtained
CE 20

TE
80

PE
150

20

60

Total

Grade in words

Grade

20

20

IE
50

80

Part- I
English
General Foundation Course
Part- II Vocational Subjects
Vocational Theory
Vocational Practical
Vocational Competency
Part- III Optional Subjects

Physics
Chemistry

Mathematics

CE- Continuous Evaluation, TE- Term End Evaluation, PE- Practical
Evaluation, IE- Internship Evaluation.
Grades A+ 90% and Above Outstanding

A

80- 89%

Excellent.

B+ 70 - 79% Very Good

B

60- 69%

Good

C+ 50 - 59% Above Average

C

40- 49%

Average

D+ 30 - 39% Marginal

D

20- 29%

Need improvement

E
Below 20% Need improvement
Marks Entered by
Marks checked by
Supdt/ T. O

SECRETARY
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PART II

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• Computer Science

PRINCIPLES OF DATA

1

PROCESSING

Introduction
Computers are significantly influencing our lives at a speed which we never expected.
There is no field where it has not entered today. In our day to day life we use the terms data and information. We deal with different types of data and data are considered as the building block of information. This unit gives an idea about data, information and data processing.
Although this is the first unit, special care must be given to explore the benefits of activity oriented learning to construct knowledge and enhance the skills to face challenging situations confidently. After learning this unit the students will be able to recognize computer as a tool used in data processing.

Curriculum Objectives


To identify data, processing and information through discussion and prepare notes.



To identify the components of data processing through discussion and assignment



To understand electronic data processing and manual data processing through discussion, demonstration and listing the advantages of electronic data processing over manual data processing. •

To identify the role of computer in data processing through discussion



To identify the characteristics of computer through discussion and listing

Syllabus
Definition of data , processing and information - need of information, qualities of information
- components of data processing- input, process , output - types of data processing - manual data processing v/s electronic data processing - definition of computer - characteristics of computer. Pre- requisites



General idea about data and information



Basic concept of computer

Activities
1.2

Identify/check pre - requisites (30minutes)



Group discussion



List the terms related to computer



Students are divided in to 4 or 5 groups
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Each groups is asked to present their findings and is noted on the board.

Teacher consolidate the terms based on characteristics and each category is given a name.


Hardware



Software



IT



Data processing

Students prepare a chart of terms related to computer
1.2 Identifying the terms data, information, processing (30minutes)



Group discussion



After group discussion , each group presents the idea about these terms



Teachers consolidates the points and shapes the definition of these terms (Refer text book)



Students are asked to write their name, age, sex., grade obtained in some subjects (without giving any label or column heading) on the board.



The difficulties in getting information from these are discussed in groups and different points are listed.



Invite solutions for the problem and introduce the concept of ‘processing’ and then ‘data processing’ and shapes the definition with the help of students contribution



Assignment (Class) Prepare a table showing the details of 25 students such as Name, age, date of birth, sex and grade obtained in some subjects in SSLC exam.

1.3 Need of information (15min)



Group Discussion



Students discuss in groups and distinct points are presented (Discussion based on the table prepared by assignment in activity 1.2)



Teacher consolidates the various points



Use of information to others



Students should make notes individually.

1.4 Quality of information (15min)



Teacher makes some mistakes purposely in some of the entries in the table (for eg:-Instead of M or F, write A in sex column, 31.02.2005 as DOB, H+ in grade column etc)



Quality of information is discussed in groups and presents the factors that affected the quality. •

Teacher consolidates the points in a chart


Reliable



Unambiguous



Timely

Recalling the relevance of quality of information


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Students should make notes individually

• Computer Science

1.5 Values of information (30min)

Discussion related to form utility as a value factor of information


List out the in intricacies when a consolidated grade list is given to each student to know the individual performance . Also list the complexities when the class teacher is provided with the individual progress reports of all students of a class.



The difficulties are discussed in groups and distinct points are listed. Hence the relevance of form inconveying the information is illustrated.



Discussion related to Time utility as a value factor of information.



List out the difficulties when you submit an application for job through public service commission with all relevant records after the last date.



Discuss the various responses and introduce time as a factor that determines the value of information. •

Discussion related to Place utility as a value factor of information



List out the relevant responses when your class teacher takes the attendance with the attendance register of another class?



Teacher introduce place as a factor that determines the value of information.



Discussion related to Usage utility as a value factor of information.



List out the responses if the rank list prepared for first year VHSE admission is not used in the admission procedure



Introduce usage as a factor that determines the value of information.

Teacher consolidate the points


Form utility



Time utility



Place utility



Usage utility

and prepare short notes on the values of information
1.6 Types of Data processing (1hr)



Group Discussion, observation.



Prepare a table of 25 students showing the details name, age, sex, date of birth and grade obtained in some subjects. Obtain a list of students according to correct age (ascending order of DOB) and another list of male students having B+ grade in IT.



Discuss in groups the difficulties and limitations in the process and list the distinct points.



Listout Solutions (A tool such as calculator or computer or a method such as electronic data processing is expected)



Conduct a comparative study on manual data processing and electronic data processing; and prepare a chart to makes distinguish them.

7 Components of Data Processing (1hrs)



Discussion



Discussion in groups about processing and list out the components of data processing.
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Introduce the terms input, storage, process and output as the components of data processing
Students makes note on


input



storage



process



output

8 Discussion on computer and its characteristics (1hr)

Students discuss in groups, defines computer and its characteristics.
Different points are noted from each group
Teacher shapes the definition and list the characteristics as •

speed



accuracy



storage capacity



efficiency



reliability



diligence



No.IQ

Students can prepare notes and teacher verifies and evaluates

Reference
1
2

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76

Computer fundamental - ‘O’ level module -1, VK Jain, BPB publications
Computer fundamental - Raja Raman, Tata Mc grill publications

Concept/ideas

communicating,
Observing

Classifying

5 To identify the characteristics Speed of computer through discussion
Accuracy storage and listing capacity, versatility, reliability, deligance, No IQ

Observing

Classifying

Observing

Analysing

Making operational definition self, attempt

electronic v/s manual data processing input,process, output

Communicating

Process skills

4 To identify the role of computer Definition of in data processing through computer discussion. 2 To identify the components of data processing through discussion and prepare an assignment 3 To understand electronic data processing and manual data processing through discussion and demonstration and listing the advantages of electronic data processing over manual data processing

1. To identify data, processing and Data processing information through discussion information and preparation of notes

Curriculum Objectives

UNIT AN ALYSIS
1. Principles of Data Processing

Textbooks

Reference mannual computer,charts

Reference mannual computer,charts

Reference mannual computer,charts

Learning materials Reference mannual, Computer

Discussion

Discussion, demonstration listing

Preparation of note Discussion,
Assignment

Discussion

Activities

Discussion,
Preparation of charts Discussion notes, Chart

Discussion chart Comparison chart Assignment work Discussion notes Products

Teacher evaluation

Active participation

Peer evaluation

Assignment

Notes

Understanding of facts Evaluation

1hrs

1hrs

1hrs

1hrs

1hrs

Time

• Computer Science

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2

DATA REPRESENTATION

Introduction
As in the case of human life computer also deals with qualities. This chapter describes how different number system are used in computers to represent data in various forms. Here learners have to study various operations over these number system to know how data can be represented. physically in a computer. Learners are able to acquire problem solving skills in this chapter.
The assignment work, which is the part of continuous evaluation comes under this chapter.

Curriculum Objectives


To understand different number systems through discussions, illustrations.



To Acquire the ability to perform various operations in number system through discussions and to understand conversion number from one system to another assignments.



To acquire the ability to perform binary operations using 1s complement and 2s complement



To understand MSB and LSB of decimal numbers and representation of signed number through assignments.



To understand various character representation codes being used in computers through discussion and list the character representation.

Syllabus
Various number system - Decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal, number conversionDecimal to binary and vice versa, decimal to octal and vice versa, decimal to hexadecimal and vice versa. Binary arithmetic - Binary addition and substraction . MSB and LSB of decimal number representation of signed number , components of a number - 1s complement and 2s complement, character code. - BCD, ASCII and EBCDIC.
Pre Requisites



Decimal number system, Mathematical Operations on decimal numbers.



Concept of place value and base.

Activities
2.1To understand number system (30mts)



Class is divided into groups



Each group is given a task to list out various number systems, their base, positional value and symbols used.



Each group prepares the list and presents the entire findings in a chart

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• Computer Science



Decimal



Binary



Octal



Hexadecimal

Conclusion of the discussion is that there are two voltage levels within a Computer and hence the relevance of 0 and 1 are verified.
Students prepare notes
2.2 To understand place value concept of decimal number system (30mts)



A decimal number is given to the learner



Asked them to write the digits in its unit place, tens place and so on.



List the MSD and LSD
Rewrite the number in terms of the digits and corresponding place value.
(egs:-123=1x102 + 2x10 1 +3x100 )



Consolidation : Place value concept of a decimal number is introduced here



Students can make notes.

2.3 To understand Number representation in various systems (15 min)



Discuss various number systems.



Represent the given numbers in the corresponding systems
(egs 10012 = 1x23 +0x22 +0x2 2 +1x20 )



Consolidation : Base of a number system is introduced here



Students make notes

2.4

Discussion conversion of binary to decimal (15min)



Discuss and list the rules for conversion



A binary number is given and learner convert it into decimal



Consolidation: Rules for conversion is introduced have



Class assignment can be given



Students prepare notes

2.5 Binary Number (15 min)
Game



A group of 5 members is selected as number representation group. Member from other group suggest a number and accordingly, this group represent the binary equivalent (Standing represents 1’s place and sitting represent ) 0’s place)

Decimal Fraction to binary (15 min)
2.6 Discussion



In case of fractional part of the decimal number, keep on multiplying by 2 and collect the integer part of the product obtained. Finally read down (top to bottom)



Collect all integer part
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Class assignments can be given



Consolidation: Rules for converting decimal fraction to binary is introduced here.



Students prepare notes

Binary Fraction To Decimal Conversion (15min)
2.7

Discussion



3
As the activity 2.6 the decimal equivalent of 1001.1001 is 1x 2 + 0 x 22 + 0 x 21 +1 x 1
+ 0 x 2 -2 + 1 x 2 -3



Learners simplify such expressions and they get decimal equivalent of a binary number



Class assignments can be given



Consolidation: Rule for converting binary fraction to decimal is introduced here



Students can prepare note

Decimal to Octal Conversion (15 min)
2.8 Discussion



Same way as decimal to binary conversion



After discussion learner could findout, instead of division by 2, have need to use 8



Class assignments can be given



Consolidation: Rule for converting decimal to octal is introduced here



Students can prepare notes

Octal to Decimal Conversion (15min)
2.9 Discussion



As in the activity 2.4 they easily gets idea through discussion



Work-out questions of this type



Class assignments can be given



Consolidation: Rule for converting octal to decimal is introduced here.



Students prepare notes

Decimal to Hexadecimal conversion (15min)
2.10 Discussion



As in activity 2.8 learner are able to convert a decimal number to hexadecimal number



Difference is that, here base is 16 and letter A to F represent 10 to 15



Class assignments can be given



Consolidation: Rule for decimal to hexadecimal conversion is introduced.



Students prepare notes

Hexadecimal to Decimal conversion (30min)
2.11 Discussion


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As a activity 2.4 learners easily gets idea through discussion

-1

• Computer Science



Workout questions of this type



Class assignments can be given



Consolidation: Rule for hexadecimal to Decimal conversion is introduced



Students can prepare notes

Binary to Octal & Hexa decimal conversion (30min)
2.12 Discussion



Learner must know that any octal digit can be represented by 3 bits and any hexa decimal digit can be represented by 4 binary bits.



Learners list the grouping rules eg from right to left take 3 bits at a time to convert that binary number to its equivalent octal number.



This process has to be continued till they reach the left most bit in the binary.



In the same way take the group of 4 bits from right to get the hexadecimal equivalent of binary number.



Class assignments can be given



Consolidation : Rule for conversion from binary to octal and hexadecimal number is introduced here



Students can prepare notes

Operations on Binary Number (2hrs)
2.13 Discussion



Discuss addition and subtraction of decimal numbers. They recall the case of 9+1 =10,
99+1 =100 etc



In the same way they list out the rules for adding and subtracting two binary bits
(0 +0 = 0,1 + 0 =1, 0 - 0 =0, 1-0=1 etc)



They extend this idea for binary addition with more than 1bit.



Class assignments can be given



Consolidation : Rules for binary operation is introduced.



Students prepare notes.

Sign And Magnitude Representation of Numbers (30min)
2.14 Discussion



Discuss MSB and LSB of decimal numbers



Discuss on how signed numbers can be represented in number



MSB is used to represent the sign of binary number (0 for positive numbers and 1for negative numbers) •

Class assignments can be given



Consolidation: Sign and magnitude representation of numbers is introduced.



Students can prepare notes.

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1’s Compliment And 2’s Compliment (30min)
2.15 Discussion

• Through Discussion learners realise that addition is possible in the computer not substraction.


Substraction is possible with the concept of compliment



To substract a number from another number, find the 2’s compliment of the substract (The number to be substracted) and add it with the first number



Class assignments can be given.



Consolidation : 1’s and 2’s compliment is introduced.



Students can prepare notes

Binary representation of real number and character in memory (30min)
2.16 Discussion



Learners recall real numbers in number system.



After proper discussions they list Mantissa, exponent and their properties.



They also identify the need for representing character in computer



Consolidation : Binary representation of real number and character in memory is introduced.



Students prepare notes

BCD, ASCII, and EBCDIC CODES (30min)
2.17 Discussion



Identify the problem in representing characters within computer



Obtain the limitations in converting characters into binary number



Identify the number systems from which equivalent binary number can be formed.



Consolidation: Introduce the possibility of designing numeric codes for characters and BCD codes is introduced.



Introduce the possibility of designing numeric codes for characters and ASCII code is introduced. •

Introduce the possibility of designing numeric codes for characters and EBCDIC is introduced.



Students prepare note

Reference Book
1 ‘O’ level module , Computer fundamentals VK jain BPB publications
2 Textbook of XI

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Represntation of signed numbers

MSB and LSB of decimal numbers

5 To understand various BCD, EBCDIC, character representation codea ASCII through discussion and listing

4 To understand MSB and LSB of decimal number and representation of signed numbers through assignments

Analysing

Classifying

Analysing

Observing

Analysing

Assignment
Textbook,
reference manual work
Discussion
notes
Textbook,
Listing of reference manual character representation Problem solving Listing
Discussion

Discussion notes Discussion,
Textbook,
Assignment
Problem solving reference manual work
Discussion
notes

Observing

Textbook, reference book, chart, Reference

Table of features notes

Products

Subsrtraction

2 To acquire the ability to perform various operations in number system through discussion and assignments 3 To acquire the ability to perform binary operations using 1’s compliment and 2’s compliment through problem solving Textbook, reference book, chart Learning materials Discussion,
Analysing,
Classifying

Activities

Addition, substraction, Observing, analysing,
Conversion from one Classifying system to another

Process skills
Discussion,
Illustration,
Problem
solving

Concept/ideas

1. To understand different number Decimal, Binary,
Classifying, Analysing systems through discussions Octal, Hexadecimal and illustrations

Curriculum Objectives

2. Data Representation

Understanding the facts, Teacher evaluation Peer, Teacher evaluation Teacher evaluation

Self evaluation peer evaluation

Teachers evaluation

Completeness clarity of ideas

Evaluation

1hr

1hr

2hrs

3hrs

1hr

Time

• Computer Science

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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

3

COMPUTER SYSTEM
ORGANISATION

Introduction
In this chapter various types of computers are introduced (Digital, Analog, Hybrid) Different types of computer are presented through discussion and observations. The input/output and memory devices are presented through observation and demonstrations. The learner is also introduced to the different classification of software. The learner gets an awareness of multimedia and related field. A general hands-on-practice on PageMaker and Photoshop is provided

Curriculum Objectives


To identify various types of computers through discussion and observation.



To understand computer as a system through discussion, observation and demonstration and prepare notes.



To identify and familiarise various input/output devices through discussion and demonstration. •

To understand various types of memory used in computer through discussion and observation. •

To understand hardware, software and firmware through discussion.



To classify the types of software through discussion and prepare a list.



To get a awareness of multimedia and related field through discussions and demonstration.



To understand digital page setting using pagemaker through discussion, demonstration and practising



To understand graphics, animation using Photoshop through discussion, demonstration and practising.

Syllabus
Types of computer - Analog, hybrid, digital -mini, micro, mainframe super computer, block organisation of a computer system, functional unit of a computer - Input unit, Output unit, CPU, memory unit (Brief description of each unit) , Input devices- keyboard, mouse, light pen, OCR, MICR, OMR, touch screen, joy stick, scanner, digital camera, microphone, output devices- VDU, CRT, LCD, plasma, printer - Impact printer (Line printer, dot matrix),Non
-impact(laser printer, inkjet printer, flexi printer, plotters) I/O devices floppy disk hard diskoptical disk - CD, VCD, DVD, primary memory and secondary memory RAM, DRAM, SDRAM,
ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM,floppy, harddisk, CD DVD, Zip drive, harware and firmware, software - Types of software -system software -operating system, language processors Assembler, interpreter, complier, Application software - packages -GUI , word processor,
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electronic spread sheet, presentation and graphics, data base packages,DTP packages, utilities
-text editor, back up utility compression utility, DBQ, defragmentation, virus scanner, Multimedia
- DTP package, page layout, margin , header, footer, font, graphics and option menu, preparation of table contentss indexs generation of style sheets, usage of width table add/remove fonts.
Photoshop - getting strated with photoshop, working with images and coloues, making selections, painting and editing tools, layers, type, filters

Pre Requisites


Classification of computers



Functions of input/output, CPU and memory unit



Basic knowledge of the terms hardware, firmware and software.



General idea about common packages and utilities



Idea about DTP and its uses.

Activities
Types of Computers (1hr)
3.1 Discussion



Problems : Prepare a list of computers known to you



Learner prepare a list individually in their book according to their previous knowledge



Two or three learners present their list on the black board, which is supplemented by other students and the teacher (as listed in the textbook)



Teacher guides the learners to broadly classify the list into Analog, hybrid and digital



Consolidation: The features of Analog, hybrid , digital Mini, micro, mainframes, super computers are introduced.



Students can prepare notes

Computer As a System (2hrs)
3.4 Discussion



Problem: Prepare a list of real life systems and mention their elements



Students list the systems and its elements individually in their books in five minutes (human system, solar system, school system)



Problem: What are the general features of all the systems mentioned



Guide the students through the functions of a system, requirements for a system to work, who use the system etc.



Students write the features of the systems that they have listed in the book



Two or three students presents their systems in the class, other students add to the list if any.



Consolidation: The computer system is then introduced in comparison with the real life system listed. The elements of the computer system (hardware, software and users) are listed using a diagram



Learners prepare notes on their features.
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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

Various Input/Output Devices (2hrs)
3.3 Observation



Different types of input devices should be displayed before the learners at this stage.



Consolidation: Various input/output devices are introduced



Learners prepare notes based on the observations

Types of Memory (30min)
3.4 Discussion



Problems: What is the need for different types of memory



Guide the discussion through the variations in speed of processor and memory cost etc



After a group work one or two groups present their answers and other groups supplement to it



Consolidation: Primary and secondary memory is introduced



Students prepare notes on types of memory, their features and purpose.

Primary Memory (30min)
3.5 Discussion



In comparison with real life objects, teachers introduces the features and purpose of different categories of primary memory (RAM, ROM, and CPU register) using explanatory diagrams.



Students prepare notes on the different classification of RAM, ROM and CPU registers.



Problems: Prepare a list of difference between RAM and ROM based on above discussions



Learners list them out individually in their books



Consolidation: RAM, ROM and CPU registers are introduced



Students can prepare notes

Secondary Memory (30min)
3.6 Discussion



Problem: Prepare a list of permanent storage devices that is known to you mention their advantages (features) and limitations also.



Students list out the features of the secondary storage devices like magnetic disks ( harddisks, floppy disk etc) and optical disks (CD, DVD etc) from their previous knowledge



Two or three students present their list in the class



Consolidation: Teacher consolidates it according to the textbook



Students read the relevant pages of the textbook in groups of five



Notes are prepared on the workings of these storage devices based on discussions



A number from each group explains the working of one device in the class. Other groups present other devices.



Consolidation: Working of secondary memory is introduced



Learner prepare notes in their working

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Secondary Memory (30min)
3.7 Observation



Damaged hard disk, floppy disk, CDs, DVDs etc should be displayed so that learners can observe their structure and if possible , working



Consolidation: Structure of secondary memory is introduced



Learner can prepare notes based on observation

Types of Software (30min)
3.8 Discussion



Problem: Prepare a list of software known to you



Learner prepare a list individually in their book



Two or three learners present their list on the blackboard, which is supplemented by other students and the teacher (as the list in textbook)



Teacher guides the learners to broadly classify the list into software and software that are used to solve certain problems (application software) and two separate lists are prepared.



Consolidation: System software and application software are introduced.



Students prepare notes

Different types of system software (30min)
3.9 Group Discussion



Problems Using the list prepared in the above activity, classify the system based in their use. •

Students discuss in groups and distinct points are presented.



Consolidation: Operating system and language process are introduced.



Students prepare notes

Operating System (30min)
3.10 Discussion



Problem: List the features and limitations of the operating systems listed in the above activity.



One or two learner present their notes -other students suppliment it.



Consolidation: Features and functions of the operating system is introduced here



Students prepare notes

Language Processors (30min)
3.11 Brain storming



Problems: How does the basic language coding (commands like print, input etc) work,
(Basic commands are covered in the IT textbooks of high schools classes)



They also discuss chapter where they have learned that the internal representation of data in binary form

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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE



Invite solutions for the problems. The situation is compared with real life situations where translators translate English language to chinese.So that a person knowing only that language understands it. Introduce the concept of translation.



Learners are introduced to the terms computer language, High level language (commands in BASIC) and low level language (Assembly and Machine language) and examples provided. •

The need for the conversion of HTML and Assembly language to machine language is discussed language processors, the type of software that is used to do this conversion is familiarised here.



Problem: List out the sequence of correcting errors and running a BASIC program in the high school classes.



Through their previous knowledge in Basic language, learner recollect that the errors in the lines of a Basic program were listed one line at a time. After correcting this only the next line would be checked and so on. Only after correcting all errors the program could be run.
The learner have familiarises the working of interpreter and its features. Facilitator introduces compiler, assembler and its working through discussion in comparison with interpreter.



Students prepare notes on interpreter, compilers and assemblers.



Problems: Difference between the working of compiler and interpreter.



Learners are divided into groups of five each and they discuss and list the differences



A group is selected at random and a presentation is made other groups suppliment their ideas and the list is consolidated according to textbook



Consolidation : Compiler, interpreter and assembler is introduced



Learner can prepare notes

Categories of Application Software (30min)
3.12 Discussion



Problem: Classify the application software listed in activity 3.8 according to its purpose.



Guide the discussion into 3 categories ( Packages, utilities and customized software) and let learners list out their features



Consolidation : Learner gets an awareness of packages utilities and customised software

Package, Utilities and Customised Software (30min)
3.13 Seminar



Various packages, utilities and customised



Software are given as seminar topics to different learners and following guidelines issued.



Software listed in the textbook should be presented based on its use, features working and examples •

General guidelines for seminar is prescribed in

Data packages and DTP packages are new to learners. Such topics should be discussed in detail with the person taking seminar and before presentation teacher should supplement it if necessary. 88
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3.7

Multimedia - DTP Package (1hr)

Introduction to DTP, uses of DTP


Discussion and Demonstration



Students are divided into groups



They discuss the desk top publishing, use of DTP with previous experiences, from any kinds of resources.



Each group presents their findings



Teacher consolidates the points with



The end product is a photo ready master to be used for printing



Major DTP programs Aldus pagemaker, corel ventura, qurak express



Uses of DTP



Creating business letter and documents



Leaflets and brochures



Courseware, tutorials, seminar, literature



Poster, badges, newsletter, catalogues




DTP produced professional looking documents integrating text and graphics.

Books magazines , advertising material and anything that requires attractive print out

Students should individually prepare notes

3.8 Pagemaker 7.0 (1hr)



Getting started with pagemaker 7.0



Demonstration and practical experience



Teacher demonstrate the pagemaker window in the lab



Students are asked to observe and prepare a list of components what they seen in the window



Finally the teacher consolidates and should contain the following points


Title bar



Control button (minimize, maximize, /restore, close)



Menubar



Control palette



Toolbox



Style/colour palette



Discuss the above components and identify the functions of each components



Students prepare notes on them

3.9 Components of a sample document (1hr)



Discussion



Each group discuss the components of a document and presents their listings



Teacher consolidates their findings and should contain the following points.

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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

Header

Indentation

Pagenumber

Bullet list

Paragraph Specification

Drop cap


Graphic

Subheading

Paragraph spacing

Students should prepare notes on them

3.10 Working with text (30min)



Discussion and practising

The following points are discussed



Moving text blocks



Removing text blocks



Importing text



Deleting text




Entering the text

Importing graphics

On the basis of the discussion students make note on them, and practice in lab

3.11 Formatting Text (30min)



Through discussion and practising



Following points are to be discussed



Making text bold , Italiazing



Underlining, Aligning the text



Style sheets



Creating and Applying



Importing styles




Changing the font size

Bullets and numbering

Teacher practising the above items in lab and instructed the students to prepare notes

3.12 Working with graphics and objects (1hr)



Through discussion and practice



Following points are to be discussed



Wrapping text around a graphic



Importing, moving, resizing a graphic



Adding caption to graphic



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Placing the graphic





Adding text to graphic

Cropping a graphic

On the basis of discussion, students express their observation and teacher consolidates the discussion and learners are asked to practice the above points in lab.

• Computer Science

3.13 Managing and Printing a Publication (30min)



Through discussion and practice



Following points are to be covered


Page numbering



Page size



Margins



Table of contents



Managing books



Printing a publication



Teacher encourage and give necessary help to learners in discussion



Group presents their findings



Teacher consolidate the points considering the above facts



Students should practice the topics in lab and prepare notes.

3.14 Poster creation (sample) (30min)



Observation of a model poster



Teacher shows a model poster and a discussion conducts on the following points.


Page layout



Formatting



Communicating



Appearance



Students identify the features involved in the poster and prepare a list of common features of any poster.



Students design a poster individually with the help of the following points


What are the content of poster?



How it can be arranged?



What alignments to be included?



How graphic is imported?



What colours can be used?



How bullets and numbering can be used.

3.15 Self Evaluation and peer evaluation (30min)



Work done by each student is observed by others.

3.16 Assignment (lab) (30min)



Following steps to take for a DTP assignment


Define clearly the final output required



Design the layout



Define pages, margin, text and graphics frames



Import text and place it in the defined page
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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

3.8

PHOTOSHOP

3.8 Photoshop
Introduction
Photoshop is an important tool for graphic designers who have to work with images. This module depicts the basis of photoshop

Curriculum Objectives


To understand photoshop file and photoshop screen through demonstration and practices



To familiarise various methods available in photoshop for working on images through demonstration and practice.



To understand selection tools and commands through demonstration and practice.



To understand painting and editing tools through demonstration and practices



To understand type through demonstration and practice



To understand the special effects on images through demonstration and practice.

Syllabus
Geting started with photoshop - opening an existing file, The photoshop program window, creating a new file, saving files, reverting files, closing files. Working with images and colours
- Bitmap and vector images, Opening recently used files, image size, editing photographs, editing images, colour modes, file formats, for ground and back ground colours , colour picker palette, the eye - dropper tool, Swatches palette.
Making Selection - The selection tools, Grow and similar commands, moving a selection,
Editing selection Filling selection , Transforming selection, inverting selection.
Painting and Editing Tools - Painting tools, Drawing tools, editing tools toning tools, eraser tools.
Layers - Layers Palette, creating a new layer, selecting layer, hiding/showing layers, deleting layer, sorting layer, merging layers, linking layers adjustment layers, layer effects, transforming layers. Type - Creating type, changing the type settings, Point type, paragraph type, wrapping type, styles, types layers, The type selection
Filters - The filters menu, artistic filters, blur filters, brush stroke, filters, Distort filters,
Noise filters, Pixelatte filters, render filters, sharpen filters sharpen filters, other filters

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Activities
3.8.1

Getting with photoshop (1hr)



Teacher demonstrates the photoshop program and file and ask the students to write down the tools in the tool box and file observation



Teacher should check the following points are noted down



creating a new file



Saving files



Reverting files



closing file




Opening an existing file

The components of the program window such as title bar, menu bar, image window image title bar

Each student should practice the above points

3.8.2 Working with images and colours (2hrs)



Teacher demonstrates the various methods for working on images and ask the students to write down the points of each methods.



Teacher should check the students noted down the following points




Bitmap

Vector images



Image size



Editing photographs



Editing images



colour models



File formats




opening recently used files

Foreground and back ground colour

Each student should practice the points

3.8.3 Making selection (2hrs)



Teacher demonstrates the selection tools and commands and ask the students to write down tools •

Teacher should consolidates the following points.


Marquee selection tools.



Lasso tools



Magic wand tools



Grow and similar commands



Moving a selection



Editing selection
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Transforming selection




Filling selection
Inverting selection

Each student should practice the above tools

3.8.4

Painting and editing (2hrs)



Teacher demonstrates painting and editing tools and ask the students to write down the procedure of each tools.



Teacher should consolidates the following points



air brush tool



paint bucket tool



pencil tool



history brush tool



art history brush tool




Paint brush tool

Blur, sharpen, smudge, clone, stamp, and pattern stamp, Eraser.

Each student should practice the above tools

3.8.5 Layer (1hr)



Teacher demonstrates layer and layer palette and ask the students to write the points



Teacher should consolidates the following points



Show a layer



Hide a layer



sort layer



reposition layer



Merge two or more layer




Creates a new layer

Flatten all the layers in an image into one

Each student should practice the above image

3.8.6 Type (1hr)



Teacher demonstrates. Type and its tools and ask the students to write down the points.



Teacher should check the following points/tools are noted down by the students



Wrapping type



Styles



Type layers



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Changing the type settings





Creating type - point type and paragraph type

Type selection

Each students should practice the above tools

• Computer Science

3.8.7 Filter (1hr)



Teacher demonstrate how filters are used to add special effects to image and ask the students to write down the procedure.



Teacher should check the following points/ tools are noted down by students



Artistic filters



Brush stroke filters



Distort filters



Noise filters



Pixelatte filters



Render filters



Sharpen filters




Filter menu

Other filters

Each student should practice the above tools

Reference
1

Comdex - Desktop Publishing Course Kit by Vikas Gupta dream tech press

2

Photoshop by Collin smith dramtech press.

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Concept/ideas

Keyboard, mouse, light pen, OCR,
MICR, OMR, touch screen, joystick, scanner, digital camera, microphone,
VDU,CRT, LCD,
Plasma, Line printer, dot matrix printer, laser, inkjet, flexi printers 4 To understand various types of RAM, DRAM, memory used in computers SDRAM,ROM,PROM, through discussion and EDROM, demonstration. EEPROM, floppy, harddisk, CD, DVD, zip drive

3To identify and understand various input/output devices through observation and demonstration 2 To understand computer as a Computer system system through discussion observation and demostration

1.To identify various types of Analog, hybrid, computer through discussion digital- Mini, Micro, mainframe super and observation computer Curriculum Objectives

3. Computer System Organisation

Observation

Demonstration

Discussion

Observation

Observation

Discussion

Activities

Discussion
Demonstration

Analysing

Communicating
Observing
Analysing

Demonstration

Observing

Communicating

Analysing

Observing

Communicating

Analysing

Observing

Process skills

Charts, Notes

Notes

Notes

Products

Memory devices Notes
Reference book

Reference book

Input /output devices Reference book

Reference book computer Learning materials participation in
Discussion

Notes

Teacher Evaluation

Notes, participation in Discussion

Notes, Participation in Dicussion

Evaluation

2hrs

2hrs

2hrs

1hr

Time

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

Printing a document

8 To understand digital page Components of setting using pagemaker sample document through discussion demon
Formatting text stration and presentation
Graphics

7 To get an awarness of Editors multimedi and related field Tools through discussion and
Features
demostration

Application software

Langauge processing

Experiencing

Practice

Demonstration Pagemaker S/w

Analysing
Observing

Discussion

Communicating

Reference book

Analysing,
Experiencing

Demonstration, Multimedia, DTP packagecomputer Practice

Reference book

Discussion

Various softwares Reference book

Reference book

Learning materials Communicating

Analysing

Communicating

Discussion
Classification

Activities

6 To classify types of software System software through discussion. operating system

Process skills

Discussion

Concept/ideas

5 To identify hardware, firmware Hardware, Firmware, Communicating and software through discussion Software

Curriculum Objectives

3. Computer System Organisation

Work diary

Notes

Notes

Notes

Products

Teacher Evaluation

Notes, participation in discussion

Notes Participation in Discussion

Notes Participation in
Discussion

Evaluation

6 hrs

1hr

2hrs

1hr

Time

• Computer Science

97
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98
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Concept/ideas

4 To understand painting and editing tools through demonstration and practices
Practice

Interpreting

Paint bruch

Sponge , Eraser

Pattern stamp

blur, sharpen, smudge

Computer learning CD

Demonstration Computer learning CD
Practice

Demonstration Computer learning CD
Practice

Demonstration

pencil tool

Learning materials Products

Notes

Notes

Notes

lists of tools
Demonstration Computer learning
CD
Practice

Activities

Observing

Interpreting

Observing

Interpreting

Communicating

Observing

Interpreting

Communicating

Observing

Process skills

Airbrush

Grow command

File command

3 To understand selection tools Marquee tools adn commands through Lasso tools demonstration and practices
Magic wand tools

2 To familiarise various methods Bitmap available in photoshop for Vector images working on images through
Image modes demostration and practices.

1 To understand photoshop file Tool box and photoshop screen through
Photoshop screen demostration and practice

Curriculum Objectives

3.8. Photoshop

Notes, Observation book Notes , Observation book Notes, Observation book Notes, Observation book Evaluation

2hrs

2hrs

1hrs

1hrs

Time

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

Concept/ideas

7 To understand the special Filter menu effects on images through demonstration and practice

6 To understand type through Type Type settings demosntration and practice. Type style

5 To get an awareness of layers layer through demonstration and practices Curriculum Objectives

3.8. Photoshop
Learning
materials

Products

Demonstration
Practice

Interpreting

Computer learning CD

Notes

Demonstration Computer learning Notes
CD
Practice

Notes
Demonstration Computer learning
CD
Practice

Activities

Observing

Interpreting

Observing

Interpreting

Observing

Process skills

Notes, Observation book Notes , Observation book Notes, Observation book Evaluation

1hr

2hrs

1hr

Time

• Computer Science

99
99

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

4

PRICNCIPLES OF PROGRAMMING

Introduction
Computer are useful in entertainment as well as find solutions for various problems. As we know, computers are machines, having no IQ, proper instructions are given for solving a problem. This unit deals with different phases in programming. Also students get an awareness about the legal implications in using software. Assignments and debate for continuous evaluation included in this unit.

Curriculum Objectives


To understand various phases of programming through discussion, demonstration and listing



To get an awareness about the legal implication in using software through seminars and discussion Syllabus
Principles of programming - Phases in programming, problem identification - Algorithm flowcharts - implementation of algorithm through a language - translation - debugging execution - documentation, testing, -certification. Legal implication in use of software -Licensing and copyright, piracy, free software.

Pre Requisite


Knowledge about algorithm and flowchart

Activities
4.1Concept of programming (1hr)



Prepare a recipe for making an Omlet



Students are divided into groups and give guidelines for the discussions to get the recipe
(Ingredients, processing steps, product)



After discussion group leader presents the findings



Teacher consolidates the findings and also introduce the terms data, input, process, output



Students can make notes with the help of teacher.

4.2

Concept of Algorithm (1hr)



Discuss the term algorithm among the groups and also prepare an algorithm for the activity mention in 4.1



Teacher consolidates the discussion

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Teacher evaluation is conducted



Assignment on numerical problems

4.3 Flow chart symbol and their function (1hr)



Through discussion list the flowchart symbols and their uses that the students studied in high school classes.



Teacher consolidates the listing



Assignment ( class) students are asked to draw the flowchart for the algorithm prepared in activity 4.1



Teacher evaluates the assignment

4.4Coding, translation, debugging, execution, documentation, testing and certification (1hr)



Students discuss how an algorithm can be implemented in a computer



The facilitator can guide the students and give necessary steps to implement an algorithm,
The discussion should cover the point like coding, translation, debugging, execution, documentation, testing and certification



After discussion the teacher consolidates the points as



translate it into machine language - compiler/interpreter



Debugging for error correction and detection



Execution and documentation is for readability and maintainability



Testing for accuracy


4.5

the role of HLL for coding

Students should make notes individually
Licensing copyrights, free software and software piracy (1 hr)



Through discussion list the idea about the terms licensing, copyright, free software and software piracy



Teacher should give necessary help in the discussion



After discussion, the teacher consolidates the points and share additional information if any. •

Students should prepare notes individually

4.6 Supporting Activity (debate) (1 hr)

Free software v/s Licenced software


Teacher is the moderator



Students are grouped in two



Each group can express their idea



Active participation is to be encouraged



Moderator consolidates



Students are asked to prepare notes

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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

Reference
1 Textbook of XI
2 Computer Science +1 Sumita Arora

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Concept/ideas

Free software

2 To get an awareness about the Licenced s/w legal implication in using
Copyright
software through seminar and discussion piracy

Certification

Testing

Documentation

Execution

Debugging

Translation

Coding

Flowchart

1 To understand various phases of Problem programming through identification discussion, demonstration and
Problem Analysis listing Algorithm

Curriculum Objectives

UNIT AN ALYSIS
4. Principles of Programming

Discussion

Problem solving listing

Discussing

Activities

Classifying
Debate

Seminar

Communicating

observing

Communicating

Process skills

Products

Net browsing

Reference
Manual Journal

Notes

Reports

Reference manual Notes
Flowcharts
charts

Learning materials Teacher evaluation

Peer evaluation

Understanding the facts Evaluation

2hrs

4hrs

Time

• Computer Science

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Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

5

PROGRAMMING IN C++

Introduction
In the last unit we discussed about phases in programming and students have the idea in programming through algorithms and flow charts. Here we are introducing C++, an object oriented language (OOP) which is a powerful language for software development. This module begins with the character set of C++ language then to the structure of C++ program. Towards the end of the module learners should be familiarised to the program, development environment and related activities prior to running a program. This can be done through discussions and live demonstrations.

Curriculum Objectives


To understand the basis of C++ language through discussion and illustration, observation distinguish and list the steps involved in creating and running a simple program



To understand different datatypes in C++ by collecting and classifying data from real life situation, Prepare a detailed list showing C++ data types and their features.

Syllabus
Character set, Basic data types, Tokens, structure of C++ program, use of I/O operators,
Use of IDE compiler to demonstrate basic commands of editing compilation, linking and execution. Pre - Requisites


A general idea about formal languages



Different stages in programming



Basic skills for developing program logic through algorithm and flowchart.



Precise idea about different types of literals

Activities
Fundamentals of C++ Language (3hrs)
5.1.1 Discussion



Problem : List the preliminary steps in learning and programming on formal language like
Malayalam and English etc.



Discussion can be conducted and responses are noted
( alphabets, words, phrases, sentences, grammar etc)

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Consolidation: Consolidates the points given above and terminology like character set,token etc are introduced through the analogy.
Alphabet is a language
Words formed by alphabets

to the tokens in C++

Phrases and sentences

to the expressions and statements

Grammer rules


to the character set in C++

to the syntaxes in C++ language

students can prepare notes

Classification of Character set and Tokens
5.1.2



Discussion

How are alphabets in Malayalam or English classified
(Vowels and consonants are expected)



In the statement “Arun is actively participating in discussion, identify the category to which each word belongs
(Parts of speech are expected)



Teacher consolidates the points and classification of characters and tokens are explained through analogies.



Consolidation: classification of character set and tokens are introduced here



Students prepare a list of characters and write notes on different tokens of C++

Data Types
5.1.3 Discussion



Problem: Prepare a biodata containing the details such as name,sex,age date of birth, address
( house name, number, place, post, district, pin) for admission



Discuss and classify the data based on some common features like formation, constitituents etc •

Consolidation: Consolidate the classification as integers, words, fractional number, single, alphabets and data



Discussion is continued to list different types of literals in C++



Responses are noted on the board and the data collected in activity 5.1.3 are categorise under these literals



Introduce the basic data types of C++ highlighting the facts that strings and data have no type names and they will be named by the user



Write different types of data on the board and let the students identify the corresponding type names



Consolidation: different data types in C++



The students prepare notes on basic data type of C++ and their features with examples

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Structure of C++ program
5.1.4 Discussion



Problems : Write a letter to invite your friend for birthday party and lost the part of the letter



Students write the letter individually and parts of the letters are identified in group discussions and the distinct parts are presented by the groups



Consolidation : Consolidates the parts of the letter as follows
From and To
Situation
Punctuation
Body of the letter
Name and signature of the sender



Teacher demonstrates the structure of a C++ program through illustration and explains the position and significance of each part through the following analogies
From and to entries

to the # include statement

Situation

to the main () statement

Punctuation

to the semi colomns an braces

Body of the letter

to the program statements

Name and signature


to the closing statement (return statement)

Students prepare notes on the structure of C++ program

Live Demonstration of IDE
5.1.5 Observation



A gruop of five students are formed and the teacher loads C++ IDE in the computer, and perform different steps like editing, saving, compiling and running a simple program



Students prepare notes on various steps in developing a simple C++ program in their observation book



The above five students then demonstrate for another five groups and make sure that all the students are now able to use the IDE for C++ program development and they have prepared notes in the observation book

Simple C++ programs
5.1.6 Development



Problem : Write a program to display a message



Using the idea obtained while learning the C++ program structure, student individually write program in their observation book and some of them are presented.



Consolidation: Teacher consolidates the steps into a program and students make the corrections if any



The program is entered if any, during compilation and execution are recorded in the observation book

106
1 06

Concept/ideas

1 To understand the basics of C++ language through discussion and illustration , observation, distingush and list the steps involved in creating and running a simple program
Observing
communicating

Process skills

2 To understand different Data types datatypes in C++ by collecting fiundamental and classifying data from real datatypes life situation, prepare a detailed list showing C++ data type and their features
Classifying

Use of IDE software Classifying
Basic data types

C++ charaters set tokens. Curriculum Objectives

UNIT AN ALYSIS
5. 1 Programming in C++

Reference book
IDE software

Learning materials Data Collection Reference book
Classification

Classification

Discussion

Illsuration

Observation

Activities

Notes

Notes

Products

Note

Note participation in discussion Evaluation

1hr

2hrs

Time

• Computer Science

107
1 07

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

5.1

OPERATORS AND EXPRESSIONS

Introduction
In this module we are introducing some new concept and constructs of the language. Here learner understand operators, type conversions, shorthand, variables initialisation etc. A variety of activities like collection classification, list preparation, class assignments, lab assignments etc can be caused out for better transactions of the topics

Curriculum Objectives


To understand C++ operators through reading and discussion and prepare a categorised list of operators

Syllabus
Operators - Arithematic (+,-, *,/, %), unary + and increment and decrement, relational (,
=, ==, !+) Logical (&&, ||,!) Conditional, precedence of operators, expression -Types conversions, Implicit and explicit methods, C++ shorthand, assignment statement, variable intialisation and type compatibility

Pre- Requisities


Basic knowledge in arithmetic operators and their priority



Idea about memory cells, memory word, and their size.

Activities
5.2.1 Discussion : constants and variables



Problem: What is meant by variables in mathematics



List the benefits in using variable in solving problems



Group discussion is conducted and findings are presented



Consolidation: Ensure that the following points are evolved in discussion


A quantity which varies is a variable



English letters are used for representation



Useful for representing numbers



Can have any value at any time



Problem: How are books arranged in library? List the advantages in using portioned shelves for keeping books



Group discussion is conducted and findings are presented

108
1 08

• Computer Science



Consolidation Ensure that the following points are evolved in discussion



Name represent the types of books stored



Portion with a name can have different books at any number of times




Books are arranged in portioned shelves with some names give to them

Books can be easily searched or referenced by specifying the portion name

Problem: List the analogies between the above two consolidations
Discussion is conducted and responses are noted



consolidation: The concept of variables in the context of programming is introduced through the consolidation and pictorial illustrations



Students are asked to draw a box on their note book and name it as total marks



They write their total marks in SSLC examination



Teacher draws a box with the name total marks the board and records the marks of each students one by one



Students recognise that memory location can store one value at a time



Teacher consolidates the values as constants and name as variable

Modifiers
5.2.2 Discussion



Teacher draws a box with the name maximum and total marks and records the maximum marks and total marks of each students



Students recognizes that memory location stores a value which does not change at all



The concept of constant is introduced and illustrates the syntax



Group discussion is conducted to identify the limitation in storing large value with basic data type



Teacher consolidates by introducing type modifiers through illustrations

C++ Operators
5.2.3 Discussion



Students are asked to write the operators which were studied earlier



Discussion conducted and possible to classify the operator



Teacher consolidate by introducing additional operators in the textbook



Students are asked to write programs



Each group presents the program



If correction needed, possible through general discussion



Consolidating : Different C++ operators are introduced



Students make corrections on observation book and execute them in the lab

109
1 09

110
1 10

Concept/ideas

Precedence of operators Conditional

Logical

Relational

Increment decrement 1 To understand C++ operators Operators:through reading and discussion Arithematic and prepare a categorised list of
Unary
operators

Curriculum Objectives

UNIT AN ALYSIS
5.2 Operators and Expressing

Classifying

Communicating

Process skills

Preparation of observation book

Classification

Discussion

Activities
Reference book

Learning materials Notes

Observation book Products
Observation book
Participation in
Discussion

Evaluation

3hrs

Time

Teachers’ Sourcebook VHSE

• Computer Science

5.3

INPUT AND OUTPUT
FUNCTIONS

Introduction
The input and /or output may be of different types. This include character and string types.
C++ have built in functions for performing input and output operations on characters and string type data. This module provides the ability to use such functions so that character and string data can be effectively used. Group activities, individual activities are possible for effective transaction of the topics contained in this module.

Curriculum Objectives


Understand I/O functions through discussion, observation etc and develop programs using them Syllabus
Header files - iostream.h
Stream functions - get(), getline(), put(), write()
Header file - stdio.h
Console function getchar(), get(), get(), put char(), put(), Puts()

Pre-Requisities


Familiarity in using input and output statements of C++ using extraction (>>) and insertion
( and a; int pos =0; /* for storing the position of the last characters in the string *?
While ( a [Pos] ! = ‘\0’)
{
Pos ++;
}
For (int i=pos -1 , j=0; i>=0;i--,j++)
{
b[j] = a[i];
}
b[i]= ‘/0’
Cout >ch;
b. cin.get(ch);

22.

Identify the problem with the following code. int array [5]; i; for (i=0;i…...

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