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Text Book in Mathematics

In: Science

Submitted By debjyotids
Words 1420
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INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:
After presenting the term paper, the students will be able …

* to know the needs and importanceof text book in mathematics. * to know the characteristics of a good text book. * to understand the criteria of a good text book prescribed by UNESCO Planning Commission. * to learn the utility of text book for a mathematics teacher.

INTRODUCTION:
In each school subject text-book is an essential aid and has occupied a pivotal role in educating the children. A text book helps in systematic teaching and learning. In a text book the content organized in a systematic and specific manner. It gives direction to the class work and helps in evaluating pupil’s progress. Thus a text book is useful for both pupil and teacher. A text book contains the subject matter according to a plan and with a specific purpose. Traditionally a text book of mathematics has been an unavoidable instrument in teaching-learning process. Therefore, the text books are the keys of knowledge and considered almost synonymous with schooling.

NEED AND IMPORTANCE:

The text book of mathematics is considered to be a course of study organized according to a set plan and a learning guide rahter than a source book of information. In this support Hurl R. Durglas has emphasized that,”In the analysis with great majority the text book is potent determinant of what and how they will teach.” The text book must be regarded as stractly supporting and supplementary to the teacher’s lesson while bacon has defined that, “text book” is a book designed for class room use. A good text book probably is the cheapest and reliable source of informaiton. It also serves as a reference book and teaching aid for the mahtematics teacher. The need of mathematics text book can be summarised as follows …

1. It serves as a guide for the teachers to proced in an orderly manner according to prescribed syllabus.

2. It stimulates the thinking and reasonng in the minds of pupils beside supplying necessary information.

3. The pupils may have proper view of the subject matter to be studied.

4. It can develop of the habit of self study in students.

5. It helps to complete the assigned home work at home.

6. Learned subject matter can be revised independently with the help of it.

7. It helps in improving teaching efficiency.

8. It helps to solve the problems given in the exercise by understanding the solved examples.

9. It helps to write the given assignments by collecting facts and information from the book.

10. It helps the pupils to acquire the required information with speed and accuracy.

11. It helps the students to make-up their deficiency because of his failure to attend the classes.

12. The text book of lower classes with coloured illustration provide an incentive to learning and attracts the young learners.

13. It helps in correlating mathematics with other subjects and aspects.

14. It is also essential for the critical appraisal of the content.

THE CHARACTERISTICS:

The text book have been criticized for numerous reasons. One reason being that text books lack challenges for pupils. More demanding subject matter then must be printed in texts. If pupils read and study from text books which are too easy, boredom sets in and a lack of challenge is evidence. On the other hand, text book content too complex for students to understand makes for failure to learn.

The characteristics of a good text book of mathematics are as follows …

(A) THE AUTHOR: * For the authors, certain minimum academic and professional qualifications may be prescribed. * The authors should have a certain amount of experience of teaching the subjects. * The author should understand the real learning situations.

(B) THE LANGUAGE: * The text book of mathematics should be written in lucid, simple, precise and scientific language. * The language in a mathematics should be easy and within the comprehension of the students for whom the text book is written. * The sentences should be simple, short and correct. * The mathematical terms must be introduced only after defining them clearly.

(C) THE CONTENT AND ITS ORGANIZATION: * The content given in the text book should be according to the prescribed syllabus for the particular class or grade. * The content should be presented in a suitable language with simple examples.

* The subject matter should be arranged from simple to complex and concrete to abstracts. * The content should be up-to-date and related to the daily life and experiences of the children. * The statements of facts, principles, laws and the theorems must be correct. * The subject matter should create interest in the pupil. * The presentation of subject matter should be more psychological and logical. * A sufficient number of more difficult problems and project should be given for the more advanced and gifted children.

(D) PHYSICAL ASPECTS: * The shape and size of the text book should be proportional neither too large nor too small. It should be handy. * The cover design should be appearing and attractive. * The illustrations and diagrams should be bold, distinct and attractive. * Paper and print of the book should be of a good quality. * There should be no mistake in printing. * The price of the book should be reasonable such that majority of pupils can purchase it.

(E) EXERCISES AND ILLUSTRATIONS: * The problems should be graded in difficulties at the end of each chapter. * The exercises should be such as to help to develop further concepts, desirable attitudes, technical skills and creative power of the pupils. * The exercises should develop the thinking and reasoning power of pupils.

(F) SOME GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:

* A good text book should mention the audio-visual aids and other supplementary reading materials. * Each chapter should be begin with a brief information and end with summary of the chapter. * It should facilitate the use of inductive , analytic, laboratory, heuristic and problem solving method of teaching of mathematics. * It should help the pupils to develop technical skills, scientific attitude and training in scientific method.

UNESCO Planning Commission has also prescribed a criteria of a good text-book as follows … * A text book , first of all meet the requirements of the prescribed syllabus. * The facts, concepts etc., should be modern and with in the comprehension of the learners. * The content should contain only the established facts aiming at shaping integrated modern world out look. * The content should be simple, brief, exact, accessible and definite. * The text book should help in linking up the subject with the daily life experience. * The pupils should be equipped with the “know how” of utilizing the knowledge in every day life.

UTILITY OF TEXT BOOK FOR A MATHEMATICS TEACHER:

The mathematics teacher should not consider that his/her work is confined to transferring the contents of text-book into the minds of the pupils. The text-book should used as means or aid in teaching.
No mathematics teacher can afford to work entirely without a text book. The text book of mathematics may be useful for a teacher to perform the following activities …

* In selecting and organising subject matter properly according to the level of the class. * Text book may be used to help to form right and exact understanding of fundamental laws, principles, formulae and theorems of mathematics. * A mathematics teacher may use text-book for his/her self study. Dr. Thrug remarked that,” A text-book is a teacher of teachers”. * To arouse and maintain interest in mathematics. * To develop certain mathematical abilities and skills among students. * It is used for the construction of test papers by the mathematics teacher. * To help theh pupils for systematic and speedy revision of the content they have learnt. * To lead theh class room discussion to accurate conclusions. * To develop scientific attitude in the learners.

A mathematics text-book therefore occupies and important role in the teaching and learning process. Hence, the mathematics teacher should be familiar with the needs and characteristics of a good text-book. In the words of Douglas,” The teacher and text book make the school.” Similarly Maxwell has also remarked that,” It is at least the medium through which the teacher presents a subject to the class.” Thus it is true that a good text book and an experienced teacher can make the teaching learning process more effective.

CONCLUSION:

The text book of mathematics is and essential aid and has occupied a pivotal role in educating the children. It is useful for both pupil and teacher. The text-books are the keys of knowledge and most influential instrument in determining the subject matter.…...

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