Free Essay

The Acropolis

In: Other Topics

Submitted By frisbee216
Words 463
Pages 2

One of the greatest symbols of Ancient Greek history is the Acropolis, which is one of the most important archeological places in Greece, with four of the greatest masterpieces of Classical Greek art. “The site of the Acropolis includes the Parthenon, the Propylaea, the Erechtheum and the Temple of Athena Nike” ("The Acropolis Of Athens", 2006). The Acropolis, which means “high city” in Greek, sits high above the city of Athens and is representative of a sacred place, it was a citadel of protecting places of worship and important palaces.
The Parthenon
This was one of the most important monuments as well as the largest; and was built between 447 and 432 BC by architects Iktinos and Kallikrates. It was devoted to the protector of the city who was believed to be Goddess Athena, and its primary function was to cover the statue of Athena that was made by Pheidias out of gold and ivory. The Parthenon is a Doric temple surrounded by columns and had two interior rooms; one housed the statue and the other was believed to be a treasury.

The Erechtheion
This temple was located on the opposite side of the Parthenon and was built to hold the religious rituals. It was an intricate temple with an elegant and delicate form, which faced east, and its entrance was lined with six long Ionic columns. Something unusual about this temple is that it had “two porches; one at the northwest corner that was supported by the Ionic columns and the other at the southwest corner which was supported by six massive statues, the famous Caryatids “ ("Erechtheion", 2015), which were pillars that were female figures.

The Propylaea
This was the monumental gateway and served as the entrance to the Acropolis and was designed and supervised by Mnesikles. Its construction began in 437 BC, and its construction stopped abruptly five years later when the Peloponnesian war began. It had five entrances; four of them were to foot passengers and one central enormous entrance for wheeled traffic. The Propylaea’s design was of the Doric order with a few Ionic columns.

The Athena Nike
This temple is smaller than the other temples of the Acropolis and was strategically placed as it protects the south flank of the most vulnerable access point and gate to the citadel. This construction of the temple was completed in 420 BCE, has Ionic features and was designed by Kallikrates.

Every city has an acropolis; however, there is not one more famous than the one in Greece. The temples on the holy rock of the Acropolis are some of the most important world’s buildings. They had an enormous influence on the architecture of the Western World; some examples can be seen from Ancient Rome to the White House.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Ancient Greek Civilization

...The Ancient Greek Civilization Can you imagine 7,000 Spartans holding off 150,000 Persians at the Battle of Thermopylae? It is true. The Ancient Greeks held off one of the most powerful armies of that time so Greece would survive. Greek geography, the city-states, the concept of acropolis, government, military strategy, philosophy, and religion were all contributing factors in the creation and survival of the Greek city-state lifestyle. The geography and climate of Ancient Greece influenced the development of Greek civilization. Mountains separated Greece into regions where the Ancient Greeks settled and formed separate city-states and types of government. The mountains and the peninsula of Ancient Greece isolated Greek society from other city-states and also helped to keep them safe from enemy attack. Transportation over the rocky land was difficult, much of the land was not suitable for farming, and there were limited natural resources. The lack of natural resources and the difficulty of traveling by land caused the Ancient Greeks to depend more on the sea. Ancient Greece was surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea on three sides. Much of the land of Ancient Greece was linked by the sea and the sea also linked Ancient Greece to other societies. The Ancient Greeks became skilled sailors, fishermen, and tradesmen. The climate of Ancient Greece was moderate all year long and there was adequate rainfall. Due to the mild climate, Greek men spent much......

Words: 2101 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


...frieze of the Siphnian Treasury, from the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi. c.530-525 BCE 7 Dying Warrior, from east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, c. 480 BCE. 8 CLASSICAL PERIOD [c. 500-400 BCE] Apollo with Battling Lapiths and Centaurs, from west pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia. c.470-456 BCE. Archeological Museum, Olympia. 9 *Acropolis, Athens 10 *Parthenon, 447-438 BCE 11 *East Pediment of the Parthenon, c.438-432 BCE (pediment sculptures now located at the British Museum, London and Acropolis Museum, Athens). *Lapith Fighting a Centaur, metope relief from the Parthenon. c.440 BCE, the British Museum, London. 12 *Horsemen, detail from the Procession from the Parthenon. c.438-432 BCE, the British Museum, London. *Marshals and Young Women, detail from the Procession from the Parthenon. c.438-432 BCE. Musée du Louvre, Paris . 13 Acropolis, Athens (cont.): [c. 500-400 BCE] *Erechtheion, 430-405 BCE *Temple of Athena Nike, 410-407 BCE 14 Nike (Victory) Adjusting her Sandal, from Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens. 410-407 BCE. Acropolis Museum, Athens. Vocabulary: Doric order Ionic order Corinthian order colonnade porch cella or naos peristyle pediment frieze entablature cornice architrave metopes triglyphs volute fluting caryatids ...

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Athens Aropolis

...Acropolis,which located in central Athens acropolis hill, is the most outstanding ancient Greek buildings. Greek for “Acropolis” means “high city” or “Takaoka on the city-state.” As a representative work of ancient Greek architecture, Acropolis of Athens has reached the highest level of sacred buildings, temples, orders and sculptures in ancient Greece. These ancient buildings can be rated as the heritage of mankind and architectural masterpiece, and hold an important position in architecture history. Acropolis, including four greatest ancient Greek art masterpieces—Parthenon Temple, the Propylaea, the Erechtheum and Temple of Athena Nike, is considered to be a symbol of the world’s traditional concepts. Due to the history, there are many Parthenon marbles which they removed from the temple and transported to England in the British museum. Many people require England to return sculptures while others do not want to. It is a controversy topic and different people have very different opinions. In my point of view, returning is necessary because cultural treasures from ancient civilizations belong in the places they come from. Also, the cultural importance of the marbles are very strong, not only do they possess the power to almost unlock the past of ancient Greece but as well they have the power to unite the local Citizens of Greece to their true heritage. The Acropolis is used to prevent foreign invasion of the fortress, surrounded by the walled hilltop, site of the......

Words: 1298 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Culture of Early Civilization

...------------------------------------------------- Euripides * ------------------------------------------------- Acropolis * ------------------------------------------------- Parthenon Acropolis The Parthenon Parthenon Metopes Minoan Art Greek Pottery Sculpture and Art Architecture in ancient Greece: Greek life was dominated by religion and so it is not surprising that the temples of ancient Greece were the biggest and most beautiful.They also had a political purpose as they were often built to celebrate civic power and pride, or offer thanksgiving to the patron deity of a city for success in war. * Greek Temple Architecture The Greeks developed three architectural systems, called orders, each with their own distinctive proportions and detailing. The Greek orders are: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. Doric The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. | Ionic The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands. | Corinthian The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves. | Doric Order: Parthenon - temple of Athena Parthenos ("Virgin"), Greek goddess of wisdom, on the Acropolis in Athens. The Parthenon was built in......

Words: 3346 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Art Through the Ages

...the Parthenon and medieval Gothic cathedrals such as Salisbury or Amiens cathedrals. The paper will also include the date each structure was built, the main purpose it was built and the type of architecture. The major architectural innovations in each style and the obvious symbolism of each style will also be included. The integral sculptures will also be included and which style the author personally find more interesting, appealing and why. The Acropolis of Athens is a complex of buildings on top of the Acropolis rock watching over Athens. The most recognizable building on the Acropolis is the Parthenon; this structure is one of the most iconic structures in the world. The building is old but stand strong and continue to influence modern-day architecture every western country. Under the leadership of Pericles, the Parthenon was built sometime between the years 447-432 BCE. The structure was designed to be the focus of the Acropolis building complex and was dedicated to the goddess Athena Pallas. The building project of the Acropolis was to demonstrate the political and cultural achievements of Athens and Greece and to accommodate the enormous statue of Athena that was made of gold and ivory by Pheidias. The Parthenon continues to marvel anyone who visits the historic site. Earthquakes, wars, vandalism and looting resulted in dilapidated structure seen today which is a shadow of its former glory. Many modern structures such as the United States White house and different......

Words: 867 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

This Paper Will Be Using Sculptural and Ceramic Illustrations Provided by Soltes, Explain the Evolution from Geometric Greek Art Into Classical Greek Art, Culminating with the Construction and Decoration of the

...heroes and past legends including animals and humans. The growth of new trade routes and the opportunities for colonization permitted Greek art to flourish. Large temples and sanctuaries were built in tribute to the Gods and were furnished with precious statues and art. The armed warrior, the chariot, and the horse are the most familiar symbols of the Geometric period. The only thing that was yet to emerge from this newly burgeoning Greek passion for the arts was the solid stone statue. The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon, is now a ruin lying atop the Acropolis of Athens. The Parthenon was built to house a huge gold and ivory statue of the goddess Athena, patron of the polis of Athens. The polis was the Greeks' distinctive political formation which was a walled town with surrounding villages and countryside, and politically independent of its neighbors. The high place of a polis, which was called the acropolis, was the site of shrines to locally important gods. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece and of ancient democracy and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. Parthenon is in front of all the other monuments of Greek architecture for the combination of judiciousness and his brashness, brilliance and simplicity. The balance of these elements, perfection of composition, is related certainly with the maturity of thought of Pericles, his......

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Eiffel Tower

...symbol of France and brought a sense of pride to the people who live there. PARTHENON AND THE ACROPOLIS * Parthenon looking from the west at the west facade. The architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates. * It is the most important and characteristic monument of the ancient Greek civilization and still remains its international symbol. * It was dedicated to Athena Parthenos (the virgin), the patron goddess of Athens. * It was built between 447 and 438 B.C. And its sculptural decoration was completed in 432 B.C. * The construction of the monument was initiated by Pericles; * The supervisor of the whole work was Pheidias, the famous Athenian sculptor; * Iktinos (or Ictinus) and Kallikrates (Callicrates) were the architects of the building. * The temple was constructed to house the new cult statue of the goddess by Pheidias and to proclaim to the world the success of Athens as leader of the coalition of Greek forces which had defeated the invading Persian armies of Darius and Xerxes. * The temple would remain in use for more than a thousand years, and despite the ravages of time, explosions, looting, and pollution damage, it still dominates the modern city of Athens, a magnificent testimony to the glory and renowned the city enjoyed throughout antiquity. * The project to build a new temple to replace the damaged buildings of the Acropolis following the Persian attack on the city in 480 BCE and restart the aborted temple project......

Words: 2741 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Bud Not Buddy Some people think the book was written by a very good cook named Marcus Gavius Apicus. Others don’t think that this book came from him. The book does not tell how to prepare the dishes, but it does tell what to put in each dish. European historical architecture are among the most well–known in the world. One example of a famous architectural structure is called “Stonehenge,” in England. Stonehenge has many, very large stones set up in circles. No one knows why the stones were set up that way, because it was at a time before history was recorded. Many people think Stonehenge is holy. In addition to Stonehenge, The “Acropolis” in Athens, Greece is also very famous for its architectural structures. The Acropolis is a flat–topped hill, which lies about 150 meters above sea level. Many historical temples and other buildings were built on the Acropolis. The Acropolis is a huge tourist site. About 14 million people visit this location each year. Modern European buildings are also tourist sites. The Eiffel Tower is the fifth tallest building in France. When it was built in 1889, it was the world’s tallest building. More than 200,000,000 people have visited the Eiffel Tower since it was built. It was named after Gustave Eiffel, who designed it. It is now a symbol of France. The year 2009 marks the 150th birthday of another famous tourist site in Europe: Big Ben. Big Ben is located atop the Westminster Palace in London, England. Big Ben is the largest four–faced chiming clock......

Words: 1074 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Research Proposal

...the goddess was still kept on the Acropolis at the time of Pausanias (2nd century AD).[6] It was located by the temple of Pandrosus, next to the Parthenon. According to Herodotus, the tree had been burnt down during the Persian Wars, but a shoot sprung from the stump. To the Greeks they saw this as a symbol that Athena still had her mark there on the city.[2] Plato, in his dialogue Cratylus, offers his own etymology of Athena's name connecting it to the phrase ἁ θεονόα or hē theoû nóēsis (ἡ θεοῦ νόησις, 'the mind of god').[7] Geographical setting Map of the Environs of Ancient Athens. The site on which Athens stands was first inhabited in the Neolithic period, perhaps as a defensible settlement on top of the Acropolis ('high city'), around the end of the fourth millennium BC or a little later.[8] The Acropolis is a natural defensive position which commands the surrounding plains. The settlement was about 20 km (12 mi) inland from the Saronic Gulf, in the centre of the Cephisian Plain, a fertile valley surrounded by rivers. To the east liesMount Hymettus, to the north Mount Pentelicus. Ancient Athens, in the first millennium BC, occupied a very small area compared to the sprawling metropolis of modern Athens. The ancient walled city encompassed an area measuring about 2 km (1 mi) from east to west and slightly less than that from north to south, although at its peak the ancient city had suburbs extending well beyond these walls. The Acropolis was situated just south of......

Words: 5137 - Pages: 21

Free Essay


... Sept 12 2014 9 Jogues Social Studies Mga Naambag ng Greek 1 Olympics The Greeks invented athletic contests and held them in honour of their gods. The Isthmos game were staged every two years at the Isthmos of Corinth. The Pythian games took place every four years near Delphi. The most famous games held at Olympia, South- West of Greece, which took place every four years. 2 ACROPOLIS The Athenian Acropolis History Acropolis history is difficult to pin down in its early years, as it disappears into myth and legend. Originally an acropolis was an easily defensible position and was usually the home of the local king or ruler. Although not as important as the centres of Mycenae and Tiryns during the 2C BC, Athens became more important as they lost their influence. The word 'acropolis' means 'high city' or 'upper part of the city'. Many ancient Greek cities had them, so there is an acropolis at Lindos in Rhodes, for example. But the term has become almost exclusively associated with Athens, so when people say 'the acropolis', you can be sure they are referring to the one at Athens. 3 PLATO Plato was a classical Greek philosopher born 428-7 B.C.E and died in 348-7 B.C.E at the age of 80-81. The trio of Plato, Socrates (his teacher) and Aristotle (his student) they laid the fundamentals of Western philosophy. Along with being a mathematician he was a also a philosopher and a founder of an Academy in Athens, which was first......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The British Museum to Return Parthenon Marbles to Greece

...THE BRITISH MUSEUM TO RETURN PARTHENON MARBLES TO GREECE The Acropolis museum gives way for the Parthenon sculptures that are in Athens to be appreciated against ancient Greece’s backdrop. Museums are a valuable resource that provides an opportunity for the world to reexamine the past and the cultural activities associated with the history. The Parthenon sculptures are essential elements in the interconnectedness of the world and the political boundaries. The discussion has an argument on whether the British Museum should return the Parthenon (aka Elgin) Marbles to Greece. The Greek archaeology society was founded in 1830, and there in their first meeting, the president ordered the return of marbles. The people of Greece regard these artifacts as the symbols of their culture and their heritage. Historians also argue that the sculptures are an integral part of the temple structures that are still standing in Athens. The placement of the statues in London is unappealing to the Greeks since it is considered to be the biggest museum to tell us about the development in the ancient Greece. They are being used as significant features of the British identity yet they should be unified and viewed in a larger framework to present the Greek art in a chronological narrative (Fineberg, Amos & Lang, 1985). The British Museum was among the first museums used to enlighten society. The museum was considered beneficial to the public in the fact that it was used to expose the pieces of......

Words: 1130 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Greek Influences in Art

...AR 115 March 29, 2013 Greek Influences in Art The Greeks have had a prolonged effect on Western art. The statues and carvings, as well as their architecture, has withstood the test of time and cemented their place in history as the one of the most influential founders of modern art. All three of the periods in Greek history, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic, have produced many marvels in the art world. Their methods of construction have been tried and true in withstanding thousands of years of destructive conflicts, wars, and weathering. The Kore and Korous, as well as the acropolis, are perfect examples of this. THREE PERIODS IN GREEK HISTORY The first period in Greek history is called the Archaic period. During this era, around the seventh century B.C., they produced naturalistic styles of pottery and statues that showed influences from Egypt as well as other Near East areas. The Kore and Korous were produced during this period. The Korous, a simple life size portrayal of a naked youthful man, was used as tributes to the male form. They were sculpted standing in a frontal pose with their left leg moved forward, their arms close to their bodies touching the side of their thighs. The high regard and admiration of the male form were perfectly portrayed in these sculptures. The Kore on the other hand were more basic and sculpted as clothed. The Kore was the clothed female version of the Korous. The statues were carved standing erect with their feet......

Words: 782 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...The Parthenon Throughout my career in the United States Navy, I have been fortunate enough to be able to go to the Acropolis and observe the different structures. I was really intrigued with the design and condition of the Parthenon. The Parthenon is one of the largest and most important structure on the Acropolis. It was a temple built between 447 BC and 438 BC, for the virgin goddess, Athena Parthenos. The design illustrates the refinement of ancient Greek architecture, and uses the traditional cella and peristyle plan. During the high classical period, the standard was believed to be excellence. The Parthenon was built to set that standard of excellence. It was built with the finest white marble and was richly decorated inside to include a statue of Athena made of great gold and ivory. The design shows the style of art in classical period, with the Doric building with ionic features mixed in. The Parthenon has 8 columns along the front, and 17 along each side. That made it more than most Doric temples. The decoration of the Parthenon was organized into 3 elements. First was the pediment, then panels called metopes around the outer wall, and then the carved stone frieze that was on the outside of the inner building. Some of the architecture in the Parthenon is similar to that of surrounding buildings. The curvature of the stylobate platform, the plate that the column sits on, is designed the same way. The plate has an upward curvature to......

Words: 497 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...beautiful and historical architecture and landscape. Some of the historic buildings date back from 2800 BC. The Acropolis in Greece is one of the world’s most significant monuments. The Parthenon, one of the structures within the Acropolis, has become a meaningful sacred place for the people of Greece. The temple is dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, who is the virgin patron of Athens [ (Gray) ]. Athena represents the gifts of intellect and understanding and is the symbol of the universal human aspiration for wisdom. The Parthenon has served as a Greek temple, a treasury, a fortress, a church and a mosque [ (Rhodes) ]. It also functioned to protect the statue of Athena, made of gold and ivory. The physical features of the monument allowed it to become a place of worship for many. The Acropolis is part of a limestone ridge that cuts through the Attica plateau in the northeast to the southwest and includes the hills of Likavitos, Philopappos, Nymphs and the Pnyx [ (Sakoulas) ]. It is located 156 meters above the valley of Ilissos and is essentially a flat-topped rock that measures 300 meters long by 150 meters wide. The construction of the Parthenon began in 447 BC and was only completed in 432 BC. Due to the numerous landfills that have been created to accommodate construction of the temples since the Mycenaean era, the top of the rock is flat [ (Sakoulas) ]. The Acropolis consists of many shallow caves, bubbling water springs and steep slopes. The physical features......

Words: 491 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Athens, the Original Eternal City simply a backwater pretender to Athens. Democracy is probably Athens most well known characteristic, but it was not always that way. Like every other Greek city during the Mycenaean period (1500-1200 B.C.E.), Athens was once ruled by a king. Little is known of Athens during this period, though the archeological record combined with popular myth from later periods may give us an insight. The names of several legendary kings of Athens have come down to us: in particular Erectheus, the first king, who was believed to have established the worship of the goddess Athena on the Acropolis, and Theseus, killer of the Minotaur, who (according to the Greek historian Plutarch) unified Attica (Connolly 10). Legend tells of many kings in Athens during the Mycenaean period, but no evidence has been found to validate any of these mythical, heroic monarchs. Evidence of a wall around the Acropolis and traces of a Mycenaean palace do confirm the notion of a Bronze Age monarchy, however. Mycenaean Athens, like every other Greek city, vanished not long after 1200 B.C.E. The disappearance of Mycenaean civilization is often attributed to the Dorian invasion, and more recently to a natural disaster. Though the exact reason for this general breakdown of civilization is not known, it can most probably be attributed to a number of things. Rivalry and warfare between Greek cities, the decline of trade in the eastern Mediterranean, and over-population all lead to the eventual......

Words: 5064 - Pages: 21

Saving Private Ryan | Thriller | Nikon AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.4G Lens - As-new condition