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The Currency and Monetary System in Hk

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论港币存在必然性及合理性 ——探究香港货币金融制度
结题报告

The currency and monetary system in HK The Concluding Report

Written by:Xin,Wu
Instructed by: Yi, Yang May,2014

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【摘要】
本报告简单研究了香港的货币政策,金融管理,并且对香港金融风暴以及香港货币制度进行了简单的分析。

【问题提出】 作为全球最大的金融中心之一的香港,同时作为中国“一国两制”地区之一。奉行资本主义制度的香港的金融体系又是如何管理以做到稳定的呢?香港的货币政策与大陆的货币政策又有什么不同呢?

【研究方案】
1、网络(主要了解宏观信息)
2、相关人员支持(咨询人员)

目录
Ⅰ 现存制度现状及分析 1.1银行三级发牌制度 1.2香港发钞机制 1.3香港的汇率调控 1.4香港金融基建 HKMA的职能
1.5港币相对稳定的原因分析

Ⅱ 香港货币制度历史

Ⅲ 分析
3.1香港的货币制度与97年金融风暴
3.2香港货币制度的利与弊 3.2.1现存货币制度的优势 3.2.2现存货币制度的弊端
3.3香港执行联系汇率制度的原因
3. 4香港货币制度若用于中国将产生的问题

结论

Ⅰ.现存制度现状及分析
1.0总体情况
香港是主要的国际金融中心, 金融机构和市场紧密联系, 为本地和海外的客户及投资者提供各类投资产品及服务。香港金融市场的特色是流通量高,市场在有效和具透明度的监管下运作, 各项监管规例都符合国际标准。 香港特别行政区(香港特区)政府恪守尽量不干预金融市场运作的原则,并尽力提供一个有利营商的环境。政府实施低税政策和推行简单的税制,使各类商业有更多主动权及创新空间。香港十分重视法治及维持巿场的公平竞争,不会阻止外国公司参与本地的金融市场,更不会限制资金进出本港。此外,本港亦无实施外汇管制。 金融市场:银行业方面,截至2006年5月底,香港有134间持牌银行、32间有限制牌照银行和33间接受存款公司。此外,有88间外资银行在本港设有代表办事处,分行总数约1 300间(不包括在本港的主要营业地点)。这些外资银行来自37个国家,其中69间是属于全球最大的100间银行。香港的银行从事多方面的零售及批发银行业务,例如接受存款、贸易融资、公司财务、财资活动、贵重金属买卖及证券经纪业务。 香港已连续11年(1995年-2005年)获美国传统基金会评为经济最自由的地方。香港的银行业务约有57%以外币为单位,并以对外为主,显示香港在全球银行业中的重要地位。截至2005年年底,各间银行及接受存款机构所持的海外净资产总值16,040亿港元,使香港成为全世界最大的银行中心之一。

1.1银行三级发牌制度

1.1.1持牌银行 a) 只有持牌银行才可经营往来及储蓄户口业务,并接受公众任何数额与期限的存款,以及支付或接受客户签发或存入的支票。 1.1.2有限制牌照银行 b) 有限制牌照银行主要从事商人银行及资本市场活动等业务,亦可接受50万港元或以上任何期限的存款。 1.1.3接受存款公司 c) 接受存款公司大部分由银行拥有或与银行有联系,主要从事私人消费信贷及证券等专门业务。公司只可接受10万港元或以上,最初存款期最少为3个月的存款。

1.2香港发钞机制 1.2.1 发钞银行在联系汇率制度下向政府外汇基金交出美元,以发行同等金额港元。 银行收回流通后的旧货币,并赎回美金 不适合流通的货币运往堆填场处理并重新利用制造新钞

1.2.2 货币发行局制度 香港的联系汇率制度属于货币发行局制度,在这个制度下,货币基础的流量和存量必须有充足的外汇储备支持,透过严谨和稳健的货币发行局制度得以实施。香港并没有真正意义上的货币发行局,纸币大部分由3家发钞银行即汇丰银行、渣打银行、中国银行(香港)发行。法例规定发钞银行发钞时,需按7.80港元兑 1美元的汇率向金管局提交等值美元,并记入外汇基金的帐目,以购买负债证明书,作为所发钞纸币的支持。…...

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