Free Essay

The House

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By rollol9
Words 1250
Pages 5
A Brief History of UNIX
• Originally developed at AT&T Bell Labs
– Late 1960s and early 1970s
– Distributed in source code form

• Two standard versions evolved:
– AT&T Bell Labs produced SystemV (SysV)
– UC Berkeley developed BSD

• Linux might be considered a more integrated version of UNIX than its predecessors
• POSIX: effort of experts from industry, academia, and government to standardize UNIX


UNIX Concepts


Linux and UNIX
• Linux is a UNIX-like operating system
– Not written from the traditional UNIX code
– Kernel created to look and act like UNIX
• Enhancements include the POSIX standards
• Linus Torvalds released it free of charge in 1991

– Many distributions are available:

Debian GNU/Linux
Red Hat Enterprise Linux openSUSE Linux

Introducing UNIX/Linux Shells
• Shell: program that interprets commands you enter from keyboard
– Bourne shell, developed by S. Bourne (AT&T Bell
Labs), was the first UNIX command processor
– Another Bell employee developed the Korn shell
• History feature

– C shell is designed for C programmers’ use
– Linux uses Bash shell as its default shell

• Graphical user interface (GUI) desktop can open a terminal window


Introducing UNIX/Linux Shells


Choosing your Shell
• Shells do much more than interpret commands
– Extensive built-in commands turn shells into firstclass programming languages

• A default shell is associated with your account when it is created
– You may switch to another shell after you log in

• Many users prefer the Bash shell
• Other shells:
– Bourne, ksh, csh, ash, tcsh, zsh


Switching from Shell to Shell
• Switch to another shell by typing the shell’s name on the command line
– For example, type tcsh, bash, or ash
– Work in that shell until you:
• Log in again
• Type another shell name on the command line

• Users often use one shell for writing shell scripts and another for interacting with a program



Choosing User Names and Passwords
• Log in using a unique user name and password
– User name is the same name used for electronic mail • Some UNIX versions recognize only first 8 characters
• Most versions of Linux recognize up to 32 characters

– Must choose a password
• Must have 6+ characters in newer versions
• Must be hard to guess!
• Change your password using passwd

• Common ways to access UNIX/Linux systems:
– Telnet, SSH, client SW, dumb terminal, etc.

Connecting to UNIX/Linux Using
Telnet or SSH
• Telnet is a terminal emulation program
– Example: telnet

• Computers in a network are identified by IP address and (sometimes) a domain name
– Examples:,

• Secure Shell (SSH) was developed for UNIX/Linux systems to provide authentication for TCP/IP applications – Example: ssh user@hostname


Logging In to UNIX/Linux



Using Commands
• To interact with UNIX/Linux, you enter a command
– UNIX/Linux are case sensitive
• John differs from john

– Two categories:
• User-level commands
• System-administration commands

– Must know a command’s syntax to enter it properly
• Need to know options and arguments

– Commands are typed on the command line


The date Command

-u option displays the time in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

The cal Command

-j option used to determine the Julian date


The who Command
• Determines information about who is logged in
– Important for the administrator
– Commonly used options include:

am I for information about your session whoami to see what account you are using
-H to show column headings
-u to show idle time for each user
-q for a quick list and total of users logged in
-b to verify when the system was last booted


The clear Command
• As you continue to enter commands, your screen might become cluttered
• Use the clear command to clear your screen
– No options or arguments


The man Program
• Online manual called the man pages



The man Program (continued)
• History section shows that command appeared in
Version 6 AT&T UNIX


The whatis Command
• Administrator may need to execute whatis to create database first


Command-line Editing
• Shells support certain keystrokes for performing command-line editing
– Bash supports ß and à to move cursor



Multiple Command Entries
• Type multiple commands on command line by separating them with a semicolon
– date ; cal


The Command-line History
• Most shells keep a list of recently used commands
– You can recall a command without retyping it
• Access command history with up/down arrow keys
• Press Enter to execute command once you find it

– Feature saves time and decreases frustration


Logging Out of UNIX/Linux
• When you are done, log out for security
– Ends your current process
– Indicates to OS you are finished
– For the Bourne, Korn, or Bash shells:
• Enter exit on command line
• Or, press Ctrl+d

– In C shell, enter logout on the command line

• However, if you are using a GUI, these commands will only close terminal window
– Use the Log Out option for the desktop instead


Understanding the Role of the
UNIX/Linux System Administrator
• A system administrator manages the system
– Also called the superuser
• Adds new users
• Deletes old accounts
• Ensures that system performs services well and efficiently for all users

– Unique user name: root

• Ordinary users are all other users


The System Administrator’s Command
• Default setting:[root@hostname root]#
– hostname: name of computer the system administrator logged in to
• May simply be localhost: refers to the local computer


The Ordinary User’s Command Line
• Common formats:
[username@hostname username] $
[username@hostname ~] $ username@hostname: →

– username: user’s login name
– hostname: name of computer to which user is logged in
– Note: ~ refers to the user’s home directory



Changing Passwords
• A password is confidential and secures your work on the system
• To change your password, use passwd

Some rules will apply depending on system
Administrators can add rules of their own
You must know your current password to change it
If account does not have a password, use passwd command to create one


Viewing Files Using the cat, more, less, head, and tail Commands
• more and less display a file one screen at a time
– more scrolls only down
– less enables you to scroll down and up

• cat displays the whole file at one time
– Comes from “concatenate”: to link

• Use head or tail to view first or last lines of a file
– 10 lines by default


Redirecting Output
• > is an output redirection operator
– Creates a new file or overwrites an existing file by attaching it to a command that produces output
– Examples: who > current_users cat > filename

• To append output to an existing file, use >>
– Adds information to the end of an existing file without overwriting that file



• The OS is the most fundamental computer program
• UNIX/Linux OSs are multiuser and multitasking systems • UNIX/Linux systems can be configured as servers, client workstations, client/server workstations, or stand-alone workstations
• Concept of OS layered components originated with
• In UNIX/Linux, you communicate with OS programs through an interpreter called the shell

Summary (continued)
• In UNIX/Linux, the system administrator sets up accounts for ordinary users
• The commands you type to work with UNIX/Linux have a strict syntax
– Learn syntax by referring to the man pages
– Examples of commands: who, cal, date, passwd

• Shells provide command-line editing capabilities and keep a history of your recently used commands
• Use cat, less, more, head, and tail to view files


Command Summary



Command Summary (continued)…...

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