Free Essay

The Role of Curriculum in Teacher Development

In: Other Topics

Submitted By mikes23
Words 3432
Pages 14
There are several views of curriculum that we, as mathematics educators, often encounter. (In this essay, "we" refers to the group at TERC that has been working through these ideas while developing the K-5 curriculum, Investigations in Number, Data, and Space.) One is that teachers, especially elementary teachers, are so under-prepared in mathematics that the curriculum must do everything for them. It must tell them exactly what to do, when to do it, and in what order. Once this was called "teacher-proof" curriculum. Now, of course, that term is no longer fashionable, so teacher-proof-ness, when it is espoused at all, is couched in other terms. For example, a textbook representative recently described to me the lessons in their teacher's guide by saying, "And it's all scripted for the teacher, so that they know what questions to ask." This view of curriculum assumes that there is a Right Way to organize and teach the curriculum, and that, if we have a curriculum that embodies this right way, students will learn mathematics well.

Another view holds that it is only the teacher who knows her students' learning needs well enough to continually modify the classroom environment in response to those needs. Therefore, the teacher must develop her/his own curriculum. Sometimes this view admits that, because teachers are not yet adequately prepared to teach mathematics, we may need innovative curricula now -- temporarily -- until we have accomplished the job of large-scale teacher development. This is the view of curriculum as a necessary evil -- we don't want it, but we can't yet do without it.

A third view, somewhere between these two, is that of curriculum as reference material. The argument goes something like this. Teachers don't have the time or energy to develop all the curricula for all the subjects they teach. Therefore, they need good reference materials from which they can put together a curriculum of their own. This allows teachers to be creative and to become acquainted with new ideas. The curriculum is a reference library in which teachers browse.

We disagree with all of these positions. Or, perhaps, since all of these have probably been somewhat unjustly characterized, it is more accurate to say that we are trying to find some new ways to articulate what curriculum contributes to the learning and teaching of mathematics. This new articulation is possible, and necessary, because new curricula that are currently being developed are quite different from our traditional notion of what a curriculum is and make possible a different kind of partnership between teacher and curriculum materials.

Perhaps we have been without "good" curricula for so long that we have very low expectations about what curriculum materials can provide. We are used to thinking of a curriculum as something that robs the teacher of her professional judgment and/or does not model mathematical thinking and reasoning as promoted in the NCTM Standards. We would like to put forth a new view of what curriculum can be. We believe that curriculum materials, when developed through careful, extended work with diverse students and teachers, when based on sound mathematics and on what we know about how people learn mathematics, are a tool that allows the teacher to do her best work with students. As these new curricula begin to appear, we need new ways to think about the role of curriculum.

We see the best mathematics teaching environment as a partnership between teacher and curriculum. Both teacher and curriculum bring important contributions to this partnership that the other cannot do well. It is not possible for most teachers to write a complete, coherent, mathematically-sound curriculum. It is not insulting to teachers as professionals to admit this. Curriculum development, like teaching mathematics, is a job that requires people and resources; it requires a skilled team of mathematics educators spending many thousands of hours writing, thinking, working in classrooms, and listening to students and teachers. We do not sell teachers short by recognizing that they cannot do this job.

But only the teacher is there in the classroom, observing and trying to understand her students' mathematical thinking. Individual teachers must continually assess and modify their mathematics program for their own classroom. Thus, curriculum is not a recipe or a compendium of what "should" be taught at a particular grade level. Rather, it provides both a coherent mathematics program for students, based on the best thinking available in the field, and material that supports teachers in making better, more thoughtful, more informed decisions about their students' mathematics learning.

The link between curriculum and teacher decision-making is a focus on mathematical reasoning. Neither curriculum nor teacher can fully anticipate the complex and idiosyncratic nature of the mathematical thinking that might go on among thirty students in a single classroom during any one mathematics class. However, both teacher and curriculum contribute to a repertoire of knowledge about student thinking that leads to better mathematics teaching and learning.

How does this work? Each curriculum unit presents a few, related significant mathematical ideas. The curriculum provides four types of information about these ideas: a series of activities for students, explication of aspects of the mathematics content, discussion of students' mathematical thinking in the context of this particular content, and pointers toward issues of pedagogy that arise as students engage with the content. Only the first of these is something provided directly for students; much of what the curriculum provides is for teachers. Curriculum is, in fact, primarily a tool for teacher development. This is a radically different conception of curriculum; it is one that makes it possible for teachers to truly be in partnership with the curriculum rather than simply using it as a guide for sequencing student work.

In order for this partnership to work, curriculum must do its job. What it provides for students is important, but what it provides to support teachers is equally important. Curriculum can only support teachers honestly if it has been developed through intense partnerships with teachers and students. In this kind of development work, curriculum authors are in classrooms frequently, each part of the curriculum is thoroughly field-tested in diverse classrooms, and field data are carefully reviewed to inform revision of the materials. This kind of development process results not only in good investigations for the range of students, but also in a wealth of information about how students approach those investigations, what mathematical issues are central to their understanding, what pragmatic and pedagogical issues arise for the teacher, and ways in which teachers can modify and/or extend the investigations to suit their individual class. The curriculum materials must then be designed so that this information is available to the teacher. Let me give an example from a recent episode in a field test classroom of how this works. (Teachers quoted in this essay are participants in an NSF-funded project, Teaching to the Big Ideas, a joint project of EDC, TERC, and Summermath for Teachers at Mt. Holyoke College. Pseudonyms are used.)

Meg, a second-grade field test teacher, is using an activity called "Enough for the Class," in which students consider whether the number of cubes in a bag is enough for each student in the class to have one. If it's not, how many more are needed? If it is, are there extras? Meg thinks of this problem as a subtraction situation and assumes that her students will do something like the following sequence of steps: 1) find out how many cubes are in the bag; 2) remove the number of cubes equal to the number of students in the class; 3) figure out or count how many cubes remain. One day she gives them the following problem: there are 16 blue cubes and 17 red cubes; are there enough for the class? Students quickly decide that there are enough for the class of 26 students and begin figuring out how many extra cubes there will be. Meg is taken by surprise when some of her students solve the problem this way: I can take 10 cubes from the 16 and 10 cubes from the 17, that makes 20. Then I need 6 more cubes, so I take away 6 from the 16. Now I have 26, enough for the class. That leaves just the 7 cubes from the 17, so there are 7 extra. Without ever finding the total, Meg's students have solved the problem. Meg wrote about this episode: "Many children actually did solve the problem the way I expected. Many didn't. . . They showed a lovely ability and willingness to take numbers apart and put numbers together. They . . . had made sense of what was being asked. But they still didn't figure out how many cubes there were in all! I am not sure what surprises me more -- that so many children don't think explicitly about the whole or the total when solving these problems, or that it never occurred to me that they didn't have to."

This is exactly the kind of episode that finds its way into the curriculum itself. We may include a classroom dialogue, based on this episode, to provide teachers with illustrations of the kinds of issues that tend to come up as students talk about their approaches to a mathematical problem. In addition, we would include notes for the teacher about the mathematical issues raised in this episode, in this case, the relationship between addition and subtraction in the structure of this problem and how students' strategies are related to their understanding of the number system. Episodes like this one provide guidance and examples for teachers who may encounter similar mathematical issues in their classrooms. They alert teachers to important mathematical ideas they may have been unaware of, and they provide guidance about engaging students with these ideas. In many ways, each mathematics unit of study, then, becomes a minicourse for teachers about a particular domain of mathematics. As teachers use new curriculum units more than once, they can learn more mathematics and more about their students' mathematical thinking. What they learn from watching and listening to their students will illuminate what they read in the teacher book, while what they read there will alert them to how to better listen and watch. Curriculum must help the teacher assess her students' understanding throughout the year, provide models of mathematical talk that stimulates and supports student thinking, and offer ways for the teacher to learn more about the mathematics she is teaching.

We have often observed that -- as part of the old view of curriculum as the RIGHT WAY -- when something in a curriculum doesn't work, people consider the curriculum -- or the students -- to be flawed. Rather, the curriculum itself must assume that what it suggests won't always work. No matter how well curriculum materials are tested, no matter how many times they are revised, each school brings its own mix of resources and barriers, each classroom brings its own set of needs, styles, experiences, and interests on the part of both teacher and students, and each day in the classroom brings its own set of issues, catastrophes, and opportunities. We could test and revise endlessly; each classroom test would result in new ideas we might incorporate and raise new questions about pedagogy or content. But at some point we have to decide that the curriculum materials themselves are good enough -- ready for teachers to use and revise in their own classrooms. Teacher decision-making, therefore, is key, and the curriculum must be designed with this assumption in mind. The teacher's role is to connect the particulars of her classroom and students to the investigations presented by the curriculum.

Taking this role seriously involves making decisions about which mathematical ideas to pursue. Because there are so many connections within the domain of mathematics, issues often emerge from students' thinking that are different from what the teacher -- or the curriculum -- anticipated. The teacher must decide which mathematical ideas are important to pursue at this time with the whole class, which might be best to pursue with an individual student, and which to put aside. In the following episode, a fifth grade teacher is faced with a choice about whether to move away from the topic on which she expected to focus in order to deal with an unexpected issue that comes to her attention.

Kate watched her students play a number game which involved arranging digits to form 2-digit numbers with a sum as close to 100 as possible. (The game is described in Mokros & Russell, 1995, p. 22.) This game was challenging for many of Kate's poorly prepared students. The game was part of a series of activities focused on developing knowledge about 100, its place in the number system, and its relationships to other numbers. Students scored each round by comparing their sum to 100: a sum lower than 100 was scored as a negative number (e.g., 97 would result in a score of -3); a sum higher than 100 resulted in a positive score (e.g., 101 would result in a score of 1); and a sum of exactly 100 resulted in a score of 0. At the end of several rounds, students added their scores from all rounds; the closer their sum to 0, the better their score. Kate noticed that when students used a number line to compute their total score, they tended to skip zero. She wrote, "The score of 0, which usually meant nothing, was now the highest score . . . they decided that if 0 was actually the winning score, it was a pretty important number and really shouldn't be skipped. Usually when they had a score of 0 (for example on a spelling test), it wasn't great. So they had to rethink what 0 meant in this game while they played." As she watched her students, she realized that they were confused about the relationship among positive integers, zero, and negative integers. She devised a problem about owing money to support her students' explorations of these relationships. After some work on these problems, she asked her students to consider what +1 cent, 0 cents, and -1 cent might mean. They decided that +1 meant "a penny you could hold," that 0 meant no money and you don't owe anything, while -1 cents was "a cent that you owe." She concludes, "I'm not sure they understand this, and I hope to work on it some more . . . but it did raise a lot of issues." She lists questions she'd like to explore with her students: What is 0? How is 0 used in different ways? Are there numbers that are less than 0? How many numbers can there be that are less than 0?

Curriculum Materials as a Tool for Teacher Development
Decisions like Kate's are complex. Kate needs to consider what mathematics is important for her students, whether a digression from the ideas they are currently pursuing is warranted, and how to create a context and problems that are appropriate for her students. How can teachers like Kate be supported as they use good curriculum materials, try to understand student thinking, and design next steps? It is clear to all of us who have been involved in developing curriculum that any curriculum materials, no matter how well they can be used, can also be used badly and can be misunderstood and distorted. Teachers have not necessarily been prepared, in their own mathematics education, to focus on student thinking or to see their role as partners with the curriculum in the way that we have described this partnership here. The best use of good curriculum materials is in the context of a long-term staff development program which engages teachers in ongoing reflection about students' mathematical thinking and continued work on mathematics content with their peers.

Professional development courses that use innovative curriculum materials as a core can be designed for both preserve and inservice teachers. For inservice work, this professional development/implementation might be composed of two elements: intensive components (e.g., a two-week summer course, or several three-day sessions during the school year) and ongoing, long-term interaction (e.g., a study group of grades 3-4 teachers within a school) that provides a continuing forum for thinking about mathematics content and about students' mathematical thinking. The ongoing school-based component provides the scheduled occasions and communication with peers to stimulate continued thinking and learning as well as help in grappling with the everyday, pragmatic concerns of implementation. However, it is critical that the design of these experiences does not focus on "how to do" the curriculum, but on the development of the teacher's professional expertise -- increased experience with mathematics content and with understanding the development of mathematical understanding. This means that teacher leaders who act as facilitators for these ongoing groups need their own support and training so that they can help the teachers in their school or system focus on understanding children's mathematical thinking and developing approaches to best support and extend that thinking. The use of curriculum materials as a core for professional development provides a direct link between teacher enhancement and what actually happens in the classroom. Professional development of this sort has two advantages: (a) the teachers leave the professional development experience with a concrete unit (or units) of instruction -- a way to begin implementing what they have learned, and (b) the materials themselves continue to provide information and support to teachers as they teach. They serve as a catalyst for engaging teachers in thinking about children's mathematical thinking -- a way of continuing the professional development experience.

Another valuable tool to support this kind of staff development would be classroom episodes, written by teachers, about their own experiences as they used particular curriculum materials. These episodes would describe students' mathematical work, discuss issues about mathematics or children's mathematical thinking that were raised for the teacher by this work, and give examples of decisions made by the teacher based on her observations and reflections. Schifter (this volume) describes some ways that this can happen.

Elsewhere (Russell, Schifter, Bastable, Yaffee, Lester, & Cohen, 1994), we have posited that we can never prepare elementary teachers well enough before they enter the classroom: "In fact, it appears that the new mathematical understandings teachers must develop and the teaching situations they must negotiate are too varied, complex, and context-dependent to be anticipated in one or even several courses. Thus, teachers must become learners in their own classrooms." Teachers must continue to learn mathematics and to learn about students' mathematical thinking as they teach. Curriculum materials that are designed to support ongoing teacher development can be an important tool in this endeavor. As teachers teach a particular curriculum unit -- or related units at different grade levels -- they meet together regularly. Material for teachers in the curriculum becomes a focus for study and helps the teachers identify areas of mathematics about which they need to know more and questions about children's thinking they need to investigate. These efforts need to be supported by a good facilitator, which may be a teacher who has received special training, as well as writing by other teachers about mathematical issues they have faced in their own classrooms.

Meg and Kate are doing exactly what we want curriculum to orient teachers towards -- reflecting on students' thinking, trying to understand it, and then planning the next step. This constant decision-making should be what we expect. It's not a matter of using curriculum or not using curriculum, but of intelligent teachers using intelligent curriculum intelligently.

Footnotes

1 TERC is a nonprofit institution working to improve mathematics and science education. The letters T-E-R-C no longer stand for anything. [Back to text]

References

Mokros, J., & Russell, S. J. (1995). Investigations in Number, Data, and Space. Palo Alto: Dale Seymour Publications.

Russell, S. J., Schifter, D., Bastable, V., Yaffee, L., Lester, J. B., & Cohen, S. (1994). Learning mathematics while teaching. In D. Kirshner (Ed.), Proceedings of the sixteenth annual meeting of the North America Chapter of Psychology of Mathematics Education 2, 289-95. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University.

Acknowledgements

Some of the ideas discussed in this essay are elaborated on in the book, Beyond Arithmetic: Changing Mathematics in Elementary Classrooms by Jan Mokros, Susan Jo Russell, and Karen Economopoulos (Palo Alto: Dale Seymour Publications, 1995). The work discussed in this essay was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (Grants MDR-9050210 and ESI-9254393). Opinions are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Foundation.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Role of the Teacher

...What is the role of a Teacher? Schools are one of the first places where kid’s behavior and future educational success is shape. Teachers are carriers of either positive or negative behavior toward students. The reason why the first years of school are so critical is because kids learn the base of their educational life. I believe that teachers must love their career in order for them to pass enthusiasm, to assists, and to provide a warm environment to the students. In my opinion teachers are the second mothers for the students because students spend a lot of time with their teachers. At the same time. I believe a real teacher becomes through many years of training and experiences in the field. The same way, mothers are not born being great mothers but as their experiences with their kids expands they become experts on the field. We know that mothers look the best for their kids and one of their goals is to raise their kids so they can become professionals and pioneers for the society. Some of the mother’s role toward kids is to give them care, love, respect, lead, instruct and to try to form a safe and pleasant environment at their homes. Are these attitudes of the mothers toward their kids related to what the role of the teacher should be with the students in the classroom? If not, what should be the role of the teachers then? I believe that a teacher is someone who becomes through many years of training and experiences in the field. I have not found a teacher who is an......

Words: 942 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Teacher Role

...March 2006 Volume 9, Number 4 Contents | TESL-EJ Top The English Teacher as Facilitator and Authority Shaun O'Dwyer David English House, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan School of Philosophy, University of New South Wales Abstract Over the past eighty years or so, some education theorists have repudiated the notion that it is the teacher's role to act as an authority in the classroom, transmitting knowledge to students "who do not know." In English as a second or foreign language education, a notion of the teacher as "facilitator" is considered to be more compatible with students' felt needs and autonomy. This paper argues that there are epistemological flaws in prominent rejections of transmission theories of learning. Drawing on British philosopher Michael Oakeshott's distinction between technical and practical knowledge, it argues for a modified understanding of the English teacher both as an authority capable of transmitting these types of knowledge in language, and as a facilitator of cooperative language learning. Introduction In the teaching of English as a second or foreign language today, the old pedagogical ideal of the teacher as an authority transmitting knowledge to students "who do not know" is in disrepute. The ideal now is for a more democratic, student-centered approach, in which the teacher facilitates communicative educational activities with students. This model reflects in part the influence of communication-based theories of language acquisition.......

Words: 6887 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Curriculum Development

...CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT:DYNAMIC PROCESS Curriculum development is not an exact science. In most cases, it is a dynamic process that involves many people, often with different priorities, vested interest and needs. Priorities of politicians and parents can be very different, as can the priorities of teachers and employers. But it can be argued that each of these groups has a legitimate interest in what is included in the curriculum, and most significantly, in its outputs. Curriculum has been a rich source of research and theory for many decades. While the debate has been complex and robust; it has resulted, at least in English-speaking countries in two prominent models of curriculum development being proposed; 1. objectives – sequential, rational or behavioral model 2. interactive or dynamic OBJECTIVE MODEL Conceptualizes the curriculum development as a sequential series of stages 1. stating objectives 2. selecting learning experiences or subject 3. organizing learning experiences or subject 4. evaluating – whether objectives have been met INTERACTIVE MODEL Conceptualizes curriculum development as a less predictable process which can begin with any element or stage. Is continuing process of interaction, refinement, and review. THE CURRICULUM RESOURCE PACK DEVELOPMENT PROJECT Acknowledge the legitimacy of both curriculum development models. It advocates a thoughtful analysis of the context and a consideration of the needs and interest of all......

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Role of Technology in Curriculum

...------------------------------------------------- The role of technology in delivering the curriculum — Presentation Transcript * 1. The Role of Technology in Delivering the Curriculum * 2. Types of instructional media/technology Non-projected Media Projected MediaReal objects Overhead transparenciesModels Opaque projectionField trips SlidesKits FilmstripsPrinted materials (books, Films worksheets) Video, VCD, DVDVisuals (drawings, Computer/multimedia photographs, graphs, presentations charts, posters)Visual boards (chalkboard, whiteboard, flannel board, etc.)Audio materials * 3. Factors for Technology Selection 1. Practicality – Is the equipment (hardware) or already prepared lesson material (software) available? If not, what would be the cost in acquiring the equipment or producing the lesson in audial or visual form? * 4. 2. Appropriateness in relation to the learners – Is the medium suitable to the learners’ ability to comprehend? Will the medium be a source of plain amusement or entertainment, but not learning? * 5. 3. Activity / suitability – Will the chosen media fit the set instructional event, resulting in either information, motivation, or psychomotor display? * 6. 4. Objective-matching – Overall, does the medium help in achieving the learning-objective(s)? * 7. The Role of Technology in CurriculumDelivery Upgrading the quality of teaching-and- learning in schools * 8. Increasing the capability of the teacher to effectively......

Words: 1318 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Curriculum Development

...CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AS A POLITICAL AND TECHNICAL ACTIVITY BY ALFRED FAYOSE Introduction In the views of Marsh and Willis (2007) curriculum development is “a collective and intentional process or activity directed at beneficial curriculum change”. Curriculum development involves making basic decisions as to who will partake in the curriculum decision-making process and how it will proceed (Adentwi and Sarfo, 2009). The decisions made, however, are both political and technical depending on the individual stages. The stages of the curriculum development process include planning, designing, implementation and evaluation. Curriculum development as a political activity Curriculum development can be considered as partly political because the planning stage of the curriculum development process is said to be a lay political activity. Curriculum planning, especially at the national level is considered to be a political activity due to the reasons below. First and foremost, curriculum planning is designed to ensure adequate representation of the opinions of all the major stakeholders in education. In curriculum planning, the emphasis is on the interest of the people who matter most in education. For instance, teachers, students, parents and religious bodies among others who are stakeholders are represented at the planning stage not because of their competence or technical know-how but because of their interest. Furthermore, the government of the day seeks to promote its economic......

Words: 636 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Curriculum Development

...DepEd issues Implementing rules of Kindergarten Act MANILA, Philippines - To ensure that the unique needs of diverse learners will be addressed; the Kindergarten Education General Curriculum will cater to the needs of pupils with special needs and disabilities and create a catch-up program for children under difficult circumstances. Kindergarten education was institutionalized as part of basic education and was implemented partially in school year 2011-2012. It was made mandatory and compulsory for entrance to Grade 1. The general kindergarten program is the 10-month program provided to children who are at least five years old in elementary schools using thematic and integrative curriculum to ensure the development of foundation skills among children to prepare them for Grade 1. Republic Act (RA) 10157, otherwise known as “The Kindergarten Education Act,” provides that the curriculum is designed to cater to the needs of the learners with special needs or children who are gifted, those with disabilities, and other diverse learners by adopting services in addition to the standards provided, such as Head start Program for the Gifted, Early Intervention Program for Children with Disabilities, Early Intervention Program for Children with Disabilities, Kindergarten Madrasah Program (KMP), Indigenous People (IP) Education, and Catch-Up Program for Children under Especially Difficult Circumstances. The Head start Program for the Gifted is a comprehensive program for the gifted......

Words: 2930 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Key Players in Curriculum Development

...AED200 Week 7 Assignment 1 Associate Level Material Appendix E Fill in the table by describing the role and influence each group has on curriculum. Some may have direct influence and some may have indirect influence. Identify whether their influence deals with selecting, maintaining, or evaluating the curriculum and in what ways they participate in that process. The first answer is provided as an example. Key Players in Curriculum Development |Key Players |Role and Influence on Curriculum | | | | |Federal Government |The federal government passes federal legislations, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, to which schools must | | |measure up. NCLB mandates can directly influence the curriculum in schools. They mostly influence the selection of | | |curriculum. | |State |The states have assumed two major areas of responsibility for curricula. The first is establishing what students are | | |expected to learn and the second is determining the instructional materials that can be used. They influence the | | |deals with......

Words: 378 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Curriculum Development

...Components of Curriculum Components of Curriculum I. Objectives and Goals: English is the world's second largest native language, the official language in 70 countries. English can be at least understood almost everywhere among scholars and educated people, as it is the world media language, and the language of cinema, TV, pop music and the computer world. Goals: To improve the learning experiences that is more meaningful and appreciable for student’s wisdom and knowledge by providing to them more activities. To improve the English language among the students who are not aware to the second language that we have. To improve the speaking skill, reading skill and writing skill of the each students using the English language as a Universal Language. Objectives: * Provide learning experiences that increase the learner’s awareness, knowledge and self- confidence of every students in society; * Develop the skills, attitudes and values essential for personal development, a productive life and constructive engagement; * Promote experiences that develop the learner’s orientation to the work and prepare the learners to engage in honest work; * Prepare the learners for college; and * Prepare the learner’s in the work field. II. Subject Content Unit 1 First Quarter: * Intonation * Using SVC Pattern * The Diary of a Young Girl (Anne Frank) * I am a Filipino (Carlos Romulo) Second Quarter: * /I/ and /iy/ * Using SV and SVO......

Words: 1702 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Curriculum Development

... A. Tudy Dean of Graduate School Acting Director, Center for Social Development Research Cor Jesu College Philippines CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT UNDERSTANDING CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Every institution has a primary task of preparing students to reach their highest potential. Essentially, the issue could be addressed through its curriculum. Curriculum is defined as everything learners experienced at school. Bandi & Wales (2005) defined it as a race to be run, a series of obstacles or hurdles (subjects) to be passed . It has been viewed also as the totality of experiences that a public receives through the manifold activities that learners experience in the school, workshop, playground, library, laboratory and in the informal contacts between teachers and pupils aside from the academic subjects traditionally taught in the school. Marsh and Willis on the other hand view curriculum as all the “experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students. A curriculum is the instructional programme for the pupils to achieve their goals. As people go with the trends in this era of technological advancements, curriculum goes with it as well. Curriculum development has been one of the focal points in every institution to promote quality and competitive education. Almost all countries already have an established curriculum to meet the global standards and possibly prepare the students to be......

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Role of Teachers

...Teachers must meet immediate daily demands such as preparing lessons, assessing students’ performances and creating a fair and equitable classroom environment. As such, teachers have major roles and responsibilities to undertake in the classroom. Some major roles of a teacher is to educate, to guide, to correct, and to discipline the student by acting within the appropriate laws and regulations (Zirrpoli & Melloy, 2001). The word educate comes from the Latin educere, which means “to lead”. So it is the teachers’ responsibility to take up the task of leading the students to knowledge and understanding. In order to educate students, teachers need to be knowledgeable about their subject area according to Raspberry (1993). Because the more knowledgeable they are as teachers, the more effective they will be in the classroom. The teacher possessing subject-matter knowledge and instructional skill, is a professional educator like that of teachers of the Realism Theory. Moreover, the roles of a teacher in the classroom plays a vital part in the education system. In that, teachers are expected to conduct initial assessments which will help identify learners’ needs and skills in the classroom. After identifying those needs and skills, they will then be more knowledgeable of the state of their students and pursue the necessary help if needed to reinforce or diminish certain behaviours. Teachers will as well become aware of how their students learn and what motivates them to learn.......

Words: 823 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Curriculum Development

...Curriculum Development Curriculum development is an evolving process. Societal expectations, new technologies and growing understanding of the learning process all drive the educational community to adapt and develop new strategies for developing and presenting needed curriculum. Curriculum can be defined in many ways. At its most fundamental roots, curriculum is a roadmap of planned ideas that are aimed at assisting the learner to acquire knowledge. In a more constructive sense, curriculum is an educational plan to assist in the delivery of information related to specific subject areas which meet specified learning goals (Dowd & Battles, 1996). When developing curriculum, it is important to recognize the issues and trends that affect the desired outcome of the educational process. In order to understand the changes that are occurring within curriculum development, it is important to recognize the fundamental principles utilized in the curriculum development process. There are many different models available for curriculum development. However, these models include the same fundamental principles develop an effective curriculum. The first step to developing a productive educational product is to identify the problem or need that the curriculum will address ("Six-Step Approach To Curriculum Development", n.d.). The second step is to know the target audience and understand the needs of the learners ("Six-Step Approach To Curriculum Development", n.d.). This will......

Words: 1903 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Roles and Qualities of Teacher Leaders

...Cornerstones of Change: Roles and Qualities of Teacher Leaders By: M. Pierce Course: ED625 Word Count of Article: 2200 Abstract The purpose of the paper is to examine different types of teacher leaders and examine their possible roles in our schools and effect on our educational system. Herein, I focus on the teacher leadership qualities of collaboration, ethics, trust, vision, decisiveness, and thirst for knowledge. Furthermore, I present the notion that teacher are the heart of change, not only because they are the people who instill the change but through shared leadership model it. In achieving this aim, I describe how leadership qualities can facilitate educational reform centered on the present generation of learners. Introduction In this modern era of change and educational accountability, the role of school manager has grown in complexity and many school administrators welcome the effective collaboration of teacher leaders. Many principals find that administrative and accountability tasks can take their time and energy away from being effective educational leaders. The volume of paperwork and the multifaceted nature of the problems to be solved are increasing. It is difficult for school leaders to offer adequate assistance and guidance to teachers who want to experiment and find new ways to engage their students. The school leader may not have the expertise to advise teachers about instruction, curriculum, procedure, new practices, and new technologies...

Words: 2296 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

The Process of Curriculum Development and Instruction and the Role of the Teacher.

...Introduction Teachers and administrators collaborate and develop an appropriate, articulated and aligned curriculum that ensures optimal student results. Assessment data from multiple sources are analyzed by teachers and administrators when making curricular and instructional decisions. In their planning, teachers purposefully select from a variety of teaching techniques and tools to help students improve, and they differentiate curriculum and instruction to address all students' learning needs. Definition of term 1. Curriculum "a plan for a sustained process of teaching and learning" (David Pratt, 1997, p. 5) 2. Lesson: “a coherent unit of teaching and learning, generally designed to be completed in one class session 3. Lesson plan: “a plan for a coherent unit of teaching and learning, generally designed to be completed in one class session”. 4. Instruction “the execution of the curriculum, actually teaching it. Instruction doesn't always follow curriculum. It is often planned”. THE STEPS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Four steps to Curriculum: "The Tyler Rationale" 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attaint? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can they be organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What Aims, Goals, and Objectives should be sought? To WIT (2000),......

Words: 2843 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Role of Teacher

...The teacher plays a crucial role in a montessori environment The teacher and the children form an inseperable part of a single educational whole, which is a dynamic and continous process of development. There are certain qualities that are essential for a montessori teacher to possess in order to help in the normalization and education process of the child. First, the teacher and child should be in sync. They should work as a unit. In which the child is the reciever and the teacher is the giver. Secondly, the teacher should be dyanmic and ever growing. The teacher should ensure that no matter what, no child should be left behind. The teacher should have alternative approaches to education in order to assist each child in reaching their potential. Thirdly, the teacher should ensure that she doesn’t have any presumtions about a child and should neither be judgemental as this would effect in evaluation of the child. The teacher should have a postive approach towards each child. Fourthly, the teacher should be a role model. Should lead by example but understand that the child has its own potential. It should not be a teacher-centric environment but it should revolve around the child. The teacher should play a passive role and let the child develop their own personality. Teacher should just be an observer of natural phenomena. And lastly, the teacher must be loving and caring towards the child and should be well trained as the presentations are precise and......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Teacher Development

...ongoing teacher professional development. It intends to qualitatively and quantitatively extend an educators’ skill set so that they are continually effective in the classroom. Like any other profession teachers must keep their skills sharp and updated as the educational system is only as good as its players. The key to this quality education for all students is the classroom teacher, but not just any classroom teacher (Killion & Harrison, 2006). Students must have skillful, highly effective teachers who have consistent access to ongoing professional development (Sparks & Hirsch, 2000; Guskey, 1997; Guskey, 1998; Maldonado, 2002). NCLB offers broad guidelines for effective professional development acknowledging the integral nature of ongoing professional development that seeks to insure teachers continually possess the knowledge and skills necessary to successfully perform their duties (Lauer & Dean 2004). NCLB requires all 50 states to provide “high-quality” professional development that will ensure every teacher is both highly qualified and highly effective. The federal government’s definition of high-quality professional development includes activities that improve and increase teachers’ academic knowledge, are part of school and district improvement plans, provide teachers the knowledge to meet state content standards, are sustained, intensive and classroom focused, support the recruiting, hiring and training of high quality teachers, expand teachers’......

Words: 10108 - Pages: 41

stranger things | Charlie Bears Griffin 21” Isabelle Lee Design With Tags And Bag | John Qualen