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In: Business and Management

Submitted By missmaggiemags
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Relationship between human appetite and music

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING/INTRODUCTION

Introduction There are a lot of services served in a restaurant, like, high quality food and drinks, skilled staffs, nice ambiance and good music. Consumers are not aware that music is part of the service offered. And subconsciously, they didn’t know that music can boost their appetite and affect their mood in eating.

Background of the Study Music and noise level can affect people’s enjoyment of what they eat (Journal of Culinary Science and Hospitality). Appetite in 2006, found that listening to music increased the amount of food eaten and the duration of meals, but that the speed and volume of the music didn’t have a significant effect. Taste is the most obvious sense associated with food, but it is by no means the only sense we engage to to enjoy a good meal. In fact, all our senses come into focus when we eat. According to Hopkins (2007) study found that music has the ability to influence the speed with which we eat. Slow music slows us down; test subjects listening to slow music downed three mouthfuls of food per minute, as compared to the five mouthfuls diners listening to a fast beat consumed. Hoteliers and restaurateurs know that taste is only one aspect of good meal. In national settings, Tin Drum Café in Atlanta, Steven Chan, the owner of fast casual concept and Asian street food eatery Tin Drum Cafe, was originally inspired by the atmosphere and taste of the street food in Hong Kong. Featuring bustling streets, excitement, and the sounds of a large drum, he wanted to bring the vibe of Hong Kong to America. When he began, his focus was on the atmosphere of the restaurant, the decor, and of course, the music. He chooses songs based on tempo instead of based on popularity. The sweet spot is 120 beats per minute, a tempo that emulates the excitement of the streets he grew up eating in Hong Kong. Of course, a strong signal of dinner time in Hong Kong is the sound of the tin drummer calling residents out to the streets to eat, a sound which is now heard throughout their 12+ stores in the southeast (Toast Restaurant Management Blog). That’s why people consider going there not just because of the food but also the music that they adopted in Hong Kong. This kind of service makes the consumer enjoy more because it makes them feel that they are in Hong Kong. In the Philippines, most Filipinos choose to dine in a restaurant that has entertainment, like music. But the most trending nowadays is live band like in The Roadhouse Manila Bay, it also features of slew of R & B, reggae, rock, jazz or even acoustic performed by local bands and even well-known singers. Music helps the consumers enjoy their food by entertaining them while dining in. In Davao City, as observed, most of the restaurants and food chains offer music to entertain guests. It is one of the strategies used by establishment for the consumers to enjoy their meal. Most of the consumers tend to dine in a restaurant with music than to non-music establishment, one of the reasons is to kill boredom while waiting for their food to be served. MTS is one of the examples, individual or group of people chooses to spend their time there because of the ambiance. MTS is also known for their music. It is easy for people to choose their preference because there are so many restaurants, bars and cafe scattered in the area with different genres of music. Some of the restaurants and bars there offer live full band, acoustic band and recorded mixed disco and popular music. That’s why MTS is very popular and most visited food establishment in Davao City.

Statement of the Problem There are services offered by restaurants in order to please their customer, and music is one of them. To be able to know the relationship of music to the appetite of the diners, the following question should be answered at the end of the study. 1. What are the effects of music to the consumers? 2. What kind of music does affect the consumers? 3. Does consumer’s age dictate the preference of music? 4. What is the level of music effect on the diners appetite: 1. Music Tempo 2. Music Preference

Objectives of the Study This study wants to determine if there is a relationship between human appetite and music. This study could verify if music can really affect the mood or it can boost appetite of the consumer.

Significance of the Study This study will be a significant endeavor in observing music appetite and its effect on diner’s appetite. The findings of this study are also beneficial to the following: Restobar Diners who like to eat with a good choice of music to boost their appetite. This research will help them to better understand what the relationship between music and human appetite is. Restaurant and Bar Establishments this study will help them choose the type of service to meet the consumer’s satisfaction. Future Researchers this research will help the future researchers on the subject of hotel and restaurant management, this can be their guide in making their research, this study also can be their reference.

Scope and Limitation of the Study This research is limited only within the area of Gmall, Toril. The respondents are male, female, single, married and with the age of 15 years and above. The survey questionnaire of this study will be used is constructed by the group based on descriptive method. This study will be able to make known the preference and the effect of music towards the appetite of consumers, and for restaurants, bars and café to know if the music they play satisfies their consumers.

Definition of Terms The following terms in the study are defined conceptually and operationally as follows:
Appetite conceptually, refers to the desires to eat food or to a desire for something to drink. Operationally, refers to a strong wish or urge.
Music Tempo conceptually, refers to the rate or speed of music that should be played during meals. Operationally, refers to an artistic from auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner.
Music Preference conceptually, refers to a specific type of music preferred by the diner’s during meal time. Operationally, refers to the right or chance to choose.

Review of Related Literature and Studies In order to proceed in our research, we read random blogs, journals, and websites in the internet. We even read magazines to compare successful restaurants to ordinary food establishments. And to be able to support the study, we will be using descriptive survey method. Theories, concepts, insights and opinions of authorities to the “Relationship Between Human Appetite and Music” are discussed in this section to provide a strong frame of reference on the early bases in this research study. Music is a potent emotion modulator. Each type of music shows different effects on emotion and it has impact on calorie intake or the percentage of food eaten while listening to music during meal times (Richeson et al., 2004, Thomas et al., 2009) In addition, Music is credited with stimulating, irritating, energizing, pacing, depressing and soothing mankind (Cook, 1981). Within service environments customers can be exposed to numerous stimuli, all of which potentially affect how customers act, what they buy, and their satisfaction with the service experience. Of the multitude of environmental stimuli to which a shopper may be exposed in a service setting, background music has been identified as one of the most readily manipulatable and influential elements (Milliman, 1982, 1986). Restaurants are only one type of public places with music exposure. While soundscapes such as shopping malls or offices are well researched (e.g., Areni & Kim 1993, Blood & Ferriss 1993, Bruner 1990, Fox 1983, McDermott 1990, North & Heargraves 1997, Sterne 1997,) music in other environments like waiting areas, planes/ships/trains and so on has not attracted much attention. Background music can be used to influence consumer behavior derived from the concept of atmospherics (Kotler, 1973) consumers prefer environments which offer a pleasant atmosphere and extend a feeling of acceptance (Martineau, 1958). Background music is generally considered to be one of several atmospheric variables that can influence evaluations, willingness to buy (Baker et al., 1992), mood, cognition, and behavior (Bruner, 1990). In Philippines, Music goes with good food at the Cowboy Grill. Golden Pizza Inc.’s Cowboy Bar is best known for its live local bands and good food. According to the operations manager Solomon Caasi that their establishment is not just a club, it’s a resto-club. Music affect the appetite and Eating fast may lead to more calories consumed. A study showed that test subjects listening to slow music ate three mouthfuls of food per minute. When a fast beat was played, five mouthfuls diners were consumed (Subido, 2012). In Davao City, Chico’s music bistro found in Casa De Habana and they are not only offering good food and wonderful drinks; they also offer good music, specifically Jazz and Samba, from Davao’s best musicians (Davao Traveller, 2009).

Theoretical Framework (Theory Base) This study is anchored on the theory of Stroebele and Castro (2006) which stated that the presence as opposed to absence of music during a meal increased calorie and fluid intake and the duration of the mealtime, however tempo and volume were found to have no effect. In a study by Guéguen et al (2008), background music with a higher volume increased alcohol consumption and speed of drinking. This was hypothesized to be partly due to increased arousal in the loud volume condition – tempo is another attribute of music that has been found to increase arousal (Garlin & Owen, 1996), therefore it is possible that faster tempo music causes an increase in drink consumption and 13 drinking speed. However, another suggestion for the increase in consumption in Guéguen et al (2008) was that loud music may increase drinking due to reduced opportunities for social interaction, something that would not be affected by tempo. This study is supported by Berlyne (1971, cited in North & Hargreaves, 2008) proposed that the louder or faster music is the more arousal it induces and therefore the quicker people will conduct their activities. This suggestion was supported by an experiment on speed of eating and music tempo in which Roballey et al (1985) found that faster music led to more bites per minute in a student cafeteria, and McElrea and Standing (1992) backed up this finding in a drinking experiment where they found that participants drank faster in the presence of fast music. Berlyne’s (1971) theory and these findings logically lead to the assumption that when the tempo of the background music in a bar is faster, customers will drink their drinks more quickly. Even if this assumption is correct however, it would be hard to make any assertions about whether that would cause spending to be higher through a quicker rate of consumption and replacement of beverages, or lower due to a quicker rate of consumption leading to an earlier departure. For this same reason, it is hard to base any prediction for duration of stay on this suggestion.

Conceptual Framework In combination, tempo has been shown to have an effect on the behavior of restaurant, café and bar customers in previous research. Whether it is to do with arousal, perceived duration or other factors, it could be expected that the variations of tempo would have an influence on customers’ condition and thus their behavior, which could lead to them staying longer or leaving earlier, or spending more or less, than they otherwise would. The figure 1 shows illustration of the significant variables that are the primary focus and argument of the study. The first box located in below left portion represents the researcher’s independent variable which is the music preference. Under the music preference the sub variables are Classical, Blues, Jazz, Rock, Bossa Nova, Rhythm and Blues, Country, OPM and Reggae. Under the music tempo which is the fast and slow tempo. The arrow signified the effects of relationship of the activity of the second box on the below right portion of the figure which is the dependent variable. The dependent variable is the food appetite of the diners at selected restobars in Davao City. Lastly, the one represented by the broken lines are the intervening variables which are the age, gender and educational attainment of the diners.

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Figure1. Conceptual Framework showing the variables of the Study

Research Assumptions/Research Hypothesis (es) There is a relationship between human appetite and music.

Chapter 2
METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents an orderly method of explaining and answering defaults. This chapter includes descriptions of the method used, sources of data, the data gathering instruments, sampling technique, procedure of the study and statistical treatment.

Method Used This study will use the descriptive survey method. Descriptive survey method is appropriate wherever the objectives of any class vary among themselves and one is interested in knowing the extent to which different conditions obtain among these objects (Zulueta, .et. al., 2003). A survey questionnaire is designed and served as the measuring instrument in the gathering of information for the study.

Sources of Data In this study the collection of the data was through primary and secondary sources. The process of getting the primary source was through observation and self-perception. Other sources of information are collected through magazines, blogs, and journal in websites in the internet.

Data Gathering Instrument The type of data collection is based on Descriptive Survey. The instrument that will use is a self-constructed survey questionnaire. It will be used in the study to be able to have a reliable source of data, easy to access and precise information. The questionnaire will be compose of two parts first, is the profile and basic information like, name, age, gender and name of the food establishment and second is the music tempo and music preference.in determining the verbal description, the respondents will be ask to choose their perception about the music preference and tempo, the choices will be scale (5) extremely likely, indicates that the statement embodied in the item is very true to the respondents, (4) likely, indicates that the statement embodied in the item is true to the respondents, (3) neutral, indicates that the statement embodied in the item is somewhat true to the respondents, (2) unlikely, indicates that the statement embodied in the item is untrue to the respondents, (1) extremely unlikely, indicates that the statement embodied in the item is very untrue to the respondents. The collected data from the respondents will be the desired data for this study.

Sampling Technique In this research, the respondents are those in Gmall, Toril and are present and available during the day of survey. At least 30 participants will participate in the study. The proponents will use the simple sampling method where responses of the participants will gather.

Procedure of the Study The researchers will take the following steps in conducting study in the relationship between human appetite and music: 1. The first step is to conduct preliminary research. It includes formulating the statement of the problem, background of the study, the objectives and significance of the study, the scope and limitation of the study and defining the terms used in the research. 2. Second, collecting of data after defining the research. Data was gathered from the blogs and journals in websites in the internet. 3. The third step is to write a letter of permission that noted and signed by the adviser, and is sent to the authorities before the questionnaires will be distributed. 4. After the approval of the letters, the researchers can conduct the survey. 5. The data that will be collected during survey will be used as basis of the study. It will be analyzed and interpreted for the proponents to know if all the questions in the study are answered and if it met the objective of the research.

Statistical Treatment Describe briefly how the data collected are to be processed. If statistical techniques/tools are used, this fact should be mentioned. If one has used a technique that is, strictly speaking, not appropriate to the data, this fact should be noted and explanations should be made. It is only when the statistical technique used is new or unfamiliar that the formula is given. (Mention to which problem statement the statistical tool is used/applied).

Chapter 3
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

In this chapter, the researcher summarizes the collected data and the statistical treatment applied to them. The results should be presented in a straightforward and unbiased way. The presentation must be geared to the research questions and the research hypotheses. (Presentation of findings must follow the sequence of the problem statements. Tables and figures should be presented after being introduced in the text or after the discussions. Present either a table or a figure and never both. Table and figure numbering must be sequential.) Present only relevant data. Individual scores or raw data should not be reported in the text. If these need to be included at all, they should be placed in the Appendix. In reporting the data, choose the medium that will present them effectively. It will be very helpful to summarize the results and analyses through tables and/or figures/ graphs. Do not repeat the same data in several places, and do not include tables with the data that can be presented as well in the text. The textual description, analysis and interpretation should focus on the patterns and deviations in the contents of the tables and charts, rather than restatement of their content all over again. Do not expect the tables and figures to do the entire communication for you. The analyses of data should be objective and logical. Make a careful distinction between fact and opinion. Facts, not opinion, should prevail. Present all relevant results, including those that run counter to the hypotheses. In reporting statistical tests of significance, include information concerning the obtained magnitude or value of the test, the degrees of freedom, the probability level and the direction of the effects. The interpretation of the data should consist of the following: 1. The antecedents of what has been found; 2. The consequences or implications drawn from the findings; 3. The practical applications or uses of the findings; 4. The conditions that limit the generalization of the findings so that the reader can judge the validity of the conclusions and inferences; 5. Suggestions for improvement of instruments and procedures; and 6. The differences/ similarities between the findings and conclusions of the study and the findings and conclusions of other studies and plausible reasons therefore.

Format of Table, Chart and Figure Title: Tabular Title – upper left portion of the table. Chart/Figure Title – bottom center of the figure/chart. Titles presented in upper/lower case, regular.

Table 1. Enrolment Data

Figure(Chart) 1. Enrolment Data

(Don’t cut tables; instead present them in smaller fonts)

For table presentation, please refer to annex 10.

Chapter 4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary
The summary contains an overview of the research. It gives a brief statement of the problem, the procedures and the findings. (Should be in paragraph form. Present only the summary of findings. No need to present numerical data.) The summary should not contain any new information but should briefly recapitulate the entire content of the paper. It is as if the researcher was asked by a colleague what problem he has studied and what results he has obtained. He should reply briefly and to the point, sketching all the important aspects of his study, describing the conclusions and how he arrived at them.
Conclusions
Broad generalizations not adequately supported by data should be avoided. Conclusions should be drawn only for the population and circumstances for which evidences have been collected. (Should be based on the findings of the study. It should be presented in paragraph form). Any weakness in the research design, techniques, or population that has come to light and which can no longer be corrected should be discussed frankly, with particular attention given to the manner in which the weakness may have affected the outcomes of the research.
Recommendations
Presented in paragraph form.

References References preferably not older than ten years. Alphabetized, hanging, double spaced. (Use APA format). Include only those cited in the text. Please refer to attached photocopy as guide.
Example of Citing Internet Sources:
Author, A.A. & Author, B.B. (Date of publication). Title of article.Retrieved month day year. From http://web address.
Appendices
Should be sequential (as they appear / are being mentioned in the text). Bookman Old Style; maybe presented in smaller fonts.
Curriculum Vitae Follow standard format for research work.

NOTES: 1. Font Style : Courier New / Font Size : 12 2. Double space 3. Include introductory paragraphs in all chapters except chapter 1 4. The word Chapter must be in upper and lower case. Chapter number is in Arabic form BOLD; Chapter title must be ALL CAPS bold. 5. Between sub headings – two double spaces. 6. Pagination – top right 7. Margins: top – 1.2”, bottom – 1.2”, left – 1.5”, right – 1.2” 8. 22 – 24 lines per page
-----------------------
MUSIC PREFERENCE
Music Tempo • Fast

• Slow

Music Preference • Classical

• Blues

• Jazz

• Rock

• Bossa Nova

• Rhythm and Blues

• Country

• OPM

• Reggae

Appetite of
Consumers

PROFILE

• AGE

• GENDER…...

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...Nesbitt-Johnston Writing Center Hamilton College Clinton, NY 13323 INTRODUCTIONS AND THESIS STATEMENTS Introductions The introduction is a key paragraph for both readers and writers. First impressions matter. The reader will be more inclined to read a paper and consider a position if the initial paragraph is clear, organized, and engaging. For the writer, a carefully crafted first paragraph acts as a springboard, establishing the order and direction for the entire paper. The form and content of an introduction depend upon many factors, including the specifics of the assignment, the intended audience, the style of the discipline, and the expectations of your professor. In general, your introduction should • capture the reader’s attention • reflect the question raised by the assignment • provide essential context for your topic • define key terms Most importantly, your introduction should • convey the pattern of organization you will follow in the paper • build to the thesis sentence: a clear, concise statement of the specific position you will explore in your paper Outline first Outline your argument as fully as possible before starting the first draft. Outlining first helps you to see the shape of your argument, making writing the draft much easier. Start focused Avoid broad openers; start your argument right away. Do not open with empty filler such as “Since the beginning of time” or “For thousands of years, men, both good and evil.” Open with a......

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... According to the related article mentioned above, fingerprint scanning technology has been used in many fields as a means of security to confidential government records. Technology helps law enforces in the identification of employees. Local Literature The aim of general payroll system is to provide easier and faster way to monitor the movement of salary in the business. It is a proper way to get an exact salary of employee regarding their minimum income. From this documents of payroll the salary will be illustrate the name of employee, the rate, the deductions for their benefits, deduction from damages and cash advance, computing a gross and giving the amount of net income. According to John Aquilan made a comparable thesis entitled “Automation of time attendance System” in 2004, it stated that the automation of the time attendance records, time in and time out of every employee using barcode system. It tends to eliminate the manual recording system of time and attendance and also include salary computation of each employee based on the time and attendance reports. According to Mayor Jun Bernabe on the article Planet Biometrics, In August 2011 Parañaque City, Philippines has replaced its existing biometric machines with a new finger print biometric attendance registry system, which it says is more user-friendly and efficient. The city’s mayor, Jun Bernabe, says the new attendance machines will enable it to resolve the issues of long queues as well as......

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...Time Management and Test Preparation. The study is largely dependent on the honesty, sincerely, and integrity of the respondents. This study will not cover the graduating students, due to the f act that we have limited sources. Moreover 1st year and 2nd year Batasan Gen Ed. Students are only allowed to participate in the research. Definition of Terms Student Employment - The one who work for oneself. Part Time Job - The way of the student to earn and to provide their necessity. Work - Something that produces an output or being accomplished. Working Students – Student who work while studying. References http://www.slideshare.net/AngeAlcantara/a-thesis-asses http://www.merriam-webster.com/press-release/2009-word-of-the-year http://issuepoints.com/subcategory/factors-affecting-the-academic-performance-of-college-working-student-in-the-philippines/1...

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...Thesis CHAPTER 1 The Problem and its Background Introduction If you could improve performance, increase student morale an develop self esteem of a student, would you? According to B.F Skinner, behavior is a function of its consequences. The learner will repeat the desired behavior if positive reinforcement follows the behavior. Skinner said, “When someone behaves in a way we find reinforcing, we make him more likely to do so again by praising or commending him. We attest to the value of the person’s behavior by patting on the back, or saying good or right or giving him a token of our esteem such as prize, honor or award.” Guthrie assume that learning depends on action an organism must do, it is to learn. Once the student performed the required response, the teacher must present the student a reward, which will capture his or her attention that the student will eventually further improve his or her performance. For example, when students do exceptionally ell in class, he or she will earn medal or a star. Another, the student will be more motivated if his or her teacher will say “good job” or “very great answer” for every correct answer and good performance. The researcher believes that rewards have something to do with learning and we assume that motivation is important to the learner. A reward must be something desirable; without the desire, there can be no reward (Tria, 1998) Since the researchers have mentioned the concept of positive reinforcement......

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