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Toxicity Paper

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Toxicity Paper

Chemicals that produce systemic toxicity do not always produce the same degree of toxicity in all organs. Instead, one or two organs are usually the target of most of the toxicity produced by the toxic chemical in question. These are the target organs for the toxicity for that chemical. The organ that is the target of toxicity most commonly involved in systemic effects is the central nervous system followed by skin, blood circulation system, liver, lungs and kidneys. Muscle and bones as well as the male and female reproductive systems often suffer debilitating impacts from many substances. Target organs can also refer to an organ is targeted to receive a therapeutic dose of irradiation. An example would be beaming gamma rays to the renal area of a kidney for the treatment of a tumor. Another example of a target organ is the thyroid gland, when the anterior pituitary gland secretes a thyroid stimulating hormone (Silbergeld, 2011). Target organ toxicity is when a toxins adverse effects or disease states manifest in specific organs in the body. The higher the cardiac output, the higher the exposure. Organs each have specialized tissues and cells with differentiated cellular processes and receptors while some toxicants and metabolites may have specific reactive pathways. As pointed out previously, toxicants do not always affect all organs to the same extent. There could be several sites of action and target organs for a particular toxicant. The same organ could be targeted by more than one toxicant. The target organ may not even be where the toxicant is stored. The degree of toxic concentrations in target organs is determined by the toxicokinetic processes (Silbergeld, 2011). One of the most important organs in the body is the liver. The liver plays a key role when it comes to detoxifying foreign substances or toxins. Through a series of chemical reactions the liver detoxifies harmful substances, especially from the gut. Converting fat soluble toxins into water soluble substances that can be excreted in the urine or the bile is the role of various enzyme activities in the liver, depending on what the particular characteristics of the end product is. Many of the toxic chemicals entering the body are fat-soluble and can only be dissolved in fatty or oily solutions and not in water. Because of this, it is hard for the body to excrete. Fat tissues and cell membranes, being composed of fatty acids and proteins are susceptible to fat soluble chemicals. Toxins may be stored in these fatty tissues of the body for years before being released during times of exercise, stress or fasting. The liver removes many unwanted microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites from the blood and keeps them from building up in the blood and invading deeper parts of the body ("Tuberose.com ", n.d.). There are many ways to become afflicted with chronic disease of the liver. One of these is autoimmune hepatitis, a liver disease found more commonly in women. It is usually caused by an abnormality of the immune system. Progressive inflammation and destruction of liver cells are caused by autoimmune hepatitis’ abnormal immune activity. This usually leads to cirrhosis of the liver. If an infant is born without bile ducts or born lacking vital enzymes for controlling sugars causing the liver to accumulate an excess of sugars, this condition can also lead to cirrhosis. Lee (2014), “On rare occasions, the absence of a specific enzyme can cause cirrhosis and scarring of the lung” (What are the common causes of cirrhosis?). Unusual reactions to some drugs, chronic heart and prolonged exposure to toxins are less common causes of cirrhosis. Certain parts of the world such as Northern Africa a common cause of liver disease and cirrhosis is when the liver becomes infected with a parasite (Lee, 2014). Exposure to sulfur dioxide occurs from breathing it in the air. It affects the lungs and at high levels may result in burning of the nose and throat, breathing difficulties, and severe airway obstructions. Burning of the nose and throat, breathing difficulties, and severe airway obstructions occurred in miners who breathed sulfur dioxide released as a result of an explosion in a copper mine. Asthmatics have also been shown to be sensitive to the respiratory effects of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is toxic to plants by being absorbed through the stomata into the mesophyll of the leaves. When a tolerable concentration is exceeded the cells become inactive, drying up, and then dying ("Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry", 1999).
Pulmonary diseases such as asbestosis and mesothelioma have been associated with exposure to asbestos. The lung is the primary target organ for asbestos toxicity, altering the immune system at occupationally relevant concentrations (Rosenthal, 1999). Some of the toxic effects of asbestos on plants are changes in the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoid, total free sugar, starch, and protein. Also an increase in efflux of electrolytes, lipid peroxidation, cellular hydrogen peroxide, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity was found. Trivedi (2004), "Contrary to effect on these parameters, a dose- and time-dependent increase in efflux of electrolytes, lipid peroxidation, cellular hydrogen peroxide, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity was found” (Asbestos toxicity in plants).
Exposure to gasoline, which is a toxic substance, can affect your health. Toxic effects can include burns, vomiting and diarrhea. In very large amounts, drowsiness or death can all be caused by drinking gasoline. Gasoline affects plant when poured directly onto plants because it has compounds that produce carbon monoxide and other gases that harm plants. In addition to this, it pollutes the environment making plant growth difficult.

References
Silbergeld, E. (2011). ILO encyclopedia of occupational health and safety. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/oshenc/part-iv/toxicology/mechanisms-of-toxicity/item/75
Tuberose.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://tuberose.com/Liver_Detoxification.html
Lee, D. (2014). MedicineNet.com. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/page3.htm
Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. (1999). Retrieved from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=252&tid=46
Rosenthal, G.J. (1999). US national library of medicine national institutes of health. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10372416…...

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