Premium Essay

Upbringing Exam Question

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By HaseebaSyed
Words 1220
Pages 5
a) Upbringing refers to the way a child is raised in terms of religion and moral values, which is effected by factors within their family (primarily their parents), environmental and social factors, and the dominant views in their culture. This will determine your behaviour as an adult. We research upbringing so that if an individual is at high risk of developing criminal behaviour due to his upbringing, the risks can be easily reduced by changing the way an individual is brought up. Upbringing suggests that criminal behaviour can be learnt from others, i.e. if a child observes criminal behaviour he is at high risk of committing a crime. There are three ways through which an individual learns from others: classical conditioning, operant conditioning and the social learning theory. Social learning theory is the idea that we learn indirectly, through others – normally role models (such as criminal family members, criminal peers etc.).
In Akers et al study on social learning and deviant behaviour, data on adolescent drinking and drug-taking behaviour was collected by a survey. A large sample of teenagers was surveyed, with a small sub-group interviewed to check the validity of the data. Quantitative data was collected by asking about the frequency of their alcohol and drug consumption on a scale of 1 (never) to 6 (nearly everyday) and qualitative data was collected by asking about their alcohol or drug related experience, why they were involved in alcohol and drug consumption, are they following a role model, what reward or punishment they get by this behaviour and if others (parents etc.) object to their behaviour.
Statistical analysis showed that social learning theory can be used to predicted alcohol use with 55% accuracy and drug use with 68% accuracy. The most effective predictive variable was differential association, specifically the number of peers that use…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Practice Questions Exam 1

...  Chapter 1 True / False Questions   1. Inflation is assumed to be a temporary problem that does not affect financial decisions.  FALSE 2. Financial Capital is composed of long-term plant and equipment, as well as other tangible investments.  FALSE 3. Real Capital is composed of long-term plant and equipment.  TRUE  4. During the 1930s, financial practice revolved around such topics as the preservation of capital, maintenance of liquidity, reorganization of financially troubled corporations and bankruptcy.  TRUE   5. In the mid 1950s, finance began to change to a more analytical, decision-oriented approach.  TRUE   6. Recently, the emphasis of financial management has been on the relationship between risk and return.  TRUE    7. The most common partnership arrangement carries limited liability to the partners.  FALSE   8. In terms of revenues and profits, the corporation is by far the most important form of business organization in the United States.  TRUE 9. Dividends paid to corporate stockholders have already been taxed once as corporate income.  TRUE  10. One advantage of the corporate form of organization is that income received by stockholders is not taxable since the corporation already paid taxes on the income distributed.  FALSE   11. A corporation must have more than 75 stockholders to qualify for Subchapter S designation.  FALSE   12. Profits of a Subchapter S corporation are taxed at corporate tax......

Words: 7684 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

Sample Pers 2001 Exam Questions

...Sample PERS 2001 Exam Questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Modules 1-Introduction, 2-Overview of Legal Systems and 3-Death Penalty 1. The Uniform Crime Report “Crime Rate” allows a. police to set a value on crimes c. comparison of crime over time and in different locations b. police to report crimes d. comparison of crime between countries 2. In the United States, all states except one use a similar source for their law. Which state is different? a. Louisiana c. Alaska b. Hawaii d. California 3. The United Nations has three major components: a. General Secretary, Chief Justice and c. justification, excuse, alibi and Council procedural b. justification, excuse, alibi and d. General Assembly, Security Council, procedural and Secretariat 4. The state with the largest death row population is a. Texas c. Georgia b. Virginia d. California Modules 4- Drug Laws & Policy and 5-Marriage & Homophobia 5. In the United States, what percentage of federal prisoners are incarcerated for drug and drug related offenses? a. 5% c. 50% b. 10% d. 100% 6. One major problem of physical dependence on drugs is a. as time goes on, the user develops a c. as time goes on, the user gets bored tolerance to the drug, requiring smaller with the drug and/or less frequent dosage b. as time goes on, the user develops a d. there are no problems associated with tolerance to the drug, requiring larger physical dependence on drugs......

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bus100 Sample Exam Questions

...BUS100 Sample Exam 1 Student: ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. Which of the following organizations is an example of the goods-producing sector of the economy? A. Ford Motor Company B. Florida State University C. Children's Hospital D. H & R Block Tax Consulting 2. Which of the statements about demography is most accurate? Demographic studies: A. focus on factors that have great political relevance, but little relevance to business firms. B. suggest that the number of two-income families will decline in the future. C. provide business and individuals with insights into business and career opportunities of the future. D. are an important source of information about changes in weather and climate. 3. Public schools, charities and government agencies are not classified as businesses because they: A. have not been incorporated. B. do not seek to earn a profit. C. provide services rather than goods. D. do not have any stockholders. 4. In order to make an intelligent investment decision, entrepreneurs should: A. limit their options to those business investments that are backed by the U.S. government. B. invest in businesses that have generated a stable rate of profit for at least the past ten years. C. invest only in business opportunities where it is possible to take an active role in management. D. compare the risks of potential investments to their expected profits and find the right......

Words: 2600 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Descartes Exam Questions & Notes

...Descartes Exam Questions & Notes (PHIL 1F90) Give a detailed account of Descartes’ systematic doubt or methodic doubt in Meditation I making certain to distinguish between real doubts and hypothetical or metaphysical doubts. Then explain how Descartes dispels each of these doubts during the course of the subsequent Meditations beginning with the cogito in Meditation 2. A methodic or systematic doubt refers to the common sense or naïve realism. So common sense or naïve realism is the belief that all knowledge comes from or through the senses. Naïve realism are things that are exactly as they appear to be and they appear to be exactly the way they are; a teacup for example. It’s possible to doubt naïve realism in that senses are not always truthful. The difference between real and hypothetical or metaphysical doubt is that Real Doubt are doubts we actually have such as those that really do happen; for example, things that happen sometimes, occasionally, or once in a while. Metaphysical Doubt on the other hand are doubts that could happen. It’s like a logical extension of real doubt, logical possibilities for example “let us assume, what if, I will therefore suppose that.” Sometimes is also considered a real doubt for example “Sometimes my senses do deceive me.” It’s important to note that external conditions are not ideal. Descartes discusses the lunatic hypothesis and the dream hypothesis. He says that in a lunatic hypothesis internal conditions are not ideal since a......

Words: 1441 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Exam Questions

...Final Exam Practice 1. Agency costs can be thought of as the loss in the value of a firm resulting from the following actions by managers: I) reduced effort, II) perks or private benefits, III) empire building, IV) entrenching investments, V) avoiding risks. a. I, II, III, IV and V only 2. One key assumption of the Miller and Modigliani (MM) dividend irrelevance is that: b. Capital markets are efficient 3. Analysis of past monthly movements in Wal-Mart’s stock price has produced the following estimates: a = -0.45% and b= 0.5. If the market index subsequently rises by 5% one month and WAl-Mart’s stock price rises by 3%, what is the abnormal change in Wal-Mart’s stock price? c. +0.95% expected change: (-0.45 + 0.05(5) )= 2.05; abnormal return = 3-2.05 = +0.95% 4. Two corporations A and B have exactly the same risk and both have a current stock price of $100. Corporation A pays no dividend and will have a price of $120 one year from now. Corporation B pays dividends and will have price of $113 one year from now after paying the dividend. The corporations pay no taxes and investors pay no taxes on capital gains by pay a tax of 30% income tax on dividends. What is the value of the dividend that investors expect corporation B to pay one year from today? d. $10 dividend = (120 – 113)/0.7 = $10 5. An option that can be exercised any time before expiration date is called: e. An American option 6. The write (seller) of a...

Words: 2297 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Exam Questions

...* How long has it been since you last took an exam? Well let’s see, I believe it has been a little over a year now. It was at Everest College and it was my last one before I had graduate. I was a bit nervous because I was worried that I wasn’t going to past or not get the grade that I want to get on my transcript. But luckily I did wind up passing my exam and as well getting the grade that I wanted. Please excuse my bragging I have received two 100’s on the two-part exam. * On a scale of 1-5, 5 being the highest, what was your anxiety level with the testing experience? Please explain My anxiety level has to be a strong 2, the reason behind that is I like to second guess myself and panic, every time I see a test. I feel like I never study enough, like all my answers are going to be wrong. I know sometimes I try not to stress myself out or over think too much. But all my life I have been like that no matter if I study every single night of the hour on the hour I still panic and I know it is something I must change. * What were some aspects of the diagnostic that you found difficult? I just a little overall the diagnostic was difficult itself. I mean it can be helpful showing you what you missed out on some assignments and learning activities that might be required. But at the same time I sort of feel like it’s out my way, when we have a check box to let us know if we completed our work. * How do you think this will be a useful tool for you throughout......

Words: 359 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Psychology Exam Questions Ocr

...example using the case study of interviews in the Mann study, testing how effective police are in detecting lies in a suspect. Interviews are not a reliable method as participant effects can occur. Results gained from the interview cannot be seen as valid in this case as there is no stopping for demand characteristics, socially desirable answers and no stopping a criminal from lying. In the study, police only identified 66% of the lies and 63% of the truth. Therefore the interview technique is different in every situation and the interviewing technique always has a scope for improvement, not being 100% accurate all of the time. Ethics can also be a problem for reliability of information gained from suspects in interviews. They may be asked questions in relation to their situation. These may be personal and the suspect may not want to give any information away to the interviewer. Discussing sexual behaviours is considered unethical in the UK for interviewing suspects and has seen to create unreliable information. A common strength of the reliability of information gained from suspects in interviews is the ability to generalise. The study by Mann was a cross sectional study across the UK. Data was found that it was very hard to identify lies in suspects as they dominate the interview in the UK. These results were made extremely reliable for the interviewers, as new methods could be used to help in the future. In conclusion, I believe the reliability of interviewing a suspect......

Words: 1644 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Mgt 538 Final Exam Questions

...MGT 538 Final Exam www.StudentWhiz.com 1) Experts suggest that firms that want to globalize through e-commerce must first localize, which means that firms need to A.use local suppliers, vendors, and distributors to manufacture products for the local market B.modify their products and services to meet the needs and interests of local cultures C.sell their products in a brick-and-mortar store before selling them through an e-market D.test their products and services in local markets before selling them over the Internet 2) Which of the following behaviors is inconsistent with Casse's profile of successful American negotiators? A.Refusing to make concessions in advance B.Exhibiting a good sense of timing C.Being quiet and not arguing D.Understanding the issues Click here to Download MGT 538 Final Exam 3) Dell most likely offshores product support service jobs to India because of the A.superior technical knowledge of Indian workers B.extensive call center experience of Indian workers C.lower payroll costs associated with Indian workers D.customer preference for interacting with Indian workers 4) In the context of doing business in Asia, what is meant by the phrase "the contract is in the relationship, not on the paper"? A.Asian contracts are not legally binding for MNCs. B.Contracts are ceremoniously destroyed after they are written....

Words: 1796 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Exam Questions

...Exam series | Sect A Plate Tec(7 marks) | Sect APlate tec(8 marks) | Sect A Plate tec(10 marks) | | Sect CPlate tec essay (40 marks) | June 2010 | Study fig 1 a photo …recent earthquake. Using fig 1 only, comment on the evidence that suggest that an earthquake has recently taken place | Describe how seismic waves and earthquakes can be measured | With reference to two seismic events you have studied from contrasting areas of the world, compare the ways in which earthquakes and their impacts have been managed | | “The hazards presented by volcanic and seismic events have the greatest impact on the world’s poorest people” To what extent do you agree with this view? | Jan 2011 | Study fig 1, a map showing tectonic features in the Philippines. Comment on the degree to which the area of the Philippines might be subject to tectonic hazards | Outline the formation of hot spots and explain their relationship to plate movement | With reference to 2 volcanic events that you have studied from contrasting areas of the world, compare the nature of the volcanic hazard and its impact | | “Volcanic and seismic events are major pieces of evidence towards proving that plate tectonics theory is valid”. Discuss the extent to which you agree with this statement. | June 2011 | Study fig 1 which is an image of the sea bed of the N Atlantic Ocean … Comment on the extent to which the features shown support the theory of plate tectonics. | Describe the characteristics of, and explain the......

Words: 1106 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Hrm 320 Final Exam Questions

...HRM 320 Final Exam Question | Answers 1. (TCO 1) HR has moved from an administrative function to a transformational function. This change is based on automating HR functions through an HRIS system. Explain how HR evolved throughout this process. Describe the trends that HR is facing, and will face, through technology. (Points : 30) 2. (TCO 2) Organizations are now relying more and more on HR’s ability to provide employee data. Explain how HR is now able to provide the organization employee information through technology and move towards meeting organizational goals. Provide an example. (Points : 30) 3. (TCO 3) Explain how HR technology can improve efficiency and effectiveness in HR functions. How, specifically, can HR technology support the business? Provide an example. (Points : 30) 4. (TCO 4) Some people have criticized companies for “pushing” HR’s work onto employeesthrough self-service technology. Provide your assessment of self-service technology, from a strategic standpoint. How would you thoroughly defend this technology advancement? (Points : 30) 5. (TCO 5) Compensation, benefits, staffing, and performance management are four major components of the HR responsibilities. Thoroughly review each component, and specifically explain how technology can impact these functions, both from an operational standpoint and an HR standpoint. (Points : 30) 6. (TCO 6) What should be the key considerations for a small but fast-growing......

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Government and Politics Exam Questions

...All unit 1 government and politics past questions: 2011 1) Explain the term turnout used in the extract. (5 marks) 2) Using your own knowledge as well as the extract, consider why some commentators have spoken of a ‘participation crises in recent years. (10 marks) 3) ‘Deciding which party to vote for is now essentially a rational exercise.’ Discuss. (25 marks) 4) Explain the term wasted votes used in the extract. (5 marks) 5) Using your own knowledge as well as the extract, consider why the first-past-the-post system disadvantages some parties. (10 marks) 6) ‘The use of referendums in the UK since 1997 has done little to strengthen democracy.’ Discuss. (25 marks) 7) Explain the term party conference used in the extract. (5 marks) 8) Using your own knowledge as well as the extract, outline the ways in which the Conservative Party and the Labour Party select their leaders. (10 marks) 9) ‘The main UK parties differ on economic policy alone.’ Discuss. (25 marks) 10) Explain the term cause groups used in the extract. (5 marks) 11) Using your own knowledge as well as the extract, consider why direct action could be said to undermine UK democracy. (10 marks) 12) ‘The most successful UK pressure groups still tend to focus on lobbying the Westminster Parliament, despite the availability of numerous other access points.’ Discuss. (25 marks) January 2012 13) Explain the term class dealignment used in the extract. (5 marks) 14) Using your own knowledge as......

Words: 1212 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Marketing Exam Questions

...Marketing Exam Questions Student’s name Institutional affiliations 1. A company that choses to use the value approach will focus more on delivering value to the customer whereas one that uses the 4ps will focus more on the product. For the two companies steps will almost be the same only that the one using the value approach offering more. For instance the value approach goes beyond availing the product but ensures the customer understand the product and gets the most of the product. The 4Ps approach promotes and advertises the product, while the value approach goes beyond that and offers – the value, product plus service, benefit, and enjoyment that can be received with the product. 2. Just like the four Ps this start with the creation of product that has value and then communicate/promote the offering by describing it and gather consumer opinion. Delivering is similar to place whereby you now take the created product to the consumer for them to purchase. Exchanging is when you now trade value for the product or what the 4Ps calla price. 3. a) Marketing creates goods and services that a company can offer to its consumers at a price. The price, the goods and the services constitute the company’s offering b) Marketers educate potential consumers about the value of what they are offering as well as gathering their opinion on whether they want the offering. c) Marketing cannot just promise value it should be able to get the product to into the hands of the......

Words: 499 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mgt Final Exam Question

...above 15. Which of the following is(are) a question or questions asked when assessing task performance and group maintenance leadership? (Points: 3) Is your superior strict about observing regulations? Is you superior strict about the amount of work you do? Does you superior ask you for reports about the progress of your work? All of the above 16. Performance standards can be set with respect to any of the following EXCEPT: (Points: 3) Personality Quality Quantity Cost 17. Which type of control takes place while plans are being carried out? (Points: 3) Feedback control Specialist control Preliminary control Concurrent control 18. Departments that are titled marketing, finance, operations, accounting and finance are departmentalized by: (Points: 3) Product Geography Function Matrix All of the above 19. Managers conduct _____ audits of other companies and ____ audits of their own company (Points: 3) Competition, supplier External, internal Illegal, legal Internal, external 20. Assessing your own company's planning, organizing, leading and controlling efforts is the essential function of: (Points: 3) Internal audits Strategic managers Feed forward control Feedback control 2. Which type of control takes place while plans are being carried out? a. Feedback Control b. Specialist Control c. Prelimary Control d. Concurrent Control 3. Which of the following is(are) a question or questions asked when assessing task performance and......

Words: 2490 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Exam 1 Sample Questions

...2012 Students: These sample questions were pulled from last year’s exam. Note that not all the material covered to this point matches up with what I did last year. Hence some material below may be unfamiliar to you. However, these are reasonably representative of the type of questions you are likely to see. 1.Financial accounting a) provides useful information primarily for external decision makers. b) is required for corporations but probably would not be done by other business entities. c) provides information primarily for the use of managers of the company. d) has been practiced in this country for approximately the last 15 years. 2. The Financial Accounting Standards Board employs a "due process" system for making GAAP. This process… a. is an efficient system for collecting dues from members. b. enables interested parties to express their views on issues under consideration. c. establishes new standards based only on FASB board members’ discussions. d. requires that all accountants must receive a copy of financial standards. 3. A decrease in net assets arising from peripheral or incidental transactions is called a(n) a. capital expenditure. b. cost. c. loss. d. expense. 4.   An accounting record into which the essential facts and figures are posted        when it is time to make the financials is called the        a. general ledger.        b. cash flow statement.        c. trial balance.        d. general journal.        e. Major General.  5. If, during an accounting......

Words: 2205 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Intellecutal Property Exam Question

...Intellectual Property Issues and E-Business Sample Test Questions for Final Exam Multiple Choice or True-False Listed below are several questions that are representative of the type of questions on the final exam. Please note that you must make only one selection for each question; further, there is just one answer for each question. 1. One-click mechanisms and shipment tracking are associated with which phase of the Customer Service Life Cycle? a. b. c. d. e. Retirement Acquisition Ownership Requirements Management b ANSWER: 2. Business methods are associated best with which form of intellectual property? a. Copyright b. Trademark c. Trade Secret d. Patent ANSWER: d 3. E-business today does not present any unusual problems associated with jurisdiction. a. ANSWER: True b b. False 4. Which statement below is correct? a. b. c. d. The EU encourages business method patents The US discourages business method patents Business method patents are not found in the US today Business method patents are found in the EU today d ANSWER: Fill In The Blank Each statement has a blank space associated with the question. You are to select the correct response from the list of responses provided to answer each statement. Write the number associated with your response in the space next to the statement. Please note that there are more responses in the list than there are statements. Thus, not every response will be used, and no response is used more than one time. List of......

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Maldives | Pressure Washers Accessories | Glorious