Free Essay

Viewing Business Process Security from Different Presepctives

In: Business and Management

Submitted By assarhanif
Words 6003
Pages 25
Viewing Business-Process Security from Different Perspectives Author(s): Gaby Herrmann and Günther Pernul Source: International Journal of Electronic Commerce, Vol. 3, No. 3, Developing the Business Components of the Digital Economy (Spring, 1999), pp. 89-103 Published by: M.E. Sharpe, Inc. Stable URL: . Accessed: 31/01/2015 04:15
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .




Security fromDifferent

Perspectives Gaby Herrmann and G?nther Pernul are crucial success factors inelectronic commerce. ABSTRACT: Security and integrity a framework that includes the securityand integrity This paper offers requirementsof business processes in businessprocess execution. An

themodeling and refinement securityand integrity of requirements. High-level security of requirements business processes are viewed fromfivedifferent perspectives. The tasks involved in the different perspectives are described, and the modeling of security re quirements isoutlined by focusingon the example of the legal binding of contracts. KEYWORDS binding, important

part of the framework


AND PHRASES: Business process, business-process reengineering, legal semantics. security

of markets in recent years, many enterprises Because of the globalization have located their offices and production sites all over theworld. They need to cooperate in order to conduct business. Because of distribution and open ness, special care must be devoted in such systems to the security and integ rityof corresponding business processes. To participate in electronic commerce and to optimize their business processes, many enterprises must reengineer their existing business processes, devoting special care to security and integ in this article sup rity requirements as they do so. The approach proposed in order to improve security and ports business-process reengineering integrity. In addition, it supports the reuse of already generated solutions on the technical domain level [3]. Following a common classification scheme, the reuse approach may be classified as domain-based. Business processes are usually described in business-process models that is represent reality at a high level of abstraction. A business-process model designed by a domain expert, and must, at the very least, contain the follow ing components: information about organizational units involved in process tasks ing the business process (e.g., departments, agents, roles, machinery), to be performed and their cooperation, informational units and their usage and structure, and a statement about the behavior of all of the objects in volved. The domain experts specifying business processes are usually not about such security specialists. At a very high level they have knowledge requirements as sensitivity, legal binding, high integrity, copyright, and the like, and will assign them to business-process components. To implement a business process, a more detailed analysis is necessary. a business process is not an isolated Usually activity within an enterprise, for there are interactions with databases, processing units, people involved, and so on. Typically, models already exist. Ifnot, new models must be devel (data oped. As an example of an already existing model, consider a database and a document that is processed within a business process. The model) business-process model mainly describes events, conditions, and the flow of the structuring of the documents between the parties involved. However,
InternationalJournalofElectronicCommerce / Spring 1999,Vol. 3,No. 3, pp. 89-103. Copyright ? 1999M.E. Sharpe, Inc.All rights reserved. 1086-4415/1999 $9.50 + 0.00.

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions


object "document" and its relationships to other objects are described in the data model of the database. The security requirements specified in business process models must be represented and analyzed in the other models. As an example, the requirement of legally binding the partners to a contract in a document processed in the business process) requires that (represented the data structure provide specific information fields representing the docu ment stored in the database. Thus, when a domain expert specifies security requirements in the business-process model, certain steps must be taken in it is proposed here that business pro the related models. As a consequence, cesses be viewed from different perspectives, each perspective relating to one aspect of the process. is models representing security semantics in business-process Although an important topic (e.g., see [11]), not much work on ithas been published. Inmost cases, a very narrow definition of security is used. The authors try to as used in operating sys and access-control methods adapt authorization tems and database systems to the special need of business-process manage ment (e.g., see [171).At least in the opinion of some authors, such models are to themanagement of business processes [7]. There only partially applicable several steps forward in the development have been of a security model for a Policy [1, 2, 4, 13]. Bu?ler has developed management business-process Resolution Model that emphasizes authorization and access controls [4]. Atluri et al. describe possible dependencies of tasks with different security levels and a method for executing themwithout compromising security [1]. Bertino et al. focus on the use of role-based authorization inworkflow management and Hung devote special concern to activity management [2]. Karlapalem tasks with possible agents based on role modeling [13].All these by matching works focus on specific areas of business-process and there has as security, yet been no general discussion of broader scope. A framework is necessary that implements all possible security require ments of business processes. In this paper, the high-level security require ments of business processes are viewed from five different perspectives. The example of legal binding of contracts is used to describe the tasks involved in the different perspectives and outline the modeling of security require ments. The example is viewed from all five perspectives. A framework for a business-process security infrastructure is also outlined.

Example and Specification


of Security and


A very high-level model of a business process ment will be used to illustrate different security in business processes (see Figure 1). The notation tion is simple and self-explanatory: The first row

responsible for the execution of tasks, and the left column represents the agents carrying out the tasks. First, companies that can act as possible sup pliers are determined. They are invited to submit offers (task 2). Offers must be valid for a specific period of time and must be authentic. If not, the deci

focusing on order manage and integrity requirements in the graphical representa represents the departments

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ELECTRONIC COMMERCE OF departments] agents/roiei Department of quality control





White, Smith


final product specification to supplier (6)

delivery (7)

quality control (8)

legend: (^) exclusive-or data/material


task be processed ?

, xyz

authenticity flow direction




legal binding by High

Figure 1. Business Process Level Security Semantics




sion about whom to choose as supplier (task 3) will be based on uncertain information. In task 4, negotiations with the chosen supplier take place and lead either to completion of the contract (task 5) or to choosing another sup plier (task 3). Negotiations have several security requirements: First, the com munication partners must be authentic. Second, the negotiations should be confidential. A completed contract must be legally binding on both contract partners. The ordered goods, it is assumed, will be produced according to the specifications of the customer, and the final specifications must be given

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions


Description Layer Layer 3 of content



Supporting method
3.2 analyzing methodology of graphical concepts semantics 3.1 case and set

High-level specifica tions of security requirements of business processes


repository of studies

Layer 2


specifications of

Intermediate language

security requirements

Repository of informationon how basic building blocks can be determined from security requirements

1 Layer

Security hardware and security software building

Program, program modules, hardware blocks

Repository of hardware and blocks software building (elements are security APIs, security dongle, etc.)



1 Three-Layered


for Process

Security Specification.

to the supplier after the completion of the contract (task 6) at the latest. To if the specifications are leaked, secrecy is avoid competitive disadvantages After production the goods are delivered demanded. (task 7) and quality takes place The preceding illustrates the fol control (task 8). example lowing security requirements: authenticity, legal binding, and confiden tiality (secrecy). It is a longway from specifying requirements to final processing. The frame work shown in Table 1 is proposed for processing the specified requirements [9]. A domain expert analyzes and specifies the business processes of the a application domain, including security and integrity requirements, at high

level of abstraction. The framework supports analyzing, modeling, and imple mentation of the security requirements of the business process. It consists of a into two sublayers three-layered architecture. The top layer is divided 3.2 and sublayer 3.1). Layer 3.2 contains well-defined concepts used (sublayer to represent the security semantics of the real world and a method to analyze The domain expert may use these con them from different perspectives.

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions



cepts to express the security requirements of a business process (business process perspective). In a real-world application, domain experts modeling business processes are not necessarily security experts, and thus their understanding of security at a high level of abstraction. Additional requirements may be vague and work is necessary to transform the specified security requirements into an executable form. For this, detailed knowledge of security concepts is needed and a security administrator must be consulted. Therefore, sublayer 3.1 con tains a repository with reusable case studies for handling security require ments. These case studies look at security requirements inmore detail and offer possible ways to implement them. The security administrator takes the as input, and high-level security specifications of the business-process model more detailed representations by using a repository transforms them into located at sublayer 3.1. This transformation refines the security requirements to the level of the basic security elements used to implement the security a requirements (e.g., verify the digital signature of supposed signatory). Layer 2 of the architecture contains guidelines (expressed in an intermediate lan guage) for dividing basic security elements into basic building blocks. Layer 1 of the architecture offers a repository of hardware and software compo nents that are needed to implement the building blocks. If a workflow-man agement system executing a business process does not support the security se requirements, an application programmer is responsible for developing at layer 2 and the software curity software. In this case, the specifications components at layer 1may be helpful and supportive. If the development of corresponding security software is not possible, the security requirements of the business process must be reduced or the business process will not be executable. In the remainder of this paper the focus ismainly on layer 3 and sublayer 3.2.


Security Semantics of Business

of Business


Processes is described by a process model containing characteristics relevant to the purpose of the [6], a combination of the following perspec consistent, and complete view of a business

In general, a business process information about the process to business target. According tives produces an integrated, process: informational perspective represents the information entities, their structuring, and the relationships between them. A common the information perspec for analyzing and modeling methodology The tive is the Entity-Relationship approach [51. The functional perspective shows what activities (processes) are occurs between activities. The performed and which data flow functional perspective represents only the flow of data within the [8]. system. Itmay be modeled by using data flow diagrams

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions


The dynamic perspective represents all possible states for each information entity, and states transitions thatmay occur within the life cycle of the information entity.Although there are many different techniques available, a very common technique is to use state-transition diagrams [16]. The organizational perspective shows where and by whom activities are performed. This perspective corresponds to the organigram of an organization and to role models. Since each perspective focuses on a very specific aspect of a business pro cess, some knowledge ofmodeling techniques is necessary in order to specify the perspectives. Usually, the expert in the business do and to understand main who is specifying the business process finds itdifficult to see the rela tionships between the business process and other models already existing in the organization. To analyze security requirements, it is very important to develop an integrated view of all aspects of a business process. In addition to the four perspectives mentioned, the framework presented supports a fifthperspective, which is here called the business process perspective. The business-process perspective represents the flow of work in terms of activities and information flow from the viewpoint of the entire business process. It consists of an integration of the functional and dynamic perspectives, and references the informational and Itmay be modeled organizational perspectives. by using a method similar to that given in Figure 1. Figure 2 is a graphical representation of the relationships among the five perspectives. The informational perspective, functional perspective, dynamic perspective represent detailed aspects of a perspective, and organizational business process, while the business-process represents an ab perspective contains models stract and integrated view of it. Each of the perspectives that support different levels of abstraction. A description of a business pro at cess from the business-process refers to elements of models perspective either already exist in the organization or other perspectives. These models must be developed. For example, if organizational units in a business pro cess are already described in an existing organigram, theymay be referenced in the business process. Otherwise, the organigram must be extended in or der to develop a consistent view of the business process. Examples of busi ness-process perspectives are given in Figures 3 through 6. They are related

"order manage to the task "completion of the contract" of business-process as given in Figure 1. ment," In general, any requirement on a business process is represented from For example, the require different perspectives with varying consequences. ment of "time dependency" of task execution strongly influences functional and dynamic perspectives, but influences the organizational perspective less, and does not influence the informational perspective at all. This is in con trast to requirements referring to security and integrity of business processes.

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions




Figure 2. The Five Perspectives

on Business-Process


These are more complex because of a busi they influence all perspectives ness process at the same level of importance. The five perspectives will again be referred to below when the security requirement "legal binding of a contract" is analyzed from all perspectives and it is shown how the perspectives fit into the framework.


a Business


Every business process is integrated into the totality of activities of the enter prise. Before a new business process is initiated, the enterprise and other business processes generally already exist, and at least parts of them are struc Therefore, models may exist of the organizational already modeled. ture of the enterprise (organizational perspective), of the structure of a data base (informational perspective), of already existing activities (processes) and the data flow between them (functional perspective), and of the life cycles of the information entities (dynamic perspective). The model of a new busi ness process must relate to these existing models and must extend them appropriately. A domain expert specifies the business-process perspective, including the and integrity requirements. Afterward, the person in charge of de security a data model will examine it, and, if necessary, veloping and maintaining extend itwith whatever new information entities are necessary to support

the examined business process. If the data model already contains the infor mation entities, their life cycles may be examined (dynamic perspective). A functional perspective, programming expert will specify the corresponding and someone familiar with the structure of the enterprise will modify the

organizational perspective, ifnecessary. To implement the specified security a security administrator is requirements (see business-process perspective), and the perspectives may have to be modified involved, according to the

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions


statements of the security administrator in coordination with the experts for the other perspectives. The following subsection gives an responsible example. Modeling

of Contract Completion

Including Legal Binding

legally binding if the agreement between the contract partners is provable. A common method of provability is the use of signatures. If the contract is a traditional document (on paper), a way to implement its legally binding char acter is to have it signed by the contract partners. The example to be dis cussed pertains to a situation inwhich an electronic document is to be signed. law on communications The example is based on the German [12] and the set of corresponding regulations pertaining to digital signatures [18]. In gen eral, the following is required tomake a digital signature legally binding: A digital signature is a seal based on the signed data. The seal is implemented with asymmetric cryptography, created by using the private key of the sig natory. The correctness of signed data and the identity of the signatory can be ascertained by using his/her public key, which must be certified by a certification authority. Each certificate is assigned a period of validity. What cryptographic algorithms and certification infrastructure should be used is in the example the digital signa left open to the involved parties. Although tures are analyzed based on German law [12,18], regulations in other coun tries will be similar. The European Union's proposed European Parliament and Council Directive on a common framework for electronic signatures [14] for the regulations in Germany. may have consequences In order to study the effects of a digital signature, it is necessary to first of the business process. To verify a refer to the informational perspective on a document, the seal of each signatory and the corre digital signature are necessary. Therefore, the informational perspective sponding certificates of the business process must be extended by information about the signato ries, the certificates used, and the (trusted) parties responsible for issuing the certificates. Figure 3 extends a customer-supplier relationship by appropri ate data structures. These are of a new relationship type CERTIFICATE, and a contract. The represent modification of relationship type representing the a document that should be signed, and the agreed fact is represented by customer and supplier must be extended by one relationship type between field for the seal (digital signature) of each signatory and by information about the algorithm used for signing. In addition, customer and supplier are a a certificate relat specializations of generic-type applicant thatmust have a certification ing the applicant to authority.

"order management" and out This subsection focuses on business-process contract completion and the security re lines the different perspectives of quirement of "legal binding" on the contract partners. The components of existing models or attributes not affected by security requirements are shown in the example using ordinary type. The attributes with relevance to legal are given in boldface. binding To guarantee legal binding of a contract, different regulations are required in accordance with the corresponding law. Inmany countries, a document is

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

?? ?


public key of applicant verification algorithm certificate number of certificate begin, end of validity mmmm limitation details

certification authority

? ? ? ?


digital signature supplier digital signature customer algorithm supplier verification algorithm customer

Figure 3.




by Security


of invalidity of the certificate. That is expiration/declaration why the certificate's users must have the ability to re-sign the corresponding docu ments before the certificate of the former digital signature expires or is de clared invalid. In case of re-signing, the new digital signature must refer to the former document, the former digital signature, and a timestamp. The to re-sign documents has effects on other processes in the enter necessity prises (e.g., archiving process). Introducing legal binding into the business process also affects the organi zational perspective. To check the validity of digital signatures and initiate

For a contract to be processed, an information flow takes place. This is represented in the functional perspective of the business process. To guaran tee that the contract is legally binding, the functional perspective of the busi ness process must be modified, as shown in Figure 4. The process works as follows: The document must be signed digitally by each contract partner, and the signatures must be verified. Because a certificate of a public key may have expired (by time elapsed or by declaration of invalidity), additional actions are necessary to guarantee the provability of digital signed contracts. These actions lead, for example, to extensions of the functional perspective of a process responsible for archiving. Again, in Figure 5 extensions due to security requirements are given in boldface. As with the functional perspec tive, the legal binding of a contract affects the dynamic perspective. Figure 5 shows the life cycle of entity type CONTRACT in terms of its different states. The state ''Valid" is necessary to handle the expiration or declaration of va a lidity of certificate. In order to guarantee that the signature remains prov a certification able, authority must inform the users of a certificate about

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions



receive draft contract signed by supplier

Figure 4.




by Security


is necessary, and this leads to further actions, a new role in the organization an extension of the organizational perspective. The additional role may be if the certifi called SIG-MGR and is responsible for re-signing documents roles may cates are no longer valid and for verifying signatures. Additional The role SIG-MGR may need the follow for key management. be necessary access to relevant certificates, the right to re-sign con ing authorizations: certificate of the enterprise is expired or tracts when the corresponding and the right to ask a contract partner to re-sign a contract declared invalid, if the contract partner's relevant certificate is expired or declared invalid. PARTY may also exist in organizations The role SIGNATORY signing con

tracts in the traditional way, but needs to be extended by a new right to access relevant certificates, as shown in Figure 6. The semantics of digital signatures are not always clear. In some cases, a signatory party may demand that the contract partner sign the correspond a specific period of time. There are several possible ing document within reasons for this requirement. For example, if signatory party A has signed

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions



First contract partner signs Draft 1 Draft V

First signature is proved as valid Draft 2

Second contract partner signs

Second signature is proved as valid Valid

Draft 2'

First signature is ^proved as invalid

Second signature is ' proved as invalid

Contract r is I?~~l \ fulfilled

state Draft! Draft I' Draft2 Draft!' Valid Valid' Fulfilled Expired

meaning no contract partner has signed yet one contract partner has signed signature is valid all contract partners have signed legal binding is provable relevant certificate is expired contract is fulfilled contract is expired but not fulfilled


certificate expires or is declared invalid

Figure 5.




by Security


and gives the document to contract partner B (which has no time restriction for the signing process), B will be able to delay the signing process and look whereas A is already bound by his/her signature. for a more favorable offer, These time restrictions may be a variation of the semantic meaning of a digi tal signature, and must be expressed in the business-process model. in the business-process model has different ef Each semantic meaning fects in the other perspectives. The given example showed that the consider ations of legal binding on a contract influence all aspects of the business extensions to existing models may seem quite com process. The proposed in security. However, to readers unversed the outlined extensions are plex identical formaking documents legally binding in any business process re

quiring this functionality in identical legal environments. Therefore, these extensions may be reused. In such cases, only modifications for considering or agents are necessary. The reusable components different departments should be included in the repository of layer 3 of the three-layered architec ture outlined earlier so as to be available for the security administrator. The relationship between the perspectives and the architectural framework will be discussed below.

Relationship Architecture The preceding

Between discussion

Business introduced



and to process the framework and

security requirements of business processes:

two concepts needed the architectural

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions



dispatch department

purchase department

quality control department

archive department

signatory party

negotiation party

SIG-MGR set of authorizations

Figure 6. Organizational



by Security


Figure 7.

Part of the Repository

at Layer 3

the five perspectives. The example of completing a legally binding contract will now be used to show the relationship between these two components. Processing security requirements starts at the highest level and isperformed

architecture contains well-defined concepts thatmay be used to represent the security semantics of the real world. The next step is to analyze the business process from different points of view to derive its security requirements.

a Gayer3) of the by a domain expertspecifying businessprocess.The top layer

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions



their security requirements, the business-process model is passed to the workflow engine and processed. If theworkflow environment is not able to handle the security requirements, the security of the system must be im proved. This situation is covered by layers 2 and 1 of the proposed architec ture, and the high-level specifications from layer 3 are transformed at layer 2 into a more formal representation (in an intermediate language). This inter mediate language is also used to describe the functionality of the software and hardware security modules located at layer 1 of the architecture. As the same is used to specify the requirements and describe the func language tionality of code, this technique can locate relevant code already used for security in the software library located at layer 1. The use of this technique reduces the effortneeded to implement themissing security elements of the workflow-management system.

The process continues by focusing on the assigned security requirements. To process them, a tool that checks the syntactic and semantic correctness of to business-process the assigned elements will be security enhancements With respect to the example, assigning legal binding to an object necessary. of type contract is syntactically and semantically correct. The next step is more performed by a security administrator, who handles the requirements in detail. The administrator may look at the repository located at layer 3.1 of the framework, which offers reusable components to implement security re quirements. If matching components are not available, the different perspec must be examined and corresponding models must be changed as tives appropriate. The security-relevant extensions are stored in the repository. If an of the models is not possible, then the security adequate modification requirements are not satisfied during the execution of the business process. In the example, assume that reusable submodels are available for legal bind ing of an electronic contract. Figure 7 shows the relevant part of the reposi tory. It contains the elements introduced earlier. So far, there has been no examination of how to describe the information stored in the repository at layer 3.1, or how to retrieve relevant information are expressed from it.At this point, the different perspectives by means of notation used and natural language. An identifier is used to retrieve re the usable components. The language ALMOST (A Language for Secure Modeling Business Transactions) has been developed to describe the information on layer 2 [15]. It is used to bridge the gap between basic security elements and the software and hardware modules (layer 1) used for their implementation. At this step in the processing of security requirements, it is necessary to two situations: If the run-time environment of the distinguish between is able to process all necessary activities and system workflow-management

The ideas presented in this paper are part of a larger project whose goal is to a security infrastructure for business processes and, develop subsequently, forworkflow management. The types of security requirements necessary for such an infrastructure have been identified (see [10]), and the building blocks

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions


to implement themmust be constructed. Business processes and their and the ef security semantics have been looked at from five perspectives, of security constraints on the different perspectives have been studied. fects The main focus was on the security constraint "legal binding," and the build were identified. ing blocks needed to realize this requirement Future work in several directions will be necessary. First, the implementa tion of the building blocks (model extractions for reuse) for each identified The building blocks must type of security requirement must be developed. on different levels of abstraction. On the highest level, theymust be modeled be understandable by those who are not security experts (domain experts), on the most detailed level, no additional information about security while to realize the security requirements should be necessary (application level). Second, combinations of security requirements must programmer's be examined, such as legal binding or anonymity of signatories. Such re are necessary, for example, for anonymously trading digitally quirements must be developed for represented rights. Third, navigation mechanisms to view a single security re in and among the five perspectives navigating quirement from the different perspectives. needed

REFERENCES for 1.Atluri, V; Huang, W.-K.; and Bertino, E. An execution model secure workflows. In Proceedings of IFIP 11.3 Workshop on multilevel Database Security, 1997. 2. Bertino, E.; Ferrari, E.; and Alturi, V. A flexible model supporting the inworkflow and enforcement of role-based authorizations specification In Proceedings of the Second Association for Computing systems. management Machinery Workshop on Role-based Access Control, 1997. 3. Bongard, B.; Groniquist, B.; and Ribot, D. Impact of reuse on organiza tions. In Proceedings of Reuse'93, 1993. 4. Bu?ler, Ch. Access control inworkflow management systems. In

1995, pp. Proceedings of IT Security'94. Vienna, Munich: Oldenbourg-Verlag, 165-179. 5. Chen, P. P. The entity relationship model: Towards a unified view of data. Association for Computing Machinery Transactions on Database Systems 1, 1 (1976), 9-36. and Over, J.Process modeling. Communication of 6. Curtis, B.; Kellner, M; theAssociation for Computing Machinery, 35, 9 (1992), 75-90. 7. Ellmer, E.; Pernul, G.; Quirchmayr, G.; and Tjoa, A.M. Access controls in cooperative workflow environments. Association for Computing Machin ery SIGOIS Bulletin, 15, 2 (1994), 24-27. and Sarson, T. Structured System Analysis: Tools and Tech niques. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1979. 9. Herrmann, G., and Pernul, G. A general framework for security and In Proceedings of theTenth integrity in interorganisational workflows. International Bled Electronic Commerce Conference. Bled: Moderna organi 8. Gane, CP, zacija, 1997, pp. 300-315.

This content downloaded from on Sat, 31 Jan 2015 04:15:03 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions



G., and Pernul, G. Towards security semantics inworkflow In Proceedings of theHawaii International Conference on management. vol. 7. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer System Sciences, Society, 1998, pp. 766-767. 11.Hudoklin, A., and Stadler, A. Security and privacy of electronic com merce. Proceedings of theTenth International Bled Electronic Commerce Confer ence. Bled: Moderna 1997, pp. 523-535. organizacija, 12. Informations-und Kommunikationsdienste-Gesetz (IuKDG) (version of 7/ 13/1997) ( [inGerman]). 13. Karlapalem, K., and Hung, P. Security enforcement in activity manage on ment systems. In Proceedings ofNATO-ASI Workflow Systems and Inter

10. Herrmann,

Springer Verlag, 1998, pp. 165-194. operability. Berlin, Heidelberg: 14. Proposal for a European Parliament and Council directive on a com mon framework for electronic signatures (version 5/13/1998) (http:// www. 15. R?hm, A.; Herrmann, G.; and Pernul, G. Modelling Secure Electronic Business Transactions inALMO$T. University of Essen, 1998. 16. Rumbaugh, J.,et al. Object-Oriented Modeling and Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991. 17. Shen, H., and Dewan, P. Access control for collaborative environments. Proceedings ofCSCW'92. ACM Press, 1992. 18. Signaturverordnung (SigV) (version of 10/8/1997) (http://www. iid. de/rahmen/sigv.html [in German]). PERNUL ( is a professor in theDepartment G?NTHER of Information Systems at theUniversity of Essen, Germany. Before that,he taught in theDepartment ofApplied Computer Sciences at theUniversity of Vienna, Austria. He has held visiting positions at theDatabase Systems Research and Development Center at theUniversity of Florida as well as at the College of Computing at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He received an M.A. degree from theUniversity of Vienna in 1985 and his Ph.D. degree with honors from theUniversity of Vienna in
1989. His research interests the are electronic of

database research applications. Pernul has participated project on security



in a European-funded databases and




ESPRIT frequently III

published in scientific journals and conference proceedings on aspects of information He is amember of the Association for systems security. Computing Machinery (ACM), the Association of InformationSystems (AIS), the IEEE Computer Society, theGerman Gesellschaft f?r Informatik (Gl), theAustrian Computer Society (OCG), and the IFIP WG 11.3 (Database Security), and an observer of the IFIP WG 11.8 (SecurityEducation). He also serves on the steeringboard of theCommunications and Multimedia Security conference series.





research interests sity. Her main and modeling of security eling,

in theDepartment of Communication Systems at theUniversity of Essen, and since 1995 she has been with theDepartment of Information Systems at the same univer are workflow semantics. management, business process mod

the University

( From 1992 of Karlsruhe, Germany.

studied to 1995 she was

at science computer a research assistant…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Business Process Re

...Business process outsourcing (BPO) is a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of specific business functions (or processes) to a third-party service provider. Originally, this was associated with manufacturing firms, such as Coca Cola that outsourced large segments of its supply chain. In the contemporary context, it is primarily used to refer to the outsourcing of business processing services to an outside firm, replacing in-house services with labour from an outside firm. BPO is typically categorized into back office outsourcing - which includes internal business functions such as human resources or finance and accounting, and front office outsourcing - which includes customer-related services such as contact centre services. BPO that is contracted outside a company's country is called offshore outsourcing. BPO that is contracted to a company's neighbouring (or nearby) country is called near shore outsourcing. Often the business processes are information technology-based, and are referred to as ITES-BPO, where ITES stands for Information Technology Enabled Service. Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) and legal process outsourcing (LPO) are some of the sub-segments of business process outsourcing industry. Benefits and limitations An advantage of BPO is the way in which it helps to increase a company’s flexibility. However, several sources have different ways in which they perceive organizational flexibility.......

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

‘What Pressures Are Put on People from Viewing Adverts?’

...‘What pressures are put on people from viewing adverts?’ The media often put a lot of pressure on members of the public to feel, act or look a certain way. This is because they often create a perfect image or perfect lifestyle by which consumers feel they have to abide by. Members of the public see the images and messages created by advertisements as something they should achieve. Fowles (1996, p.156) supports one of my main arguments by highlighting that ‘the imagery in advertising is that of idealized human beings’. Beauty adverts often put pressure on men and women to look a certain way by presenting the people in their adverts as being perfect or the ideal way to look. Another way pressure is put on people is when advertising sells the idea of a perfect life or perfect family. This puts pressure on members of a family, especially the parents, to build up or portray their family to other people the way that they see is correct from these adverts. Moore (1985, p.65) states that ‘extreme ads are assumed to capture more attention than effectively neutral ads’ which suggests that adverts that make people feel pressure will do this more effectively as they will get more attention paid to them. People wear and use products that relate to how they want to be seen by the world. This creates pressure because people feel the need to buy luxurious products if they want to be seen in a positive way by society. This is especially relevant now that society seems to be very......

Words: 4277 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

From Traditional to Critical Security

...From traditional to critical security Why security? * It is fundamental to international relations. * States will often regard security as one of the most important factor. * Refer to lecture slides What is security? * Security most heavily contested and discussed concepts. * Security is inherently subjective 3 core lines of disagreement between scholars over security ( Test ) * What should we seek to secure? * What do we need to secure? What are most important to states? * Who or what should be responsible for providing security? The state? Or the people? Traditional security studies * Focuses on Military forces, states, armed conflict. * Liberalism was a popular approach to study of IR * Realists opposes them * Concept of security became closesly associated with military dynamics of cold war * Nuclear weapons were developed. * States are responsible for providing their own security * The states is always central for the 3 core lines * Main method for securing the state is to bolster high military grade technology and weapons Critical security studies * It responds to the first question of what should we secure by suggesting that it is the individual or other things * IT suggests that we should secure the individual. * It covers different theoretical approaches. * Professor Keith Krause, Ken Booth and Michael Williams were the key people that wrote on CSS * Read ketih Krause......

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Business Process Outsourcing

...Business Process Outsourcing Introduction Business process outsourcing (BPO) is a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of specific business functions (or processes) to a third-party service provider. Originally, this was associated with manufacturing firms, such as Coca Cola that outsourced large segments of its supply chain. BPO is typically categorized into back office outsourcing - which includes internal business functions such as human resources or finance and accounting, and front office outsourcing - which includes customer-related services such as contact center services. BPO that is contracted outside a company's country is called offshore outsourcing. BPO that is contracted to a company's neighboring (or nearby) country is called near shore outsourcing. Often the business processes are information technology-based, and are referred to as ITES-BPO, where ITES stands for Information Technology Enabled Service. Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) and legal process outsourcing (LPO) are some of the sub-segments of business process outsourcing industry. In 2010, the Philippines surpassed India as the largest business process outsourcing industry in the world. After growing 20 per cent in 2012, the BPO industry of the Philippines is estimated to gross revenue of upwards to $25 billion by 2016. By these estimates, the Philippines' BPO industry will account for approximately 10 per cent of the nation's......

Words: 5948 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

How Is Building a Brand in a Business- to - Business Context Different from Doing so in the Consumer Market?

...apart from its competitors. This step depends on many variables within the business environment within which the company exist and belong. For example a company has to understand its operation, its market and most importantly who its clients and competitors are. A brand is simply a name, design or mark that informs/tells consumers the identity of a products and also enables consumers to reduce most risk involved in the buying decision. To develop a business-to-business brand, a company must be willing and able to allocate and channel some of its resources and energy on educating its clients. This involves, introduction to the product/s in question and the company’s reputation such as its capabilities and the standard and quality of its product/s. Awareness and education and campaigns are the greatest tools in a business-to-business to help sell the reputation of a business and its brand name and product/s, which cisco successfully achieved. In a business-to-business the targeted group is usually a corporation, organization or company. During its business-to-business, cisco focused its attention on makers of IT decision within corporation and corporate executives to market and sell its products. Also products in this category market and sells its “self” through the awareness, education among other factors sold to corporations. Also Cisco ability to develop partnerships with Sony, Matsushita, and US West to co-brand the company’s modems defines and personifies a......

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Security Authentication Process

...The Security Authentication Process Simply put, authentication is the process by which a subject’s (or user’s) identity is verified (Conklin, White, Williams, Davis, & Cothren, 2012). An example of authentication most people are familiar with is their e-mail login. For instance, Gmail requires a person’s Gmail address and individual password to access his or her Gmail account. However, there are numerous types of authentication outside the common username and password. Furthermore, authentication is used in numerous areas of a system to re-verify a user’s identity when he or she is accessing a new area of the system, accessing encrypted data types, and securing the preservation of a system. This paper evaluates the different authentication types, their applications, and additional security measures for securing a system and its data. Types of Authentication According to Whitman and Mattford (2010), there are four types of authentication mechanisms, which are: * Something a person knows (passwords or passphrases) * Something a person has (such as cryptographic tokens or smartcards) * Something a person is (a fingerprint, retina or iris scan, or hand topography or geometry * Something a person produces (such as voice or pattern recognition) The level of access control associated with a system and the data contained on the system is determined by legislation (varies geographically) governing data, and control policies developed and implemented by......

Words: 1415 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Kabul, from a Different View

...From the past few days I had been thinking of writing something about the city of Kabul and its residents. Recently, I read an article (Ten things I love about Kabul) by Noor Jahan Akbar, a young social activist who works for the empowerment of women in Afghanistan and the second article was by a DW correspondent titled (Kabul is less conservative), which provoked and motivated me even more to pen down my version and my experience of this city. Though I don’t want to repeat the same things said in the above two articles, I would like to share, so far what different I have observed about here. So here we go… Politics: The people of this land have been into politics since the beginning of the times and I can claim that they are still the most politicized & politics-concerned people on earth. Here almost every TV channel has hourly news broadcasting followed by hours of current affairs programs which has the highest TRP and is aired during prime-times. Almost Everyone considers him/her self a political analyst, wishing to be the future president. A-Z in Tricolor: What do we (afghans) really want to prove?? that we are the most patriotic people on earth. Or we can sacrifice each and everything for this country of ours Or is it just a fashion trend? From headscarves to traditional neck scarves, from carpets to handicrafts, from ties ( even some expats in Kabul use the tricolor ties ) to the traditional cloth belts/rope used in local shalwaar-kameez, to wall clocks,......

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Business Process processes and management techniques are a central part of any information security strategy. Given the dominance of IT, technical computer security is also a very important component of information security. One reason for continuing security failures is that it is often difficult to connect security measures to business priorities and thereby gain sufficient management and employee attention. Good practice suggests that management should assess the risks surrounding information and balance the costs of security measures against the possible impact of security failures. However, the difficulty of quantifying these matters limits the effectiveness of structured decision-making processes in practice. Finally, as security failures increasingly impact on individual consumers and citizens, there is a developing regulatory agenda, particularly around the security of personal information. As a result, a business may need to shift its thinking from internal risk management to meeting external demands. (1) Network intrusions are widely viewed as one of the most serious potential national security, public safety and economic challenges. Technology, in this case, becomes a double-edge sword. “The very technologies that empower us to lead and create also empower individual criminal hackers, organized criminal groups, terrorist networks and other advanced nations to disrupt the critical infrastructure that is vital to our economy, commerce, public safety, and military,”......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Security Risk Assessment Process

...Security Risk Assessment P1. Operational risk assessment is the process of determining what threats and vulnerability’s affect an organizations critical business processes. Operation risk assessment is a life cycle process that needs to be conducted often to determine if there are new threats and vulnerability’s to the organization. Without conducting a routine risk assessment an organization is left with exposure to hazards and accidents which lead to a loss. An operational risk assessment consist of risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation. The assessment is used to create a risk management policy which gives the best courses of action to mitigate from any threat and vulnerability’s. A risk is the possibility of a loss from exposure to a hazard by conducting an operational risk assessment the end result is to reduce the amount of risk to a project, equipment and personnel. Management are the ones who use risk management to minimize loss which reduces monetary loss and time for the organization. P4. The information assurance control procedures are the identification of assets, the classification of assets. The goals are to protect the confidentiality, integrity of availability of information by providing control measures. They are important because a company assets need to controlled due to so many exposures. The control procedures are used as a set of process and guidelines to ensure that an asset is classified correctly and given the correct level of......

Words: 1525 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Security from Social Media

...Security from Social Media Shakion Melton COMM/215 » Essentials of College Writing March 23, 2015 Julie McCabe Security from Social Media Even though social media helps service members communicate with their families and stay in contact with current events, social media should be banned from all phases of the military because enemies of the military are using social media to target service members and service members themselves could unwittingly post sensitive information for everyone to see. The Enemy is using Social Media against Us Just this past Saturday, “a previously unknown group calling itself the Islamic State Hacking Organization posted the names, photos and addresses of about 100 U.S. troops online, calling for attacks against them” (Castillo, 2015). According to the online article, “the file appeared to include information that is already available through public records and social media accounts” (Castillo, 2015). It also “claimed to have hacked military databases and said it was leaking 100 names so that our brothers residing in America can deal with you” (Castillo, 2015). While public records are not something that can be changed directly, the use of social media by military service members can be eliminated; therefore eliminating another possible threat to our Soldiers, Marines, Airmen and Coast Guard that serve in this country and abroad. Service Members Make Mistakes As a service member myself, I have seen the errors......

Words: 902 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

E-Business Security

...MGMT230-1102B-10: Electronic Business   Individual assignment 2 Contents 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Security concerns of e-commerce 4. The risks of e-commerce and how the can be lessened 5. Security of internet transactions 6. Conclusion 7. References Abstract This assignment discusses whether e-business is secure or not, tells what customers should be afraid of and what should they check while making transactions in the internet. It explains how and why organisations have to make e-business and Internet transactions more secure on example of Joseph’s food business. Introduction Lack of security is one of the major problems associated with the operation of e-commerce. This means that customers mainly use internet sites for reviewing online catalogues of products and services and researching company’s profiles, but they are unwilling to use their credit cards in the internet for making purchases and other transactions via the Internet. In the last few years, there has been an increased interest and attempt to offer customers and other stakeholders secure e-business environment to increase purchases and transactions over the Internet and to encourage an interest in online delivery of goods and services. Therefore Internet businesses are trying to make their e-commerce more secure to transform their potential customers, who only examine catalogues in the internet, into actual customers and other stakeholders, who purchase goods and......

Words: 1104 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Swing from a Different Perspective

...that still influences the modern sounds of our ever-changing culture. Why Swing Swung What separates you from others can appropriately be deemed as a series of conflict’s, conflict is critical to the development of identity; without conflict the unconscious perception of us, them, we or they would not exist. Humans being naturally prone to argument create a cultural identity designed around the conflicts in which a number of people are affected, in turn allowing people to identify with each other through common grounds; unintentionally creating a communication barrier between them and us. This model although small demonstrates how groups are formed, and can be projected upon the development of a musical identity within America during the Second World War. Possibly seen as the largest conflict in recorded history, World War II set the boundaries for numerous identities; creating a conscious affiliation of differences, people now identified themselves through stereotypes that otherwise would not have developed. Most of these conflicts or stereotypes would happen to be woven inside the United States due to propaganda: a necessary war tool developed to instill a feeling of pride and ensure a feeling of togetherness. It’s questionable if the attack on Pearl Harbor was Americas first involvement in the war, never the less it marks the beginning of a new meaning of America; from this point we would no longer identify ourselves with our Asian neighbor, we happily and willingly......

Words: 1525 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Cyber Security in Business Organizations

...Cyber Security in Business Organizations 1 Cyber Security in Business Organizations David Hodges Strayer University Dr. Richard Brown May 14, 2015 Cyber Security in Business Organizations 2 Abstract This paper will assess the importance of information management in the insurance industry. How information management has help overall change the marketplace. The essential role of enterprise architecture in the industry will also be discussed and how it contributes to management decision making. Different data storage options for the industry will be discussed alone with the functions and which provides the best possible support for the industry overall. Cyber Security in Business Organizations 3 Due to the increased use of information and communication technologies in business organizations to today, the incidents of computer abuse has increase exponential. It has become increasingly difficult to protect customer information and company asset. Some of the challenges in security business organization have when it comes to breach includes the following: unauthorized users get access to computer systems and disclose confidential information, unauthorized users change the......

Words: 1200 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Business Process

...Business Process Modelling CA4 Business Process Modelling 30 Oct 2014 1 Historical View of BP Modelling • • • Work Process Flow (early to mid 1900s) + Frank Gilbreth & his 'Flow Process Charts' (= flowcharts) + First structured method for documenting process flow Work Flow (mid-1970s) + Motivation was disenchantment with the above + Acted as a genesis for BP Modelling Business Process Modelling (2000s) + Trend towards new manuf'ing paradigm – Virtual Enterprise + VE=distributed & parallel BP execution from each VE entity + Need effective process modelling with strict model analysis CA4 Business Process Modelling 30 Oct 2014 2 Business Process Modelling- The “What?” • • • Business process modelling (BPM) is the activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analyzed and improved. Typically performed by business analysts & managers seeking to improve process efficiency and quality. The process improvements identified by BPM may or may not require IT involvement, although that is a common driver behind modelling a business process. CA4 Business Process Modelling 30 Oct 2014 3 Business Process Modelling- The “Why?” • Business process modelling (BPM) helps companies in the following ways: + To become more process-oriented + To optimise business processes thro Process Change Mgmt: long term planning, execution & control of processes + To document and manage...

Words: 2422 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Financing Different Business

...Financing different business Every business needs capital. 1. Sole trade. Internal – own servings, help from family, business profit. External – bank overdraft, loans, leasing, grants. Sole trade may get a mortgage over the home or any other marketable investment. 2. Partnership. Internal – other partner servings, own serving, business profit. External - overdraft, loans, leasing, grants. Partnership may get a mortgage over investment or any other marketable investment bellowing the partners. 3. Private shareholders. Internal – private shareholders funds, business profit. External – overdraft, loans, leasing. Grants, venture capital forms, factoring. 4. Public limited company. Internal – share capital, business profit. External – overdraft, leasing, public share issues, factoring. 5. Non-profit making organization. Internal – fond raising. External – donations, sponsorship, grants, national lottery. Company finance. Working capital is short term resources – stock of raw material, financing same-finished products; paying wages, paying running expenses: electricity, gas, water, advertising, business rates, insurance. Fixed assets are long-term items, owned by the business such as: land and building including the factory, the storage facilities, car park, assets routs, machinery, vehicle, office equipment. Bank organization. Banks are among the most important financial institutions. 2 main types of banks – central and commercial. Central bank...

Words: 1441 - Pages: 6

(Wk03) Supergirl, Vol. 7 #26B - Artgerm Variant - Preorder 16Th Jan | Power Windproof Jet Flame 1300-C Butane Lighter Cigarette Welding Torch Lighter | Farmer Duck - 469 Words