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Waiting for Godot- a Reflection in Turkish

In: English and Literature

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Godot’yu Beklerken

Beckett tarafindan yazilmis olan Godot’yu Beklerken fazlasiyla ilginc bir oyun. Okumasi zevkli olmasina ragmen cevrilen her sayfada insanin kendisine ‘Iki kisinin arasinda gecen koca bir diyalogdan baska bir sey degil bu. Ne zaman bir seyler olacak?’ sorusunu sorduran bir hikaye yapisi var. Aslina bakarsaniz gercekten de öyle. Bütün bir oyun Vladimir ve Estragon adli iki karakterin Godot adli birini beklemesi ve bu sonsuz bekleyis sirasinda aralarinda gecen, bazen toplum yapisini sorgulama cesaretini gösterecek kadar derin bazen de kucuk cocuklarin hayat hakkindaki basit yorumlarini andiracak kadar sig olan sohbetlerinden ibaret. Tabii ki oyunun bazi noktalarinda onlara katilan bir kac tane yan karakteri de unutmamak gerekir. Acikcasi ben yan karakterlerin bu hikayeye fazlasiyla renk kattigini dusunuyorum.
Oyunun en carpici özelliklerinden birisi yer ve zaman kavraminin neredeyse hic olmamasi. Sadece, hikayenin bir agac ve taslarin bulundugu yol uzerinde bulunan issiz bir yerde gectigini biliyoruz. Üstelik birinci ve ikinci sahnede tarif edilen, Vladimir ve Estragon’un Godot’yu beklemek icin geldigi bu bölgelerin ayni yer oldugunundan bile emin degiliz. Bunun yaninda zaman kavrami da belirsiz. Karakterlerin kendileri bile haftanin hangi gununde bulunduklarini bilmiyorlar. Vladimir ve Estragon hayatin karmasik duzenine birden bire firlatilip, kendi hallerine birakilmis gibi bir cok seyin mantigini cözmekte zorluk cekerler. Bu yuzden de zaman onlar icin pek bir sey ifade etmiyor. Oyunun geneline bakildiginda zaman kavraminin konjonktürel oldugu görulur. Devirli, kendini tekrar eden bir zaman kavramindan bahsediyoruz. Karakterlerimizin de kendilerine edindikleri adeta kutsal bir görev olan Godot’yu beklemek disinda baska bir mesguliyetleri olmadigi icin zaman, onlar ve bu durumda bir okuyucular icin anlamini yitirir.
Oyun 1952 yilinda Irlandali Beckett tarafindan Fransa’da yazildigini göz onunde bulundurdugumda, hikayenin yer aldigi bölgenin Irlanda ya da Fransa’da bulundugunu farzettim yada hayal ettim oyunu okurken. Ama tabii ki bu oyunda hic bir zaman belirtilmedigi icin emin olamayiz. Yer ve zaman kavramlarinin göz ardi edilmis olmasi Beckett’in geleneksel oyun yapilarindan siyrilip bambaska bir tarz olan absürd tiyatro alaninda bir eser vermesini saglamistir.
Vladimir ve Estragon arasinda gecen diyaloglarin okuyucuya hikayede gecen toplum yapisi hakkinda yeterli bilgi verdigini düsünmüyorum. Arada sirada hristiyanlik uzerine yaptiklari kucuk tartismalar ve yorumlar bize hikayenin hristiyan bir toplumda yasandigini gösterir, fakat bunun disinda Beckett’in ana karakterler vasitasiyla toplum yapisi hakkinda fazla ipucu verdigini dusunmuyorum.
Godot’yu Beklerken bir absürd tiyatro örnegi oldugu icin hikayede kendi kültürümle bagdastirabilecegim kavramlar neredeseyde yok denecek kadar azdi. Fakat Vladimir isimli karakterin hikayede din üzerine yaptigi yorumlar ve sorgulamalar, din hakkindaki bakis acimi sorgulamama sebep oldu. Her ne kadar oyunda gecen din Hristiyanlik olsa da, genel bakis acisi benim dinim olan Islam’a da pekala uygulanabilirdi. Vladimir’in dört farkli Incil’in nasil ayni olayi farkli ( ya da eksik) aktarmasi hakkinda Estragon’a anlattiklarini düsündügüm zaman buna benzer bir seyin Islam’da da yasanabilecegini düsündüm; Islam’in kutsal kitabi olan Kur’an’in farkli kulturlerde ya da mezheplerde farkli yorumlanmis olmasi gibi.
Ayrica oyunun geneline baktigimda ana karakterlerin bitmeyen bir sabirla daha önce yüz yüze konustugunu bile bilmedigimiz Godot’nun gelmesini beklemeleri, Godot’un bir seylerin cevabini verecegini ya da onlara ne yapmalari gerektigini söyleyecegini dusunmeleri bana insanlarin Tanri’ya olan bagliliklarini hatirlatti. Hayatin icinde kaybolmus insanlarin umutla ama belirsizlik icerisinde kendisinden üstün olan, sormadiklari sorularin bile cevabini bilen, yol gösteren ama ümit edildigi ya da vaad edildigi gibi onlara cevap vereceginden bile emin olmadiklari bu kisiyi beklemeyi hikayelestirmis sanki bu oyun. Tabii ki bu sadece Beckett’in bakis acisi.
Godot’yu Beklerken adli oyunda yasanan –ya da daha cok konusulan- olaylarin Beckett’in kullandigi birer sembol oldugu hissini uyandirdigini dusunuyorum. Daha önce de bahsettigim gibi; bence Beckett, Godot adli kisiyle Tanri’yi sembolize etmis. Bu hem karakterlerin Godot’ya olan bagliliklarindan, hic bir zaman gelmemesine ragmen yine de O’nun mutlaka gelecegine inanmalarindan ve O’ndan sorularina cevap vermesini ummalarindan; hem de Ingilizce de Tanri anlamina gelen ‘God’ kelimesinin telaffuz olarak Godot’yu andirmasindan cikardigim bir sonuc. Tabii ki yaniliyor olabilirim cunku hikayede karakterlerin yaptigi konusmalardan hristiyan olduklarini anliyoruz. Yani onlar icin ortada zaten bir Tanri var. Fakat yine de oyunda insanlarin genel inanc sistemlerine sembolik bir gönderme oldugunu dusunuyorum.
Oyunda bulunan bir diger ilginc yazim teknigi ise ironinin kullanimi. Yan karakter olan guclu ve varlikli Pozzo ve onun kölesi Lucky’nin arasinda gecen konusmalar bunun en önemli örnegidir. Zaten Lucky ismi ingilizcede ‘sansli’ demektir. Burdan anlasilacagi gibi zor bir hayat suren bir köleye verilen bu isim, ironinin acikca göruldugu bir noktadir.…...

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