Free Essay

Was the Spanish Conquest Genocide?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By sarahcarr91
Words 1984
Pages 8
Does the Spanish Conquest constitute genocide? Do you agree or disagree?

The late 1400’s brought about the period of colonial expansion, initiated under the crown of Castile and the Spanish Conquistadors. This expansion continued over the next 4 centuries, seeing the Spanish Empire expand over most of Central and South America. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and the Incas spanned over decades and was not a peaceful conquest without bloodshed. The Conquista unleashed violence, death and destruction on a scale unknown until then. Charny acknowledged that it was possible for genocide to occur during the process of colonisation, as seen in the colonising of North America and similarly in Australia. This essay will discuss the various elements of genocide as defined by the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide, as well as other sources. Through this discussion, the essay will relate it to circumstances and events related to the Spanish Conquest of Latin America, discussing the possibility of a connection between the conquest and genocide.

There are a number of elements that must be satisfied in order to find a case for genocide. When defining an act of genocide, the UN definition is the internationally recognised and the framework by which this essay will follow when referring to an act of genocide. As found in the UN definition of genocide; the act committed must have the intent to destroy the target, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial or religious group. Break down the elements of the definition and the following must be satisfied to define an act as genocide; intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial or religious group. This is achieved by; killing, causing serious bodily harm or mental harm, deliberately inflicting conditions to bring about their destruction or preventing births within the group. It must be noted by way of summarising Article 2, of the UN Convention, that the destruction of a group can be in ‘whole or in part’, which is not specifically defined in the Convention. The Convention also spells out that in order for a case for genocide to be successful, the intent of the perpetrators must be established and proven through evidence.

There has been academic dispute over the interpretation and definition of the term genocide, ever since Raphael Lemkin first coined it. Genocide has been misinterpreted in many occasions, sometimes used to describe crimes against humanity, gross violations of human rights or crimes committed during wartime. The UN Convention conforms that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or war, is a crime under international law. Lemkin’s Historical Sociological theory of genocide demonstrates that specific cases of European imperial violence have the potential to be interpreted as genocide, but that it is because genocide is sometimes best understood as an extreme form of colonisation.In order to determine whether there is a case for genocide in Latin America, at the time of the Spanish Conquest, this essay will address the 8 stages of genocide penned by Gregory H. Stanton, in his ‘Early Warning’ developmental model of preventing genocide. Stanton explains that genocide is a ‘process that develops in eight stages that are predictable but not inexorable’. This essay will address the eight stages of genocide and attempt to relate them back to the conquest of Latin America in order to determine whether or not there is a convincing case for genocide.

The eight stages of genocide are; ‘classification (us vs. them), symbolisation, dehumanisation, organisation, polarisation, preparation, extermination and denial’. Whilst Stanton’s model is designed to serve as an early warning system for the detection of genocide, it is just as instrumental in its retrospective application to past incidents. Genocidal priming is a set of processes that establish the preconditions for genocide to take place within a given socio-political context, such as the Spanish Conquest.

The concept of classification is prominent in all cultures, old and new. The native Latin American’s had the ‘us vs. them’ mentality between rivalling tribes, seeing each tribe as significantly different when the Spanish saw them all as barbarians. The Spanish saw the natives as a backward and uncivilised group; it was almost impossible, throughout this whole period of colonisation, for the Spanish to regard the indigenous peoples as human. Due to their lower status in society, the Native Indians were exposed to exploitation in many ways. An example of this was the way that the Spanish installed Encomiendas (regional governors) in charge of a region and the people who lived there. Most regions soon began industrialising, most commonly in the form of mines, and the Indians were ‘employed’ to work in the mines in return for food and payment. However, most of the time, the workers never saw any of the money they earned as the managers would offer advanced loans to the workers, leaving the workers in debt for the remainder of their lives. The psychological effects of the encomienda, and the exploitation of labour it produced, are widely blamed for many Indian deaths.

Symbolisation and classification are collectively human and do not necessarily lead to genocide unless joined with dehumanisation. The Spaniards categorised all natives as Indian, even though the natives themselves saw the differences between tribes. To the Mayans, the Incas were just as different as the Aztec, but to the Spanish they were all Indians and all barbarians. However, in comparison to other cases of genocide, one must acknowledge that the symbolisation in this circumstance is insignificant. The native peoples did suffer a drastic decline in their numbers due to the impact of frontier settlement but the intent of the Spanish was not to destroy them. In regard to addressing a case of genocide, intent is the crux of the argument and analysis. If the intent of the perpetrator isn’t to destroy, in whole or in part, a group of people, then the action does not constitute genocide. In the case of the conquest of Latin America, the intent of the Spanish Conquistadors was not to destroy the natives, it was to colonise the land for political power and recognition.

The conquest of Latin America lacks one integral element necessary to be legally recognised as genocide. Dehumanisation is not present to the extent required to qualify as a genocidal precondition. The Latin American natives were not entirely deprived of their basic human rights or cultural identity. Though exploitive, the industrial economy established by the Spanish, as well as the further conquests, offered natives the opportunity for employment. A native conquistador had the opportunity to earn their freedom and a grant at the end of their service in the Spanish army. In this circumstance, dehumanisation fails to be found present, making it more difficult for one to find a case for genocide in the Spanish conquest of Latin America.

Genocide that occurs during the course of colonisation or the development of a territory belonging to an indigenous people, or any other consolidation of political or economic power through mass killing of those perceived to be standing in the way, provides a strong case for genocide on the international stage. The organisation of such actions is a vital precondition of genocide, as it provides proof that the power in charge gave permission, either directly or indirectly, for such acts to be carried out in order to achieve their goal. Andreopoulos argues that ‘it was desirable to reduce the numbers of the native peoples to the level at which they could no longer ‘block’ progress’. The organisation of such mass killings are normally prevented on a legal basis by the UN and other enforcing powers, however, since the UN was not in existence when the conquest took place we must look at the actions taken by the other world powers at the time. Whilst we are correct in stating that the Dutch and English powers took action against the Spanish, it was not in the interests of the natives but in the self-interest of the other countries, wanting a piece of South America to themselves.

As step five and six respectively, polarisation and preparation are not so apparent in the conquest of Latin America. It has previously been acknowledged that exploitation was present in the conquest and subsequent colonisation but it failed to go as far as polarisation and preparation through cultural separation. Spanish settlement in the ‘Americas almost certainly resulted in a sharp decline in the number of Indians in Latin America, but this was not caused by a deliberate policy of extermination in any obvious or straightforward sense’.

Denial is the final stage that follows genocide and is amongst the surest indicators that further genocidal massacres will follow. In modern day cases, the response to denial is punishment from an international court of law or tribunal. There are varying accounts of the conquest, which makes it difficult to determine the extent of the deaths that occurred during that period and the causes of said deaths. The most pertinent question is how many of those who died, died as a result of deliberate killings and how many of those deaths were subsequent results of other factors such as disease. The catastrophic and rapid decline in the numbers of the natives certainly occurred within a brief period of time after the first European settlement was not purely due to the violence of the conquest.

‘A strong case has now been made by several scholars that while this does not mean that all colonialism is genocidal, it is unequivocally clear that genocides are compromised of distinctly colonial dynamics’. Whilst many elements of the Spanish conquest of Latin America are likened to that found in other cases, too many of them fail to satisfy the requirements necessary to build a solid case for genocide. Genocides in the course of colonisation have taken the lives of countless indigenous peoples, but the case of Latin America is too ambiguous to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that there is a case of genocide to be answered.

The other issue of course being that the events of the conquest occurred centuries before the creation of the word genocide, and all legal documentation relating to the crime. Whilst one can analyse the events retrospectively, it is safe to assume that had there been a circumstance in which Spain could have been held accountable for their actions, the outcome would not have resulted in an established case of genocide, during the conquest of Latin America. The comparative research on genocide states that a crucial distinction must be made in terms of the motive of the perpetrator. The motive behind Spain’s colonisation of Latin America was not to destroy, in whole or in part, the indigenous peoples of the land, only to colonise and industrialise the land, for their economic and political gain. The period of the major military conquests of Latin America, roughly between 1520-40, must rank as the most tumultuous 20 years in the history of the Americas but it does not constitute genocide.

Words: 1946.


[ 1 ]. Conquistadors, pg. 16.
[ 2 ]. What is Genocide, pg. 132.
[ 3 ]. G. Stanton, ‘What is Genocide?’, Genocide Watch, viewed on May 28, 2013,
[ 4 ]. UN Convention, Article 2.
[ 5 ]. Genocide Studies Reader, pg. x.
[ 6 ]. UN Convention, Article 1.
[ 7 ]. Colonial Dynamics of Genocide, online.
[ 8 ]. Genocide Studies Reader, pg. 316.
[ 9 ]. Genocide Watch, online.
[ 10 ]. Genocide Studies Reader, pg. 318.
[ 11 ]. What is Genocide? Pg. 140.
[ 12 ]. History of Latin America, pg. 20.
[ 13 ]. Genocide, Rubenstien, pg. 60.
[ 14 ]. Genocide, Rubenstien, pg. 60.
[ 15 ]. Genocide Watch, online.
[ 16 ]. Restall.
[ 17 ]. Genocide, Andreopoulos, pg. 76.
[ 18 ]. Genocide, Andreopoulos, pg. 59.
[ 19 ]. Genocide, Rubenstien, pg. 61.
[ 20 ]. Genocide Watch, online.
[ 21 ]. Genocide Watch, online.
[ 22 ]. Genocide, Rubenstien, pg. 59.
[ 23 ]. Genocide, Rubenstiend, pg. 55.
[ 24 ]. Colonial Dynamics of Genocide, online.
[ 25 ]. History and Sociology of Genocide, pg. 9.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

How Far Was Pre Conquest England a Well Governed and Prosperous Nation

...How far was pre conquest England a prosperous and well governed kingdom I believe that pre-conquest England was a rather well governed and somewhat prosperous kingdom. The countries system of writs; the division of land and the hierarchy as well as the coinage, trade, towns and frequent invasions all suggest that pre-conquest England was prosperous and well-governed. However, the possible threat to the king of the Earls and the countries comparatively undeveloped economy all suggest as less prosperous, more unstable England. My opinion is that they were given a good image due to how well they dealt with the invasion of the Scandinavians and their introduction of Danegeld it showed how wealthy and organised the kingdom was and how they could deal with all that tax. The land was divided into several parts. Primarily, the realm was divided into four earldoms (Mercia, Wessex, East Anglia and Northumbria) each of which was controlled by an Earl. These Earls were incredibly powerful. Each earldom was further divided into shires (like modern-day counties) hundreds and hides. Each level of this hierarchy had its own leader / representative, such as the sheriffs managing each shire under the Earls. This system demonstrates that there was a very clear hierarchy in pre-conquest England; which would have made the country far easier to manage and well governed because each division of land would have a local lord to manage it. I believe that it shows that Britain had a well devised...

Words: 1033 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...glorimar c The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda's Tutsis and Hutu political moderates by the Hutu dominated government under the Hutu Power ideology. Over the course of approximately 100 days, or more, from the assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana on April 6 through mid-July, at least 500,000 people were killed, according to the estimate of Human Rights Watch.[1] Other estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000,[2] (a commonly quoted figure is 800,000), or as much as 20% of the total population of the country. In 1990 the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a rebel group, composed mostly of Tutsi refugees, invaded northern Rwanda from Uganda. The Rwandan Civil War, fought between the Hutu regime, with support from Francophone nations of Africa and France itself,[3][4] and the RPF, with support from Uganda, vastly increased the ethnic tensions in the country and led to the rise of Hutu Power. As an ideology, Hutu Power asserted that the Tutsi intended to enslave Hutus and thus must be resisted at all costs. Despite continuing ethnic strife, including the displacement of large numbers of Hutu in the north by the rebels and periodic localized extermination of Tutsi to the south, pressure on the government of Juvénal Habyarimana resulted in a cease-fire in 1993 and the preliminary implementation of the Arusha Accords. The assassination of Habyarimana in April 1994 was the proximate cause of the mass...

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...A Summary of the Rwandan Genocide Rwanda: A Brief History of the Country Rwanda’s population of more than 7 million people is divided into three ethnic groups: the Hutu (who made up roughly 85% of the population), the Tutsi (14%) and the Twa (1%). Prior to the colonial era, Tutsis generally occupied the higher strata in the social system and the Hutus the lower. However, social mobility was possible, a Hutu who acquired a large number of cattle or other wealth could be assimilated into the Tutsi group and impoverished Tutsi would be regarded as Hutu. A clan system also functioned, with the Tutsi clan known as the Nyinginya being the most powerful. Throughout the 1800s, the Nyingiya expanded their influence by conquest and by offering protection in return for tribute. Ethnic Conflict Begins The former colonial power, Germany, lost possession of Rwanda during the First World War and the territory was then placed under Belgian administration. In the late 1950’s during the great wave of decolonization, tensions increased in Rwanda. The Hutu political movement, which stood to gain from majority rule, was gaining momentum while segments of the Tutsi establishment resisted democratization and the loss of their acquired privileges. In November 1959, a violent incident sparked a Hutu uprising in which hundreds of Tutsi were killed and thousands displaced and forced to flee to neighboring countries. This marked the start of the so- called ‘Hutu Peasant Revolution’ or ‘social......

Words: 2186 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

The Conquest

... The Conquest February 9, 2014 There was a point in the history of the world where the European and American colonies were unaware of each other’s existence. This changed drastically during the conquest of the Americas when Hernan Cortes landed in South America and eventually helped lead one of the most unbelievable conquests in world history. Cortes had arrived in South America with just about 500 soldiers. It was with these soldiers that he had managed to defeat and conquer one of the most militarily powerful civilizations in the New World. The Aztecs could field up an army of one quarter million battle tested soldiers at any given time. Even with these circumstances, Cortes was still able to defeat and conquer the Aztecs using various strategies and techniques that were vital in the conquering process. One of the biggest advantages that Cortes and his men had was the possession of superior military technology “… such as iron weapons and gunpowder…” which is something that the Aztec’s had never seen before. Canons were used to devastate the walls that were built as defenses by the Aztec’s and which led to the downfall of the civilization. Although the Spanish had a large weapon advantage, they were still outnumbered drastically. This led to the recruitment of some of the Aztec’s subject peoples “… who supplied him with thousands of warriors”. These warriors added large numbers to Cortes’ army and he was able...

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Jose Rivers Genocide Reflection First, what is a genocide? According to the Article II of the United States Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide is “any of the following acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life, calculate to bring about its physical destruction in whole or on part; imposing measures intended to prevent birth within the group; forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.” In other words, genocide is when a group attempts to destroy or hurt mentally or physically a minority. The perfect example for a genocide is the Holocaust. Hitler and his followers wanted to get rid of “imperfect” people such as, Jews, homosexuals, Gypsies, disabled, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and anyone that he considered racially inferior. I believe in equality. We are all considered human beings and that massacre is against all morals. Hitler was just like any other human; he shouldn’t have had the power to decide who should live, or not. The Holocaust was a tragedy which we shall all remember around the world. Remember those innocent people killed by one person’s false belief. There are some situations going on now that the United Nations consider to be genocides. For example, the Darfur Genocide. This must......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Joel Salmeron Intro To Mexican Studies LALS 105 Spring 2014 February 16, 2014 Spanish Conquest The Aztec civilization during its peak was the strongest civilization in the western hemisphere. When the Spaniards first came to the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, they could not believe that a civilization so undeveloped in their minds could have been so culturally developed and powerful. As said by the article (Clendinnen1991:79) “the city fell to the combined forces of Cortes and an assortment of Indian “allies”. Indians had tension with the Aztecs, which was learned by the Spaniards and was taken advantage of by full force provoking internal and already existing problems that existed within the two groups of. This exploration of understanding and examining people was what the Spaniards were best at. (Clendinnen1991:66) Those internal and existing are factors to blame for the downfall of the Aztec Empire. The exploration was focused on sources that came from the period such as that of Bernal Diaz Del Castillo and Bernardino de Sahagún, along with the most notable conquistador Cortes that also had a major role to the conquest of the Aztec empire. Although many believe that the Spaniards conquered the Aztecs due to their better weaponry or the epidemic of deadly diseases, there were a great amount of factors, primarily the alliance that Cortes made with the Tlaxcala, which the Spanish used to take advantage of the Aztec people. Many historians argue that the Tlaxcala were......

Words: 562 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Peru Genocide

...A genocide is the destruction of an ethnic, racial or religious group. Multiple genocides have happened throughout history and those are a major part of how the world became the way it is today. One factful genocide is the Peru genocide which happened many many years ago. The Peru genocide was not a well known genocide but it was still very important to Peru and it's surroundings. The genocide had many important factors and caused world reactions because of it. The Peru genocide was led by Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru who was known as Tupac Amaru II. He was the leader of the genocide against the Spanish in Peru. The Peru genocide wasn't successful but Tupac went on in his life to being apart of Peru's struggle for their country's independence. The Peru genocide was known as Tupacs rebellion and was one of his many uprisings. The Peru genocide was about Tupac calling for an alliance among native whites, mestizos, and indigenous people against European-born Spaniards. Tupac Amaru's genocide became mainly indigenous and completely out of control. The rebellions of Americanos against Spaniards could easily become more wars against the entire white ruling class. Native-born whites in Mexico and Peru were among the last on the continent to embrace the patriot cause during the wars of independence(Tupac Amaru...). The genocide happened many years ago. While Tupac Amaru II was captured and executed in 1781, the rebellion continued for at least another year under......

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Essay Genocide Genocide was the term that came out after the Nazi’s Holocaust of World War Two, but it was not the first incident of Genocide, or the last. During the Genocide Convention that followed World War Two it was agreed amongst the world leaders that genocide would “never again” occur in the world. Time has shown that this might have been an empty promise however, and this essay will review the laws being implemented by the United Nations to help prevent genocide, arguments about why humans kill, incidents of genocide and how genocide is defined and, of course, the victims of the violent crime known as genocide. Genocide is now defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as “[t]he deliberate and systematic extermination of an ethnic or national group”. The United Nations created a much broader and in depth definition in the Genocide Convention of 1948. They state that genocide is “…any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or part, a national, ethnical or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or part; imposing measures to prevent births within the group; forcibly transferring children of the group to another group”. Despite some flaws and loopholes in this definition, it covers the atrocities that occur during genocide quite well. Genocide has......

Words: 1454 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Other Conquest

...belief system which begins when alien viewpoints get introduced to an indigenous belief system and the traditions of the two systems intertwined and the new heterogeneous religion depicts characteristics of the component conglomerate of religious believes. Religious conversion refers to a continuous and consistent process of change in the religious believers’ practices. This is often realized through adoption of new systems and practice by abandoning some of their practices which may be considered as archaic (Hassing 247-248). Integration of the two ideologies explains certain religious factors which appear to be integrated between several bodies of religious belief systems. In movie The Other Conquest, the producer displays out two different belief systems adopted by the Spanish and the natives of the Aztec empire found in Mexico. The opening scene shows Topiltizn, the illegitimate son of Aztec Emperor named Moctezuma, thrashs about to move out from under a corpse. He survived the massacre at their place of worship had been raided by Cotes, he gradually puts himself together and finally manages to free himself but bumps into his mother’s lifeless body covered in mud. The entire scene depicts a transformation process that signify a change to an order which more human comprehension to the whole dynamic of religion and sacrifices (Domingo, La otra conquista).Therefore, this symbolizes the first step in syncretism of religious believes between the two parties who are at......

Words: 1712 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

How Far Was Pre-Conquest England a Prosperous and Well-Governed Kingdom?

...Pre-conquest England was a relatively well-governed and somewhat prosperous kingdom; the country was cleverly run. The division of land and the hierarchy as well as the coinage, trade, towns and frequent invasions all suggest that pre-conquest England was prosperous and well-governed. However, the possible threats from the Earls to the King, the Danegeld and the King not having an heir suggest, England was less prosperous and more unstable. In the eleventh century England had developed into a sophisticated and highly organised state. The kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex and East Anglia had become earldoms. Earldoms were territorial units that covered large areas each of which was controlled by an Earl. Each earldom was further divided into shires. The shire was the administrative state and the unit of local government of England, the means of which the kings enforced taxation and law. Each shire was divided into hundreds, an area covering a dozen or so villages. The smallest unit of land was a hide and this was the measurement of productive agricultural land that was taxable. Each level of this hierarchy had its own mini leader. For example, each shire was managed by a sheriff and each sheriff was controlled by an earl. All parts of the Earldoms were controlled by the monarch. This organised system demonstrates that there was a very clear hierarchy in pre-conquest England. This would have made the country easy to run, especially for the kings of different countries...

Words: 1722 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...Introduction There is an extensive history of ethnic tension between the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda. The conflict and animosity between the two tribes ultimately led to the loss of over one million lives during the 1994 genocide. Michael Newdow made the following remarks concerning the cause of genocide: “People don't simply wake up one day and commit genocide. They start by setting themselves apart from others, diminishing the stature of those adhering to dissenting beliefs in small, insidious steps. They begin by saying, 'We're the righteous, and we'll tolerate those others.' And as the toleration diminishes over time, the inevitable harms are overlooked. It is for that reason that James Madison wisely wrote that 'it is proper to take alarm at the first experiment on our liberties'." (Michael Newdow 1) It is widely believed and stated that the 1994 Rwanda Genocide was started by the assassination of Hutu President Juvenal Habyarimana. However, the divide cause by the colonization and influence of Belgium can be seen as the underlying cause of genocide in Rowanda. Body When Rowanda was awarded to Belgium after World War, part of German’s territory that was never a part of the Kingodm of Rwanda, was stripped and attached to Tanganyika. This forced people to live amongst tribes they were unfamiliar with. Still, the Tutsi power structure for administering the country remained in place. The government also provided the......

Words: 842 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...1. The Implausibility of Genocide Prevention That hatred soon leads to genocide. ... Lastly, Genocide cannot be prevented because the guarantee that everyone is not going to turn against the agreement to prevent future genocide is an unrealistic belief. ... Some may understand how one could disagree, arguing that genocide could be prevented. ... In conclusion, Genocide cannot be prevented. ... Therefore ge... Word Count: 1618 Approx Pages: 6  2. Rwanda RWANDARwanda: Genocide or Civil War? ... Unfortunately, it has happened, but do the conditions and outcomes warrant using the term genocide? ... The Convention on the Punishment and Prevention of the Crime of Genocide hammered out the statutes concerning genocide, which went into force January 12, 1951. ... There have been several ... Word Count: 898 Approx Pages: 4 Has Bibliography  3. Genocide Genocide will occur in the FutureMass genocides have taken place during the Holocaust, the Killing Fields, and Rwanda and many other tragic events. ... All of these genocides have occurred due to the failure of the international community. ... Did the United Nations stop this genocide? ... What happens when the threats of genocide come at their fingertips? &#... Word Count: 1647 Approx Pages: 7  4. Fighting to Stop Genocide This lasted about thirty years until the next large scale genocide in 1975, this is when the Cambodian genocide began. ... Genocide affects everyone, and it's best that......

Words: 637 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Genocide Foundations Name Institution Affiliation Date Genocide Foundations Introduction Over the years, genocide studies receive positive and negative influences from both the cultural and political contexts. The two contexts have extensively influenced the view of genocide. The major view of genocide is that it is a domestic occurrence of states. On a literal perspective, various authors have contributed to the subject of genocide. The assignment looks to extensively explore the foundations of genocide based on book reviews. The paper will provide an in-depth analysis and reviews of three books on genocide, What is Genocide by Martin Shaw, Centuries of Genocide by Totten and On the nature of genocidal intent by Campbell. Shaw, M. (2007). What is Genocide? Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN: 0745631827. Martin Shaw’s takes up the subject of defining genocide in all contexts. Through the book, What is Genocide, Shaw seeks to address two major issues related to genocide definition. • Unchanging definition of genocide • Reasons and need for changing definition of genocide Modern comprehension of the genocide ideology arises from a historical and contemporary viewpoint. It is evident over the years that the definition of genocide has undergone minimal change. In the book, the author offers key reasons for the unchanging definition of genocide while at the same time offering major......

Words: 3101 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

What Was the Main Reason for Deterioration of Anglo Spanish Relations 1572-88

...The deterioration of Anglo Spanish relations between 1572-88 was due to a handful of reasons, most notably, the Treaty of Nonsuch proved costly for the relations as Philip saw it as a clear declaration of war from Elizabeth. However, the deterioration cannot be pinpointed just on the Treaty of Nonsuch, war would not have broken out without key events such as Drake’s circumnavigation of the world in 1577-81, where Spain and England were effectively at war in the new world, as well as the tragic massacre of Hughenots in Paris on the 24th August 1572, named the St Bartholomew’s day massacre. Firstly, The Treaty of Nonsuch on the 10th August 1585 outlined Elizabeth’s intent to fight Philip over the Netherlands. She accepted the role of ‘Protector of Dutch Rebels’ and promised to provide up to 8,000 English troops in the Netherlands by 1587. While the troops were poorly led by Leicester and their military assistance was not significant, Philip took this signal of intent from Elizabeth as war. From this day onwards, Marquis of Santa Cruz started planning the Spanish Armada. This also led to Drake disrupting planning in April 1887 where he blew up ships in Cadiz to stall the Armada. It has been said that Elizabeth was not aware of the consequences of her actions and she did not mean to declare war, however this evidence is flimsy and her advisers would have warned her about what would happen. As we can see, war had never officially been announced before, although many spats......

Words: 1006 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Women in Conquest and Early Colonization

...Fernando Tovar History 280 Dr. Hammond September 21, 2015 The Inflicted Spanish Pressure on the Mestiza/Indigenous Women of Colonial Latin America Colonial times in Latin America were tough for both mestizas/indigenous and Spanish women. Latin America’s status of indigenous women changed in terms of their positions in the hierarchy of society, labor roles, and their marriage responsibilities and their own freedoms. The Spanish women began to impose several changes in order to accustom the indigenous women to their level in order to make the “New Spain” a reality. During early conquest, mestiza women, especially those of noble classes were accustomed to be married off as soon as their fathers had an idea of who they wanted to be allied with and to move up in hierarchy. As Susan Socolow said, “Indeed, chiefs offered their sisters and daughters to Spanish conquistadors, continuing the pre-Columbian pattern of using women to appease the powerful and ally with them.” Reigning Spanish conquistadors or other tribal leaders sought to establish alliances, so women were in other words seen as objects to benefit them. Spanish women at the time of colonization were rare, but for instance, Juan Jaramillo was one of the early conquistadors who married. As said, “Her father, don Leonel de Cervantes was a comendador of the Order of Santiago…” The few rare Spanish women available during the colonization state tended to be noble daughters of comendadors, who were married off......

Words: 1529 - Pages: 7

Asterix and the Vikings (2006) Hindi Dubbed | Warhammer Vermintide 2 PC télécharger gratuit | Slender Man 2018 DVDrip French Movies