Free Essay

Wimax

In: Business and Management

Submitted By donmahin
Words 5510
Pages 23
Content

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 objectives of the study 2

1.3 Operational Definition 3

1.4 Literature review 4

2.1 Methodology of Data Collection 24

3.1 Conclusion 24

3.2 Reference 25

1.1 Introduction

WiMAX is a wireless digital communications system, also known as IEEE 802.16, that is intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks". WiMAX can provide broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations. In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m).

With WiMAX, WiFi-like data rates are easily supported, but the issue of interference is lessened. WiMAX operates on both licensed and non-licensed frequencies, providing a regulated environment and viable economic model for wireless carriers.

WiMAX can be used for wireless networking in much the same way as the more common WiFi protocol. WiMAX is a second-generation protocol that allows for more efficient bandwidth use, interference avoidance, and is intended to allow higher data rates over longer distances.

1.2 objectives of the study

➢ To know details about the WiMax technology.

1.3 Operational Definition

WiMAX- WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless industry coalition dedicated to the advancement of IEEE 802.16 standards for broadband wireless access (BWA) networks.

Wireless Internet: The wireless Web refers to use of the World Wide Web through a wireless device, such as a cellular telephone or personal digital assistant (PDA). Wireless Web connection provides anytime/anywhere connection to e-mail, mobile banking, instant messaging, weather and travel information, and other services. In general, sites aiming to accommodate wireless users must provide services in a format displayable.

Wi-Fi: The name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi (registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards."

Modem: A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines. Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. A modem converts between these two forms.

1.4 Literature review

WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a telecommunications protocol that provides fixed and fully mobile internet access. The current WiMAX revision provides up to 40 Mbit/s with the IEEE 802.16m update expected offer up to 1 Gbit/s fixed speeds. (WiMAX is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard, also called Broadband Wireless Access). The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX[3] as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL".
WiMAX base station equipment with a sector antenna and wireless modem on top
A pre-WiMAX CPE of a 26 km (16 mi) connection mounted 13 metres (43 ft) above the ground (2004, Lithuania).

[pic]Terminology

WiMAX refers to interoperable implementations of the IEEE 802.16 wireless-networks standard (ratified by the WiMAX Forum), in similarity with Wi-Fi, which refers to interoperable implementations of the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN standard (ratified by the Wi-Fi Alliance). The WiMAX Forum certification allows vendors to sell their equipment as WiMAX (Fixed or Mobile) certified, thus ensuring a level of interoperability with other certified products, as long as they fit the same profile.
The IEEE 802.16 standard forms the basis of 'WiMAX' and is sometimes referred to colloquially as "WiMAX", "Fixed WiMAX", "Mobile WiMAX", "802.16d" and "802.16e."Clarification of the formal names are as follow: • 802.16-2004 is also known as 802.16d, which refers to the working party that has developed that standard. It is sometimes referred to as "Fixed WiMAX," since it has no support for mobility. • 802.16e-2005, often abbreviated to 802.16e, is an amendment to 802.16-2004. It introduced support for mobility, among other things and is therefore also known as "Mobile WiMAX".
Mobile WiMAX is the WiMAX incarnation that has the most commercial interest to date and is being actively deployed in many countries. Mobile WiMAX is also the basis of future revisions of WiMAX. As such, references to and comparisons with "WiMAX" in this Wikipedia article mean "Mobile WiMAX".

Uses

The bandwidth and range of WiMAX make it suitable for the following potential applications: • Providing portable mobile broadband connectivity across cities and countries through a variety of devices. • Providing a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for "last mile" broadband access. • Providing data, telecommunications (VoIP) and IPTV services (triple play). • Providing a source of Internet connectivity as part of a business continuity plan. That is, if a business has both a fixed and a wireless Internet connection, especially from unrelated providers, it is less likely to be affected by the same service outage. • Providing a network to facilitate machine to machine communications, such as for Smart Metering.

Broadband

Companies are deploying WiMAX to provide mobile broadband or at-home broadband connectivity across whole cities or countries. In many cases this has resulted in competition in markets which typically only had access to broadband through an existing incumbent DSL (or alike) operator.
Additionally, given the relatively low cost to deploy a WiMAX network (in comparison to GSM, DSL or Fiber-Optic), it is now possible to provide broadband in places where it may have not been economically viable.

Back-haul

WiMAX is a possible replacement candidate for cellular phone technologies such as GSM and CDMA, or can be used as an overlay to increase capacity. Fixed WiMAX is also considered as a wireless backhaul technology for 2G, 3G, and 4G networks in both developed and poor nations.[6][7]
In North America, backhaul for urban cellular operations is typically provided via one or more copper wire line T1 connections, whereas remote cellular operations are sometimes backhauled via satellite. In most other regions, urban and rural backhaul is usually provided by microwave links. (The exception to this is where the network is operated by an incumbent with ready access to the copper network, in which case T1 lines may be used). WiMAX is a broadband platform and as such has much more substantial backhaul bandwidth requirements than legacy cellular applications. Therefore, traditional copper wire line backhaul solutions are not appropriate. Consequently the use of wireless microwave backhaul is on the rise in North America and existing microwave backhaul links in all regions are being upgraded.[8] Capacities of between 34 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s[citation needed] are routinely being deployed with latencies in the order of 1 ms. In many cases, operators are aggregating sites using wireless technology and then presenting traffic on to fiber networks where convenient.

Triple-play

WiMAX supports the technologies that make triple-play service offerings possible (such as Quality of Service and Multicasting).
As a result, it is possible for a WiMAX operator to not only provide high-speed broadband internet access, but also VoIP and IPTV services to customers with relative ease. This enables a WiMAX service to be a replacement for DSL, Cable and Telephony services.
On May 7, 2008 in the United States, Sprint Nextel, Google, Intel, Comcast, Bright House, and Time Warner announced a pooling of an average of 120 MHz of spectrum and merged with Clearwire to form a company which will take the name Clear. The new company hopes to benefit from combined services offerings and network resources as a springboard past its competitors. The cable companies will provide media services to other partners while gaining access to the wireless network as a Mobile virtual network operator to provide triple-play services.
Some analysts have questioned how the deal will work out: Although fixed-mobile convergence has been a recognized factor in the industry, prior attempts to form partnerships among wireless and cable companies have generally failed to lead to significant benefits to the participants. Other analysts point out that as wireless progresses to higher bandwidth, it inevitably competes more directly with cable and DSL, thrusting competitors into bed together. Also, as wireless broadband networks grow denser and usage habits shift, the need for increased backhaul and media service will accelerate, therefore the opportunity to leverage cable assets is expected to increase.

Rapid deployment

• WiMAX access was used to assist with communications in Aceh, Indonesia, after the tsunami in December 2004. All communication infrastructure in the area, other than amateur radio, was destroyed, making the survivors unable to communicate with people outside the disaster area and vice versa. WiMAX provided broadband access that helped regenerate communication to and from Aceh. • WiMAX was donated by Intel Corporation to assist the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and FEMA in their communications efforts in the areas affected by Hurricane Katrina.[9] In practice, volunteers used mainly self-healing mesh, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), and a satellite uplink combined with Wi-Fi on the local link.[10]

Connecting to WiMAX

[pic]

Figure: A WiMAX Gateway which provides VoIP, Ethernet and WiFi connectivity
[pic]

Figure: A WiMAX USB modem for mobile internet
There are numerous devices on the market that provide connectivity to a WiMAX network. These are known as the "subscriber unit" (SU).
There is an increasing focus on portable units, this includes handsets (similar to cellular smartphones), PC peripherals (PC Cards or USB dongles), and embedded devices in laptops, which are now available for Wi-Fi services. In addition, there is much emphasis from operators on consumer electronics devices such as Gaming consoles, MP3 players and similar devices. It is notable that WiMAX is more similar to Wi-Fi than to 3G cellular technologies.
The WiMAX Forum website provides a list of certified devices. However, this is not a complete list of devices available as certified modules are embedded into laptops, MIDs (Mobile internet devices), and other private labeled devices.

WiMAX Gateways

WiMAX gateway devices are available as both indoor and outdoor versions from several manufacturers. Many of the WiMAX gateways that are offered by manufactures such as ZyXEL, Motorola, and Greenpacket are stand-alone self-install indoor units. Such devices typically sit near the customer's window with the best WiMAX signal, and provide: • An integrated Wi-Fi access point to provide the WiMAX Internet connectivity to multiple devices throughout the home or business. • Ethernet ports should you wish to connect directly to your computer or DVR instead. • One or two PSTN telephone jacks to connect your land-line phone and take advantage of VoIP.
Indoor gateways are convenient, but radio losses mean that the subscriber may need to be significantly closer to the WiMAX base station than with professionally-installed external units.
Outdoor units are roughly the size of a laptop PC, and their installation is comparable to the installation of a residential satellite dish. A higher-gain directional outdoor unit will generally result in greatly increased range and throughput but with the obvious loss of practical mobility of the unit.

WiMAX Dongles

There are a variety of USB dongles on the market which provide connectivity to a WiMAX network. Generally these devices are connected to a notebook or netbook whilst on the go. Dongles typically have omnidirectional antennae which are of lower-gain compared to other devices, as such these devices are best used in areas of good coverage.

WiMAX Mobiles

HTC announced the first WiMAX enabled mobile phone, the Max 4G, on Nov 12th 2008.[11] The device was only available certain markets in Russia on the Yota network.
HTC released the second WiMAX enabled mobile phone, the EVO 4G, March 23, 2010 at the CTIA conference in Las Vegas. The device made available on June 4, 2010[12] is capable of both EV-DO(3G) and WiMax(4G) as well as simultaneous data & voice sessions. The device also has a front-facing camera enabling the use of video conversations.[13] A number of WiMAX Mobiles are expected to hit the US market in 2010.[14]

Technical information

[pic]

Illustration of a WiMAX MIMO board

WiMAX and the IEEE 802.16 Standard

The current WiMAX revision is based upon IEEE Std 802.16e-2005,[15] approved in December 2005. It is a supplement to the IEEE Std 802.16-2004,[16] and so the actual standard is 802.16-2004 as amended by 802.16e-2005. Thus, these specifications need to be considered together.
IEEE 802.16e-2005 improves upon IEEE 802.16-2004 by: • Adding support for mobility (soft and hard handover between base stations). This is seen as one of the most important aspects of 802.16e-2005, and is the very basis of Mobile WiMAX. • Scaling of the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to the channel bandwidth in order to keep the carrier spacing constant across different channel bandwidths (typically 1.25 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz or 20 MHz). Constant carrier spacing results in a higher spectrum efficiency in wide channels, and a cost reduction in narrow channels. Also known as Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA). Other bands not multiples of 1.25 MHz are defined in the standard, but because the allowed FFT subcarrier numbers are only 128, 512, 1024 and 2048, other frequency bands will not have exactly the same carrier spacing, which might not be optimal for implementations. • Advanced antenna diversity schemes, and hybrid automatic repeat-request (HARQ) • Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS) and MIMO technology • Denser sub-channelization, thereby improving indoor penetration • Introducing Turbo Coding and Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) • Introducing downlink sub-channelization, allowing administrators to trade coverage for capacity or vice versa • Fast Fourier transform algorithm • Adding an extra QoS class for VoIP applications.
SOFDMA (used in 802.16e-2005) and OFDM256 (802.16d) are not compatible thus equipment will have to be replaced if an operator is to move to the later standard (e.g., Fixed WiMAX to Mobile WiMAX).

Physical layer

The original version of the standard on which WiMAX is based (IEEE 802.16) specified a physical layer operating in the 10 to 66 GHz range. 802.16a, updated in 2004 to 802.16-2004, added specifications for the 2 to 11 GHz range. 802.16-2004 was updated by 802.16e-2005 in 2005 and uses scalable orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (SOFDMA) as opposed to the fixed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) version with 256 sub-carriers (of which 200 are used) in 802.16d. More advanced versions, including 802.16e, also bring multiple antenna support through MIMO (See WiMAX MIMO). This brings potential benefits in terms of coverage, self installation, power consumption, frequency re-use and bandwidth efficiency.

MAC (data link) layer

The WiMAX MAC uses a scheduling algorithm for which the subscriber station needs to compete only once for initial entry into the network. After network entry is allowed, the subscriber station is allocated an access slot by the base station. The time slot can enlarge and contract, but remains assigned to the subscriber station, which means that other subscribers cannot use it. In addition to being stable under overload and over-subscription, the scheduling algorithm can also be more bandwidth efficient. The scheduling algorithm also allows the base station to control Quality of service (QoS) parameters by balancing the time-slot assignments among the application needs of the subscriber stations.

Deployment

As a standard intended to satisfy needs of next-generation data networks (4G), WiMAX is distinguished by its dynamic burst algorithm modulation adaptive to the physical environment the RF signal travels through. Modulation is chosen to be more spectrally efficient (more bits per OFDM/SOFDMA symbol). That is, when the bursts have a high signal strength and a carrier to noise plus interference ratio (CINR), they can be more easily decoded using digital signal processing (DSP). In contrast, operating in less favorable environments for RF communication, the system automatically steps down to a more robust mode (burst profile) which means fewer bits per OFDM/SOFDMA symbol; with the advantage that power per bit is higher and therefore simpler accurate signal processing can be performed.
Burst profiles are used inverse (algorithmically dynamic) to low signal attenuation; meaning throughput between clients and the base station is determined largely by distance. Maximum distance is achieved by the use of the most robust burst setting; that is, the profile with the largest MAC frame allocation trade-off requiring more symbols (a larger portion of the MAC frame) to be allocated in transmitting a given amount of data than if the client were closer to the base station.
The client's MAC frame and their individual burst profiles are defined as well as the specific time allocation. However, even if this is done automatically then the practical deployment should avoid high interference and multipath environments. The reason for which is obviously that too much interference causes the network function poorly and can also misrepresent the capability of the network.
The system is complex to deploy as it is necessary to track not only the signal strength and CINR (as in systems like GSM) but also how the available frequencies will be dynamically assigned (resulting in dynamic changes to the available bandwidth.) This could lead to cluttered frequencies with slow response times or lost frames.
As a result the system has to be initially designed in consensus with the base station product team to accurately project frequency use, interference, and general product functionality.

Integration with an IP-based network

[pic]

Figure: WiMAX Architecture
The WiMAX Forum has proposed an architecture that defines how a WiMAX network can be connected with an IP based core network, which is typically chosen by operators that serve as Internet Service Providers (ISP); Nevertheless the WiMAX BS provide seamless integration capabilities with other types of architectures as with packet switched Mobile Networks.
The WiMAX forum proposal defines a number of components, plus some of the interconnections (or reference points) between these, labeled R1 to R5 and R8: • SS/MS: the Subscriber Station/Mobile Station • ASN: the Access Service Network[17] • BS: Base station, part of the ASN • ASN-GW: the ASN Gateway, part of the ASN • CSN: the Connectivity Service Network • HA: Home Agent, part of the CSN • AAA: Authentication, Authorization and Accounting Server, part of the CSN • NAP: a Network Access Provider • NSP: a Network Service Provider
It is important to note that the functional architecture can be designed into various hardware configurations rather than fixed configurations. For example, the architecture is flexible enough to allow remote/mobile stations of varying scale and functionality and Base Stations of varying size - e.g. femto, pico, and mini BS as well as macros.

Spectrum allocation

There is no uniform global licensed spectrum for WiMAX, however the WiMAX Forum has published three licensed spectrum profiles: 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz, in an effort to drive standardisation and decrease cost.
In the USA, the biggest segment available is around 2.5 GHz,[18] and is already assigned, primarily to Sprint Nextel and Clearwire. Elsewhere in the world, the most-likely bands used will be the Forum approved ones, with 2.3 GHz probably being most important in Asia. Some countries in Asia like India and Indonesia will use a mix of 2.5 GHz, 3.3 GHz and other frequencies. Pakistan's Wateen Telecom uses 3.5 GHz.
Analog TV bands (700 MHz) may become available for WiMAX usage, but await the complete roll out of digital TV, and there will be other uses suggested for that spectrum. In the USA the FCC auction for this spectrum began in January 2008 and, as a result, the biggest share of the spectrum went to Verizon Wireless and the next biggest to AT&T.[19] Both of these companies have stated their intention of supporting LTE, a technology which competes directly with WiMAX. EU commissioner Viviane Reding has suggested re-allocation of 500–800 MHz spectrum for wireless communication, including WiMAX.[20]
WiMAX profiles define channel size, TDD/FDD and other necessary attributes in order to have inter-operating products. The current fixed profiles are defined for both TDD and FDD profiles. At this point, all of the mobile profiles are TDD only. The fixed profiles have channel sizes of 3.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 7 MHz and 10 MHz. The mobile profiles are 5 MHz, 8.75 MHz and 10 MHz. (Note: the 802.16 standard allows a far wider variety of channels, but only the above subsets are supported as WiMAX profiles.)
Since October 2007, the Radio communication Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) has decided to include WiMAX technology in the IMT-2000 set of standards.[21] This enables spectrum owners (specifically in the 2.5-2.69 GHz band at this stage) to use WiMAX equipment in any country that recognizes the IMT-2000.

Spectral efficiency

One of the significant advantages of advanced wireless systems such as WiMAX is spectral efficiency. For example, 802.16-2004 (fixed) has a spectral efficiency of 3.7 (bit/s)/Hertz, and other 3.5–4G wireless systems offer spectral efficiencies that are similar to within a few tenths of a percent. The notable advantage of WiMAX comes from combining SOFDMA with smart antenna technologies. This multiplies the effective spectral efficiency through multiple reuse and smart network deployment topologies. The direct use of frequency domain organization simplifies designs using MIMO-AAS compared to CDMA/WCDMA methods, resulting in more effective systems.

Inherent Limitations

A commonly-held misconception is that WiMAX will deliver 70 Mbit/s over 50 kilometers. Like all wireless technologies, WiMAX can either operate at higher bitrates or over longer distances but not both: operating at the maximum range of 50 km (31 miles) increases bit error rate and thus results in a much lower bitrate. Conversely, reducing the range (to under 1 km) allows a device to operate at higher bitrates.
A recent city-wide deployment of WiMAX in Perth, Australia, has demonstrated that customers at the cell-edge with an indoor CPE typically obtain speeds of around 1–4 Mbit/s, with users closer to the cell tower obtaining speeds of up to 30 Mbit/s.
Like all wireless systems, available bandwidth is shared between users in a given radio sector, so performance could deteriorate in the case of many active users in a single sector. However, with adequate capacity planning and the use of WiMAX's Quality of Service, a minimum guaranteed throughput for each subscriber can be put in place. In practice, most users will have a range of 4-8 Mbit/s services and additional radio cards will be added to the base station to increase the number of users that may be served as required.

Silicon implementations

A critical requirement for the success of a new technology is the availability of low-cost chipsets and silicon implementations.
WiMAX has a strong silicon ecosystem with a number of specialized companies producing baseband ICs and integrated RFICs for implementing full-featured WiMAX Subscriber Stations in the 2.3, 2.5 and 3.5Ghz band (refer to 'Spectrum allocation' above). It is notable that most of the major semiconductor companies have not developed WiMAX chipsets of their own and have instead chosen to invest in and/or utilise the well developed products from smaller specialists or start-up suppliers. These companies include but not limited to Beceem, Sequans and PicoChip. The chipsets from these companies are used in the majority of WiMAX devices.
Intel Corporation is a leader in promoting WiMAX, but has limited its WiMAX chipset development and instead chosen to invest in these specialized companies producing silicon compatible with the various WiMAX deployments throughout the globe.

Comparison with Wi-Fi

Comparisons and confusion between WiMAX and Wi-Fi are frequent because both are related to wireless connectivity and Internet access. • WiMAX is a long range system, covering many kilometers, that uses licensed or unlicensed spectrum to deliver connection to a network, in most cases the Internet. • Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum to provide access to a local network. • Wi-Fi is more popular in end user devices. • Wi-Fi runs on the Media Access Control's CSMA/CA protocol, which is connectionless and contention based, whereas WiMAX runs a connection-oriented MAC. • WiMAX and Wi-Fi have quite different quality of service (QoS) mechanisms: o WiMAX uses a QoS mechanism based on connections between the base station and the user device. Each connection is based on specific scheduling algorithms. o Wi-Fi uses contention access - all subscriber stations that wish to pass data through a wireless access point (AP) are competing for the AP's attention on a random interrupt basis. This can cause subscriber stations distant from the AP to be repeatedly interrupted by closer stations, greatly reducing their throughput. • Both 802.11 and 802.16 define Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and ad hoc networks, where an end user communicates to users or servers on another Local Area Network (LAN) using its access point or base station. However, 802.11 supports also direct ad hoc or peer to peer networking between end user devices without an access point while 802.16 end user devices must be in range of the base station.
Wi-Fi and WiMAX are complementary. WiMAX network operators typically provide a WiMAX Subscriber Unit which connects to the metropolitan WiMAX network and provides Wi-Fi within the home or business for local devices (e.g., Laptops, Wi-Fi Handsets, smartphones) for connectivity. This enables the user to place the WiMAX Subscriber Unit in the best reception area (such as a window), and still be able to use the WiMAX network from any place within their residence.

Conformance testing

TTCN-3 test specification language is used for the purposes of specifying conformance tests for WiMAX implementations. The WiMAX test suite is being developed by a Specialist Task Force at ETSI (STF 252).[22]

Associations

WiMAX Forum

The WiMAX Forum is a non profit organization formed to promote the adoption of WiMAX compatible products and services.[23]
A major role for the organization is to certify the interoperability of WiMAX products.[24] Those that pass conformance and interoperability testing achieve the "WiMAX Forum Certified" designation, and can display this mark on their products and marketing materials. Some vendors claim that their equipment is "WiMAX-ready", "WiMAX-compliant", or "pre-WiMAX", if they are not officially WiMAX Forum Certified.

Another role of the WiMAX Forum is to promote the spread of knowledge about WiMAX. In order to do so, it has a certified training program that is currently offered in English and French. It also offers a series of member events and endorses some industry events.

WiMAX Spectrum Owners Alliance

[pic]

Figure: WiSOA logo
WiSOA was the first global organization composed exclusively of owners of WiMAX spectrum with plans to deploy WiMAX technology in those bands. WiSOA focussed on the regulation, commercialisation, and deployment of WiMAX spectrum in the 2.3–2.5 GHz and the 3.4–3.5 GHz ranges. WiSOA merged with the Wireless Broadband Alliance in April 2008. [25]

Competing technologies

[pic]

Speed vs. Mobility of wireless systems: Wi-Fi, HSPA, UMTS, GSM
Within the marketplace, WiMAX's main competition comes from existing, widely deployed wireless systems such as UMTS, CDMA2000, existing Wi-Fi and mesh networking.
In the future, competition will be from the evolution of the major cellular standards to so-called 4G, high-bandwidth, low-latency, all-IP networks with voice services built on top. The worldwide move to 4G for GSM/UMTS and AMPS/TIA (including CDMA2000) is the 3GPP Long Term Evolution effort. However, it has been noted that the likely performance difference between WiMAX as it stands today and LTE when it is eventually commercially available in 2–3 years time, will be negligible.[citation needed]
LTE is expected to be ratified at the end of 2010, with commercial implementations becoming viable within the next two years.. End of 2009 TeliaSonera started commercial deployment in Oslo and Stockholm, In Denmark the 3 big telecoms are upgrading their network, and will make LTE available during 2010.
In some areas of the world, the wide availability of UMTS and a general desire for standardization has meant spectrum has not been allocated for WiMAX: in July 2005, the EU-wide frequency allocation for WiMAX was blocked.

Harmonization

Early WirelessMAN standards, the European standard HiperMAN and Korean standard WiBro have been harmonized as part of WiMAX and are no longer seen as competition but as complementary. All networks now being deployed in South Korea, the home of the WiBro standard, are now WiMAX.
Future development
The IEEE 802.16m standard is the core technology for the proposed WiMAX Release 2, which enables more efficient, faster, and more converged data communications. The IEEE 802.16m standard has been submitted to the ITU for IMT-Advanced standardization[26]. IEEE 802.16m is one of the major candidates for IMT-Advanced technologies by ITU. Among many enhancements, IEEE 802.16m systems can provide four times faster data speed than the current WiMAX Release 1 based on IEEE 802.16e technology.
WiMAX Release 2 will provide strong backward compatibility with Release 1 solutions. It will allow current WiMAX operators to migrate their Release 1 solutions to Release 2 by upgrading channel cards or software of their systems. Also, the subscribers who use currently available WiMAX devices can communicate with new WiMAX Release 2 systems without difficulty.
It is anticipated that in a practical deployment, using 4X2 MIMO in the urban microcell scenario with only a single 20-MHz TDD channel available system wide, the 802.16m system can support both 120 Mbit/s downlink and 60 Mbit/s uplink per site simultaneously. It is expected that the WiMAX Release 2 will be available commercially in the 2011-2012 timeframe.[27]
The goal for the long-term evolution of WiMAX is to achieve 100 Mbit/s mobile and 1 Gbit/s fixed-nomadic bandwidth as set by ITU for 4G NGMN (Next Generation Mobile Network).

Interference

A field test conducted by SUIRG (Satellite Users Interference Reduction Group) with support from the U.S. Navy, the Global VSAT Forum, and several member organizations yielded results showing interference at 12 km when using the same channels for both the WiMAX systems and satellites in C-band.[28] The WiMAX Forum has yet to respond.

Deployments

As of April 2010, the WiMAX Forum claims there are over 558 WiMAX (fixed and mobile) networks deployed in over 147 countries.
Yota is the largest WiMAX network operator in the world[30] but has announced that it will move new network deployments to LTE, and subsequently change its existing networks also.

WiMax in Bangladesh

Banglalion Communication Ltd. is a sister concern of leading Bangladeshi business conglomerate - "Sunman Group of Companies". Banglalion acquired the 1st BWA license from Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) November 18, 2008. Banglalion plans to provide Broadband Internet connectivity and other services using WiMAX technology. As part of the coverage plan, BanglaLion has already installed & commissioned 35 BTSs. With these 35 BTSs, Bangla Lion plans to cover the key areas of Dhaka by end of December 2009. By the 1st quarter of 2010, Bangla Lion plans to bring the whole Dhaka city and it's wider periphery under coverage by installing 300 BTSs. Meantime, network rollout in other major cities such as; Chittagong, Sylhet, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal are about to begin.

2.1 Methodology of Data Collection

We collect all the information from secondary source i.e. searching internet.

3.1 Conclusion

Imagine a technology that can reach even into the remote areas or the suburbs where the access to power plants is even difficult. This innovation technology will provide transfer rates of multiple Megabits to the users within a range of several kilometers. As we know the demand for wireless has raised rapidly from 5.7 million in 2002 to 200 million in 2006. The global WiMax market is growing at the rate of 30% per year and is expected to touch $2.8 billion by 2009 from the present $ 600 million. The number of Wimax users is forecasted to each 14.9 million in 2009. Wimax based solutions are more flexible and secured. They provide an outstanding service and are very much cost effective. Topologies of urban and suburban areas can be controlled by this technology. Wimax technology is 30 times faster than the third generation and 100 times faster than the wireless data rates.

3.2 Reference

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMAX

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/modem.html

http://www.bitpipe.com/tlist/Wireless-Internet.html

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/Wi_Fi.html

http://www.banglalionwimax.com

http://www.4gwirelessjobs.com/pdf/WIMAX.pdf

.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

4g Wireless

...wireless networks to 4G networks in relation to application and services, user perception, network architecture, and data throughput. The information offered will also differentiate between 4G LTE, 4G WiMax, and 4G WiBro networks based on upload and download speeds, user perceptions, backward compatibility, and service availability. The following paragraphs will also identify the competition between the 4G LTE carriers and why it has been so fierce, as well as how subscribers will benefit from this competition. When shopping for 3G and 4G wireless networks, consumers will have to comparison shop to find a service that will meet their particular needs. Today, most cell phone providers offer both 3G and 4G wireless service in conjunction with Internet service. Verizon, Sprint, and AT&T are just a few of the providers that use 3G as a standard mobile Internet service, in addition to providing 4G service. However, subscribers also need to be aware that 4G is a different service with a different network. Since 4G networks are fairly new, as of 2010, the price tag tends to be expensive (Wimax Wifi Technology & Broadband Internet, 2011). To access wireless service subscribers need to have a service plan, a network, and equipment for connecting to the Internet. For instance, Sprint’s WiMAX (also known as Clear) is based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16e design. The IEEE 802.16e design challenges the current 3G technology suppliers......

Words: 2108 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Report on Wimax

...Introduction WiMAX technology has been approved by Bangladesh Government in last quater of 2008 in Bangladesh. Use of this technology has been increased through the passage of time. WiMAX combines the performance of Wi-Fi with the range and quality of service (QOS) of a carrier-grade cellular technology. WiMAX networks can be as small as single base stations with a few subscriber units, to much larger networks with thousands of users. 4G WiMAX gives us incredibly fast wireless access to the internet from four to ten times faster than 3G wireless. WiMAX technology will allow the subscribers to enjoy the amazing experience of high speed internet along with data, voice and video.There are few WiMAX service provider in Bangladesh, among them OLLO is newly came in market. In our report we focused on WiMAX technology based on the company OLLO’s various aspect of technological term. About WiMAX WiMAX, meaning Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology that provides wireless transmission of data using a variety of transmission modes, from point-to-multipoint links to portable and fully mobile internet access. The technology provides up to 10 Mbit/s broadband speeds without the need for cables. The technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard (also called Broadband Wireless Access). The WiMAX forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable...

Words: 940 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Miss

...Integration of EPON and WiMAX Gangxiang Shen and Rodney S. Tucker 14.1 Introduction The Internet today is characterized by a fast growth of bandwidth-intensive services, such as IPTV, video on demand (VoD), and peer-to-peer (P2P) services. To Gangxiang Shen ARC Special Research Centre for Ultra-Broadband Information Networks (CUBIN), Department Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne VIC 3010, Australia, e-mail: egxshen@gmail.com Rodney S. Tucker ARC Special Research Centre for Ultra-Broadband Information Networks (CUBIN), Department Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne VIC 3010, Australia, e-mail: r.tucker@ee.unimelb.edu.au A. Shami et al. (eds.), Broadband Access Networks, Optical Networks, DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-92131-0 14, c Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009 UN C OR R Abstract The integration of EPON and WiMAX is a novel research topic that has received extensive interest from both industry and academia. The major motivations behind the integration of EPON and WiMAX involve the potential benefits of fixed mobile convergence (FMC), which uses a single network infrastructure to provide both wired and wireless access services, and a good match of capacity hierarchy between EPON and WiMAX by using EPON as a backhaul (or feeder) to connect multiple disperse WiMAX base stations. This chapter recaps recent progress in the area of integration of EPON and WiMAX. Three different......

Words: 8962 - Pages: 36

Free Essay

Asdasda

...LTE/WiMax PATENT LICENSING STATEMENT (December 2008) Throughout its existence, Qualcomm has led the wireless industry in the research and development (R&D) required to move from analog technology into second and third generation digital wireless technologies and beyond. These advances have been largely based upon Qualcomm's patented enabling inventions making it possible to apply code division multiple access (CDMA) technology to commercial cellular wireless networks. More recently, Qualcomm has been a leading developer of the technology enabling high speed data extensions of 3G networks and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based 4G systems and standards. As a result, Qualcomm owns an extremely valuable patent portfolio that includes patents that are essential, and others that are commercially useful, to all commercial wireless standards based upon CDMA and OFDMA-based systems and standards currently under development. Qualcomm has had a long standing policy of broadly offering to license its standards essential patents for CDMA-based telecommunications standards on terms and conditions that are fair, reasonable, and free from unfair discrimination (FRAND), subject to reciprocity. FRAND is a well-established principle that appropriately balances the interests of patent holders to obtain a fair return on their innovations and those of implementers to obtain access to such innovations through good faith bilateral negotiations of licensing terms and......

Words: 1173 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Case Project 8-3

...long-distance, high-throughput wireless connection, 802.16 (WiMAX) technology should be used. This technology which stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is able to transmit and receive signals up to 30 miles when the antennas are fixed. Its maximum downlink throughput is 120 Mbps and its maximum uplink throughput is 60 Mbps. Some of the benefits of WiMAX compared to T3 over SONET connection are that a single WiMAX station can serve hundreds of users, it has a much faster deployment of new users comparing to wired networks, and it can reach a speed of 10 Mbps at 10 kilometers with line-of-site customers. It also supports Non line of Sight customers; it is standardized, and same frequency equipment should work together and it has short delay. Drawbacks of WiMAX are that weather conditions like rain could interrupt the signal; other wireless equipment could cause interference, multiplied frequencies are used, WiMAX is a very power intensive technology and requires strong electrical support, and it has high installation and operational costs. The equipment needed to install WiMAX includes the Wimax base station, which consists of indoor Wimax equipments and a wimax tower. The common range of Wimax base station is up to 10km radius, while a base station can cover 50km or 30miles but in practice it is 10km and 6 miles only .Any node inside the coverage area would be capable to access the internet. Wimax base station work as a media access control layer and......

Words: 454 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Wimax

...“Heaven’s Light is Our Guide” [pic] DEPARTMENT OF Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Bangladesh RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN WiMAX Author Md.Masud Hasan Roll No.054005 Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology Supervised by Md.Delwar Hossain Head Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All praises to ALLAH, the cherisher and the sustainer of the universe, the most gracious and the most merciful, who bestowed me with health and abilities to complete this thesis successfully. This thesis means to me far more than a honours degree requirement as my knowledge was significantly enhanced during the course of its research and implementation. I am especially thankful to the Faculty and Staff of Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (RUET), Rajshahi, Bangladesh, that have always been a source of motivation for me and supported me......

Words: 15898 - Pages: 64

Free Essay

Customers’ Attitude Towards Wireless Internet Services in Bangladesh: an Empirical Study Comparing Wimax Based and Edge/Evdo Based Internet Service

...Volume–VI, Number-01, January-June, 2011 Customers’ Attitude towards Wireless Internet Services in Bangladesh: An Empirical Study Comparing WIMAX Based and EDGE/EVDO Based Internet Service S.M. MONIRUL ISLAM* BULBUL AHAMED** Abstract This study is an attempt to measure the attitude of customers towards the wireless Internet services in Bangladesh based on the Mertin Fishbein’s multi attribute attitude model. Some salient attributes (i.e., speed, bandwidth fluctuation rate) of WIMAX based and EDGE/EVDO based Internet services that affect the attitude of the customers have been selected which customers emphasizes to take purchase-decision as well as usage continuation decision. Two types of wireless Internet service providers (WIMAX and EDGE/EVDO) and ten salient attributes have been considered for this study. It has been found from the study that customers form more positive attitude towards WIMAX based Internet service than EDGE/EVDO based service. Observed differences in mean attitude of different attributes for the two categories of wireless Internet services are measured through Z-test to test the significance of those differences. Findings of this study may be used as an index by the Internet service providers for improvement of their services to satisfy the customers. Key words: Wireless Internet, Customer Attitude, WIMAX, EDGE, EVDO 1. INTRODUCTION Communication is the fundamental need of human beings. From the early evolution of civilization man has......

Words: 3584 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Ollo Wimax Internet Service Provider

...Ollo. Brand image includes products' appeal, ease of use, functionality, fame, and overall value. Ollo’s competitor Banglalion and qubee holds positive brand image as leading wimax provider in Bangladesh exceeding the customer expectations. Ollo’s marketing plan was to develop a brand experience that would differentiate the new product within the saturated telecoms market. But due to poor communications people are not aware of Ollo. It has problem in reaching its target audiences. From the beginning till now Ollo is unable to create relationship with its customer. As a result Ollo hardly moved from brand parity level and is still quite far from reaching brand equity. Ollo’s present sales is not enough to make revenue and increase market share. It needs integrated marketing communications to establish itself as a new telecom brand providing high-speed internet access to emerging markets. 4. Market Research Research Objective The primary objective of this research is to know what people actually think about Ollo Bangladesh. We wanted to know if people consider Ollo as their top choice or not. If not then what are the reasons behind it. The goal of research is also to know why Ollo is not able to create brand equity and brand image, why people prefer other operators over Ollo, what people find in other WiMAX provider that are missing in Ollo that lead them not to use their service. This research will help to find out the reasons why it is still not able to move from brand......

Words: 5523 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Marketing Strategy of Banglalion Wimax Ltd

...MARKETING STRATEGY OF BANGLALION WIMAX LTD. Submitted to: Saadia Shabnam Senior Lecturer Department of Business Administration East West University. Submitted to: Saadia Shabnam Senior Lecturer Department of Business Administration East West University. ------------------------------------------------- Submitted by: Khorshed Ahmmad Opu ID: 2009-1-10-135 Toukir Azam Chowdhury ID: 2010-2-10-202 ------------------------------------------------- Submitted by: Khorshed Ahmmad Opu ID: 2009-1-10-135 Toukir Azam Chowdhury ID: 2010-2-10-202 ............................ Saadia Shabnam Lecturer Department of Business Administration. East West University Subject: Submission of the Term Paper. Dear Madam, With due to respect it is our pleasure to present the term paper entitled “Marketing Strategies of Banglalion”. While preparing the report we have tried our level best to focus closely on the topic and tried to collect most complete and up-dated information available. We believe that it will provide a clear scenario of Marketing Strategies of Banglalion. To prepare this term paper, we have given best effort to accumulate needed information. We shall be available to answer my question clarification. Thank you for your sincere support. Sincerely yours: Khorshed Ahmmad Opu Toukir Azam Chowdhury Acknowledgement . Making a term paper is such a thing of pleasure. But doing this is also a tough thing. With the help of some people we......

Words: 5076 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

What Is Wi-Max

...changing field. One of the new broadband wireless technologies being developed is WiMAX. This paper provides a brief overview of this emerging protocol and its implementation of security in terms of application, data and host. Brief Overview of WiMAX WiMAX, or Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) protocol based on the IEEE 802.16e-2005 standard. It works as a Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) system with applications in last-mile connectivity, mobile telephony, network backhauling, etc. (Nuaymi, 2007). WiMAX evolved from a series of precursor standards, such as the Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP) of the late 1990s; the Local Multipoint Distribution System (LMDS) that utilized the 24-39 GHz portion; the Multichannel Multipoint Distribution System (MMDS) that utilized the 2.5 GHz band; etc. A schematic diagram of the technology is presented in Figure 1: [pic] Figure 1: Simplified representation of WiMAX technology showing both fixed and mobile usage. Source: Tang, Muller & Shariff, 2010, p. 7. The IEEE implementation of the BWA 802.16 standard has two usage targets: the IEEE 802.16-2004 (802.16d) for fixed wireless access at home; and the revised IEEE 802.16e-2005 (802.16e) for mobile users who need fast, uninterrupted switching between cells. Compared to other wireless standards such as “Wi-Fi” or “Bluetooth”, WiMAX offers a greater range of up to 20 Km, while a few thousand clients......

Words: 1770 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Lte vs Wimax: the Future of Mobile Broadband in the United States

...LTE vs WiMax: The Future of Mobile Broadband in the United States LTE vs WiMax: The Future of Mobile Broadband in the United States High Speed Broadband Services (HSBS) is one of the rapid technological advancements the world has seen over the past century. The primary reason for HSBS was to deliver a high speed Internet service capable of supporting multimedia applications to the subscriber. During the latter part of this technological evolution, HSBS was mainly focused on wireless applications. This movement would latter be coined as Broadband Wireless Access (BAC). BAC was designed to provide services in a wireless environment capable of providing users with the same capability as that of wired broadband. Over the past decade, there have been major technological advances and innovations with wireless broadband such as LTE and WiMax. WiMax began as the standard for 4G technologies but has succumbed to LTE. As it stands, LTE is a more reliable system that has far greater potential than WiMax in the broadband wireless systems spectrum. History of WiMax To fully understand Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) you have to go back to the beginning where it all started. Cellular phone companies and service providers in the mid 1990’s were looking for alternative ways to provide Internet access to both businesses and individuals. They wanted to develop a system that was comparable to the capacity, speed and dependability of a......

Words: 4065 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Wimax

...funcionários do Cedoc, bem como, de outras instituições que me apoiaram em todos os momentos, fornecendo-me todas as informações e documentação necessárias e/ou inerentes ao desenvolvimento da minha pesquisa. À todos os colegas e profissionais pelo auxílio e empenho em todos os momentos decisivos do meu trabalho. À todos aqueles que, directamente ou indirectamente, colaboraram para que este trabalho atingisse os objectivos propostos. Projecto Final de Curso I Resumo O WiMax é a mais recente tecnologia de banda larga que foi baseada no padrão IEEE 802.16. É uma tecnologia sem fio (wireless) que permite conexões à alta velocidade . Foi projectado para operar em altas potências e alcançar distâncias muito longas. O seu benefício primodial é oferecer serviços em regiões onde não existe infra – estrutura telefónica ou TV cabo à custo relativamente baixo, se compararmos com a fibra óptica ou o par de cobre/ ADSL, para melhorar as telecomunicações do país alcançando maior número da população. O WiMax é conhecido como o padrão 802.16d, ratificado em Julho de 2004 e teve os seus primeiros equipamentos homologados em Janeiro de 2006. O mesmo usa frequências de 10 á 66 GHz em linha de vista (LOS) e 2 à 11 GHz sem linha vista (NLOS). Neste projecto serão apresentadas as caractéristicas técnicas desta tecnológia, a sua implementação no Munícipio da Matola. Projecto Final de Curso II Lista de Abreviaturas e Símbolos ADSL-Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line BE-Best......

Words: 11732 - Pages: 47

Free Essay

Fundamental of Wimax

...w13 Chapter 2 Fundamental of WiMAX What is WiMAX? WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communications standard designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates, with the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations. With the further development of the communication network, WiMAX has major realistic significance and strategic value as a standard facing to “the last kilometer” access, especially when no globally uniform standard is established for broadband wireless access. There are two main types of such standard: the IEEE 802.16d supporting air interface of fixed broadband wireless access system, and the IEEE 802.16e in the works supporting the air interface of both fixed and mobile broadband wireless access systems.WiMAX is a Broadband Wireless Access Metropolitan Area Network (BWA-MAN) technology based on the IEEE 802.16 standard, which is also called the IEEE Wireless MAN. It is a new air interface standard in connection with the frequency ranges of microwave and millimeter wave. Its main purpose is to provide a broadband wireless access approach which can be interoperated effectively in the environment of multiple manufacturers with "one-point to multi-point" in the metropolitan area network. [1] 2.1 Types of WiMAX The WiMAX family of standards addresses two types of usage models: a fixed-usage model (IEEE 802.16-2004) and a portable usage model (802.16 REV E, scheduled for ratification in......

Words: 3568 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Motorola Inc

...total revenues. Forces and Trends Trend: WiMax aꏡá‚" Nellie Stewart Description of trend: In the industry environment, Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) is very important to Motorola. WiMax is an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard designated 802.16e-2005 (mobile wire-less). With WiMax cell phones will no longer be tied to cellular networks. WiMax has the potential to replace a number of existing telecommunications infrastructures (WiMax, 2007). WiMax has the potential of replacing cellular networks, copper wire networks used by telephone companies, and the coaxial cable infrastructure use by cable TV while offering Internet Service Provider (ISP) services. Relevance of trend: Broadband wireless access (BWA) and in particular WiMax is being implemented worldwide. The relevance of WiMax to Motorola is that the companyaꏡ?s leading competitors, mainly Cisco Systems and Nokia in the communications equipment business is working to provide WiMax technology to a mobile society. Mobile phones with WiMax technology is slated to start showing up for consumers to purchase in 2008. The introduction of WiMax for cellular phones could also potentially impact Motorolaaꏡ?s performance in the cell phone business. It is also a sound strategy for Motorola to be aware of what their competitors are doing. This trend is also relevant to Motorola because WiMax will reduce the need for wireline......

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Broadband Industry

...About The Report: In this report we are focusing on the product information, how the Wimax technology has revolutionized the world and how particularly Qubee Wimax is working in Bangladesh. The flaws in marketing strategies that Qubee adopted when their product was launched and the changes later on they made in their strategies to get a better market response. Everyone in business can benefit from being connected to the internet. You can keep an eye on what your competitors are doing and even advertise your business to other internet users. The speed and reliability of a Qubee connection could really transform the way your business works. Qubee has a team of professionals dedicated to serve your corporate and business needs. These teams will also be able to offer you some special packages especially designed for business needs. Executive Summary: WiMAX is a Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access. WiMAX is described in IEEE 802.16e Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) standard which has recently been introduced in Bangladesh by AD consortium Qubee. It is expected that WiMAX compliant systems will provide fixed wireless alternative to conventional DSL and Cable Internet. Qubee Wimax is using Motorola's WiMAX technology to provide wireless fixed broadband data services for residential and corporate use. The company is using WIMAX as a cost effective and fast-to-deploy broadband solution, as part of its strategy to create a...

Words: 5308 - Pages: 22

November 2017 (612) | picture frame stores | Red Wine