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Writing Style Handbook

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May 2007

Accreditation Statement
University of Phoenix is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools: 30 North LaSalle Street, Suite 2400 Chicago, IL 60602 (312) 263-0456 www.ncahigherlearningcommission.org

©2007 University of Phoenix. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The text of this publication, or any part thereof, may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, storage in an information retrieval system, or otherwise, without prior permission of University of Phoenix. Edited in accordance with The Apollo Group editorial standards and practices Revised: May 2007

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Table of Contents INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER 1: FORM AND APPEARANCE ................................................................................. 6 Font Styles ................................................................................................................................. 6 Margins. ...................................................................................................................................... 6 Spacing........................................................................................................................................ 6 Page Numbers and Headers ........................................................................................................ 6 Title Page .................................................................................................................................... 7 Headings ..................................................................................................................................... 9 Numbers...................................................................................................................................... 9 Abbreviations............................................................................................................................ 10 Lists........................................................................................................................................... 10 Tables and Figures. ................................................................................................................... 10 CHAPTER 2: DOCUMENTING THE PAPER ........................................................................... 13 Text Citations............................................................................................................................ 13 Paraphrasing.......................................................................................................................... 13 Using Direct Quotations ....................................................................................................... 14 Block Quotations .................................................................................................................. 17 References Within the References Page ................................................................................... 18 Reference Examples for Periodicals ..................................................................................... 18 Journal Article, No Author.................................................................................................... 18 Journal Article, One Author.................................................................................................. 19 Magazine Article, Multiple Authors ..................................................................................... 19 Newspaper Article, More Than One Author......................................................................... 19 Reference Examples for Nonperiodicals............................................................................... 19 Article or Chapter in an Edited Book ................................................................................... 19 Book, One Author ................................................................................................................. 20 Work by a Group Author ...................................................................................................... 21 Reference Book..................................................................................................................... 21 Electronic References ................................................................................................................ 22 Web Site................................................................................................................................ 21 Journal Article From Database, One Author ........................................................................ 22 Journal Article From Database, Two Authors ...................................................................... 22 Journal Article From Database, Multiple Articles ................................................................ 22 University Web Site .............................................................................................................. 23 Document Listed in aXcess................................................................................................... 23 Computer Program, Software, or Programming Language Reference ................................. 24

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Example References Page........................................................................................................... 25 CHAPTER 3: ADDITIONAL RESOURCES .............................................................................. 28

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Introduction
Axia College’s Writing Style Handbook contains formatting guidelines required in Axia’s degree programs. The handbook is intended to provide basic examples of APA style, modeled on the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001). It is not intended to provide detailed instructions about every question that may arise. For further information regarding APA style, refer to http://www.apa.org/ or to the additional resources listed at the end of this handbook.

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CHAPTER 1: FORM AND APPEARANCE Font Styles
• All text must be written in the same font. o Use Times New Roman. o Use 12-point size. • Use italics sparingly for emphasis; do not use bold, underlining, or all capital letters.

Margins
• • Use 1-inch margins on all sides of each page. Justify the left side of the page, but leave the right side ragged.

Spacing
• • • Indent the first line of each paragraph five spaces. Double-space throughout the text. Leave one space between words and one space between sentences.

Page Numbers and Headers
• Place page numbers in the upper right-hand corner inside the margin of the paper (see Example 1). o Do not use the abbreviation P. or p. or the word page when numbering the page. o Number every page in sequence, starting with the title page (page 1) and ending with the references page.

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The page header consists of two or three words of the title, five spaces to the left of the page number, in the upper right-hand corner of the paper (see Example 1).

Example 1

Page Header Factors Influencing 3

Title Page
• • Include a title page (see Example 2). To create a title page, center the following information on the page: o Title of the paper o Your name o Axia College of University of Phoenix

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Example 2

Title Page With Page Header Factors Influencing 1

Factors Influencing the Economic Balance of Eastern European Countries Sharon Smythe Axia College of University of Phoenix

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Headings
• Use Level 1 and Level 3 (see Table 1) to organize information in academic papers. • Table 1 Level 1 Level 3 Do not label headings with letters or numbers, such as 3.1 or 3A, 3B., etc. Heading Levels Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading

Numbers
• • • Use words to express all numbers below 10, such as three, five, or eight. Use figures to express all numbers 10 and above, such as 12, 44, or 99. Write out fractions (such as one half of a pie) and universally accepted usage (such as the Fourth of July). • Spell out numbers that begin sentences, such as Thirty students attended the performance. • Use figures when they refer to exact measurements, such as the following: o Mathematical functions, such as multiplied by 3 o Time, such as 2 p.m. o Dates, such as October 5, 1991 o Ages, such as a 4-year-old girl o Units of measurement, such as an 8-foot snake

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Abbreviations
• Use standard abbreviations for titles immediately before and after proper names, such as the following: o Joe Smith, M.D. o Rev. May Lane • • Use the abbreviations a.m. and p.m. for time. First, spell out a word; then, follow the word with its acronym in parentheses: o Thereafter, you may use only the acronym or initials. o For example, “ . . . the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). For HUD rules and regulations, contact . . . . ”

Lists
• • Do not use bulleted lists in academic papers. Use numbered lists only for the following: o Information you want to highlight

o Information better read as a list than as part of the text

Tables and Figures
• You must first explain tables (lists or charts displaying information) and figures (illustrations, pie charts, bar or line graphs) in your text. o Insert the table or figure into the text as soon after the reference as possible. o Be sure the information is clear, readable, and complete.

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Tables and charts are numbered consecutively with arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) and are numbered separately within your paper (for example, Table 1, Table 2, Figure 1, Figure 2).



See Example 3 (Table) and Example 4 (Figure) below for formatting.

Example 3 Table 15

Table
Place table number, flush left. Place doublespaced, italicized title, flush left, in title case.

A Ranked Comparison of the Marketing Practices of Three Automotive Companies in Germany, Japan, and the United States

Germany Television Newspapers Magazines Direct Mail th Japan Newspapers Magazines Television Direct Mail

United States Television Magazines Newspapers Direct Mail

Note. From the 7 Annual Automotive Marketing Almanac, by J. J. Smith, p. 3, Copyright 1999 by General Motors Corporation.

Add copyright information below table, flush left.

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Example 4

Figure

Select Produce Purchased in 2004

100 80 60 40 20 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr Grapes Apples Bananas
Place figure number— flush left, italicized, ending in a period— under graphic. Follow with title of figure in sentence format and source in citation format.

Figure 22. A Geographic Distribution of Unites States Revenue for XYZ Company. Note. From XYZ Corporation Annual Report, 1999.

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CHAPTER 2: DOCUMENTING THE PAPER Text Citations
• Credit sources directly quoted or paraphrased in your paper by providing in-text citations as well as a references page at the end of your paper. • The examples in this chapter included are not exhaustive; refer to the APA Web site for additional information. Paraphrasing • When you paraphrase another person’s materials or information, you must always cite your source (see Examples 5-9). o Digest the information, and then rephrase it in your own words. o Using more than two words from the original without quotation marks is plagiarism, as is paraphrasing too closely to the original wording. Example 5 Citation Example When Author’s Name Mentioned in the Text
Include author’s name with date in parentheses, followed by text.

Castex (1994) states that, in the 20th century, many social workers underwent cultural diversity training in order to work with growing Latino populations.

Example 6 Citation Example When No Author’s Name Mentioned in the Text In the 20th century, many social workers underwent cultural diversity training in order to work with growing Latino populations (Castex, 1994). Exa author’s with mple date in name, parentheses, 7E and period. Follow text

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Exercise 7 Citation Example for Two Authors Rubin and Beddingfield (1996) reported that HMOs receiving the highest ratings also had the greatest number of board-certified doctors. OR One report of ratings for HMOs (Rubin & Beddingfield, 1996) identified a correlation between high ratings and the number of board-certified doctors.
Author named in text, followed by date in parentheses.

Authors not named in text, separated by ampersand, and enclosed in parentheses.

Example 8

Citation Example for Multiple Authors
Use up to five names for intext citation the first time.

The research shows most people are willing to force the mentally ill into treatment (Pescosolido, Monahan, Link, Stueve, & Kiluzawa, 1999). According to the study, more Americans show concern for substance abusers than for the mentally ill (Pescosolido et al., 1999).

Example 9 • •

Citation Example for Work with No Author

Thereafter, name the first author and use et al. for subsequent authors.

Use the first few words of the title or source, italicized, followed by the year. For information from an electronic source, use the same format, but do not include the URL.

In The Learning Portfolio (2006), it was found that… Using Direct Quotations Using Direct Quotations

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• • • • •

Direct quotations are information taken directly from the source. Enclose direct quotations in double quotation marks. Include page number(s) in parentheses. End the citation with a period. When you use direct quotations, use the following formats (see Examples 10-15) :

Example 10 Citation Example of Direct Quotations From Print Sources Breeze (1998) stated that “the justification of paternalism in health care . . .” (p. 264). OR Ganong and Coleman (1987) stated, “. . . researchers have been slow to undertake empirical studies of stepfamily dynamics” (p. 6). OR “. . . researchers have been slow to undertake empirical studies of stepfamily dynamics” (Ganong & Coleman, 1987, p. 6).
Formats for more than one author Format for a single author

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Example 11 Citation Examples of Direct Quotations From Electronic Sources • • Include the paragraph number. For longer articles, include the closest heading to the citation; then count the paragraphs from the heading. Chou (1993) stated, “Children are grouped by age and each group has a specific space called a classroom” (¶ 1). OR Kossek and Nichol (1992) stated, “Prior studies usually have had poor control groups . . . ” (¶ 2). OR “The study was designed to enhance the current literature . . . ” (Kossek & Nichol, Research Focus and Model, para. 1).
Formats for multiple authors. Format for a single author.

Example 12 Citation Example for a Quotation Within a Quotation “Respondents were asked ‘Which parent do you like best as a parent?’” (Ganong & Coleman, p. 9).
Use single quotation marks for a quotation within a quotation.

Example 13 Citation Example That Includes an Error

“’The construction companies, they [sic] don’t care” (Graham & Dempsey, p. D1).

Use brackets and sic [Latin for thus it stands] to indicate original error.

Example 14 Citation Example for Document Listed in aXcess

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According to the Axia College Week Five reading Persuasive Messages (2007), “An effective persuasive message provides answers before the questions have been asked” (¶ 9).
Follow quotation with paragraph number in parentheses.

Include Axia College, the week, type and title of document. Add the date in parentheses.

Block Quotations • • • Block quotations are quotations of more than 40 words. End the quotation with a period—this is an exception to the general rule. Block quotations must appear in a freestanding block without quotation marks (see Example 15).

Example 15 Citation Example for Block Quotation One workers’ compensation insurance carrier in the Southwest provides the following statistics: SFC Arizona has seen injury claims for all workers in all industries jump from 56,000 in 2005 to 65,000 in 2006 largely because of the population increase and jump in the number of jobs where injuries are common, said spokesman Rick DeGraw. (Graham & Dempsey, 2007, p. D3)
Doublespaced, indented five spaces from left margin, without quotation marks. Following the period to end quotation, add author’s name, year, and page in parentheses.

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References Within the References Page
• Sources cited in the body of your paper must appear at the end of your paper on a separate page titled References, with the title centered on the top of the page. o References include only those sources cited in the text. o Do not include any references that were not cited in your text. o Exception: You may use personal communications in your papers (such as interviews, memos, bulletins, or phone calls) sparingly. These sources are cited in the paper but are not included in the references page. • Format each entry according to the type of source: periodical, book, Web site, and so forth. o Add a period and a single space after each element in an entry (author, date, title, and so on) and at the end of the entry. o Add a single space between elements in an entry.

Reference Examples for Periodicals Example 16 Journal Article, No Author Capitalize proper nouns, the first significant word of the title, and the first word following a colon. The learning portfolio: Reflective practice for improving student learning. (2006). Teaching Theology and Religion, 9(1), 53-54.
Capitalize and italicize periodical name and volume.

Provide page numbers (without p. or pp.).

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Example 17 Journal Article, One Author
List last name of author, followed by initial(s) and period.

Hansel, S. (1999, November 22). A freeding frenzy made for consumers. Ecommerce, 22, 10-13.

Example 18 Magazine Article, Multiple Authors Identify all authors by name. Do not use et al. in references Rubin, R., & Beddingfield, K. (1996). A look behind the listings. U.S. News and World Report, 121(9), 56-58.
For multiple authors, use commas to separate the names and a comma and

ampersand
(&) before the last author.

Example 19 Newspaper Article, More Than One Author Follow the magazine format for multiple authors. Graham, C., & Dempsey, M. (2007, February 13). Hispanic workers suffer during boom. The Arizona Republic, pp. D1, D3.
Add year, month and day in parentheses following the author(s) names.

Reference Examples for Nonperiodicals Example 20 Article or Chapter in an Edited Book • Provide title or article or chapter, followed by In and publication information for edited book.

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Provide city and post office abbreviation for the state, followed by a colon. (Wellknown cities, such as Boston, do not require the addition of the state.)

Herberg, P. (1989). Theoretical foundations of transcultural nursing. In J. S. Boyle & M. M. Andrews (Eds.), Transcultural concepts in nursing care (pp. 392). Glenview, IL: Scotts, Foresman/Little Brown College Division.
End with the publisher.

Example 21 Book, One Author Follow rules of capitalization for periodical titles. Cockerham, W. C. (1992). Medical sociology (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
If the book has an edition, enclose the lower-case abbreviation in parentheses following the book title.

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Example 22 Work by a Group Author The National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations. (1990). Delivering preventive health care to Hispanics: A manual for provider. Washington, DC: Author.
The word Author follows the city instead of a publisher’s name. The name of the organization is used in place of authors’ names.

Example 23 Reference Book Follow rules for book references. Famighetti, R. (Ed.). (1995). World almanac and book of facts 1996. Mahwah: Funk & Wagnalls.
Start with the author’s name, if provided.

Electronic Sources
• When citing references from electronic sources, use the same elements for the entry as for print sources. • Specify the source’s path (full Web address) and date of access (the date you visited the Web site).

Example 24 Web Site 21

Follow periodical rules for author and title.

If no date is provided, use n.d. in parentheses. Identify the date information was retrieved, followed by the complete URL (not underlined).

Brown, B. (n.d.) Model for ethical analysis of a case study. Retrieved February 13, 2006, from http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/philosophy/phlwrite/brown2.html

Example 25 Journal Article From Database, One Author Format is similar to a periodical reference example. Breeze, J. (1998). Can paternalism be justified in mental health care? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(2), 260-265. Retrieved February 13, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.
Provide date retrieved and name of database.

Example 26 Journal Article From Database, Two Authors Follow rules for more than two authors in periodical reference examples. Ganong, L. H., & Coleman, M. (1987). Stepchildren’s perceptions of their parents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 148(1), 5-17. Retrieved February 13, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.

Example 27 Journal Article From Database, Multiple Authors

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Follow rules for multiple authors in perodical reference example. Pescosolido, B. A., Monahan, J., Link, B. G., Stueve, A., & Kikuzawa, S. (1999). The public’s view of the competence, dangerousness, and need for legal coercion of persons with mental health problems. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1339-1345. Retrieved February 13, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.
Provide date retrieved and name of database.

Example 28 University Web Site Follow rules for Web site reference.

Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html

Provide date information was retrieved, name of university and department, and complete URL (not underlined).

Example 29 Document Listed in aXcess Axia College of University of Phoenix. (2007). Persuasive messages. Retrieved February 14, 2007, from Axia College, Week Five reading, aXcess, COM140—Contemporary Business Communication Course Web site.
List the name of the college first, followed by the year in parentheses.

Identify the week and type of document.

End with from, the college and week, aXcess, and the number and name of the course at the Web site.

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Example 30 Computer Program, Software, or Programming Language Reference Follow the book reference format example. Stinson, J. (1998). Linkages [Computer Programming Language]. Trenton, NJ: Syntaxine Corporation.
Add the type of software, such as Computer Programmi ng Language, in brackets following title.

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Example 31 Example References Page References Axia College of University of Phoenix. (2007). Persuasive messages. Retrieved February 14, 2007, from Axia College, Week Five reading, aXcess, COM140—Contemporary Business Communication Course Web site. Breeze, J. (1998). Can paternalism be justified in mental health care? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(2), 260-265. Retrieved March 20, 2002, from EBSCOhost database. Brown, B. (n.d.) Model for ethical analysis of a case study. Retrieved March 31, 2002, from http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/philosophy/phlwrite/brown2.html Castex, G. M. (1994). Providing services to Hispanic/Latino populations: Profiles in diversity. Social Work, 39(3), 288-295. Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html Cockerham, W. C. (1992). Medical sociology (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Famighetti, R. (Ed.). (1995). World almanac and book of facts 1996. Mahwah: Funk & Wagnalls. Ganong, L. H., & Coleman, M. (1987). Stepchildren’s perceptions of their parents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 148(1), 5-17. Retrieved 25
Identify all authors by name. Do not use et al. in references page. References are alphabetized by last name of authors, with no titles except for Jr.

Graham, C., & Dempsey, M. (2007, February 13). Hispanic workers suffer during boom. The Arizona Republic, pp. D1, D3. Hansell, S. (1999, November 22). A feeding frenzy made for consumers. E-commerce, 22, 10-13. Herberg, P. (1989). Theoretical foundations of transcultural nursing. In J. S. Boyle & M. M. Andrews (Eds.), Transcultural concepts in nursing care (pp. 3-92). Glenview, IL: Scotts, Foresman/Little, Brown College Division. Kossek, E. E., & Nichol, V. (1992). The effects of on-site child care on employee attitudes and performance. Personnel Psychology, 45, 485. Retrieved Nov. 6, 1999, from EBSCOhost database. The learning portfolio: Reflective practice for improving student learning. (2006). Teaching Theology and Religion, 9(1), 53-54. The National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations. (1990). Delivering preventive health care to Hispanics: A manual for providers. Washington, DC: Author. Pescosolido, B. A., Monahan, J., Link, B. G., Stueve, A., & Kikuzawa, S. (1999). The public’s view of the competence, dangerousness, and need for legal coercion of person with mental health problems. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1339-1345. Retrieved March 30, 2002, from EBSCOhost database. Rubin, R., & Beddingfield, K. (1996). A look behind the listings. U.S. News and World Report, 121(9), 56-58.
If no author provided, alphabetize reference under the title. Volume number 9 italicized; issue number 1 in parentheses, followed by page numbers. Capitalize first word of article title or book title but all important words of periodical title. Use a hanging indent for all entries: First line is flush left; next lines are indented five spaces.

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Stinson, J. (1998). Linkages [Computer Programming Language]. Trenton, NJ: Syntaxine Corporation.

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CHAPTER 3: ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
This handbook contains only common examples of in-text citations and references. For more information, review the following resources: • APA information at the Center for Writing Excellence on the Axia College Student Web site at http://www.apollolibrary.com/cwe/pdfs/AXIASampleAPAReferences.p df • The Axia College Writing Resources Web Site at http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/axia/ o The Bedford Research Room at http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/researchroom/ o Diana Hacker’s Research and Documentation Online at http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c09_o.html • The Web site of the style guide for the American Psychological Association (APA) at http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html

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